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In January 1949 a bitter racial conflict occurred in Durban. The consequent loss of life and property was officially given as follows: deaths; 142 (87 Africans, 50 Indians, 1 white and 4 others...
Author: Surendra Bhana and Bridglal Pachai
The African National Congress, the S.A. Indian Congress,, the S.A. Coloured People's Organisation, and the S.A. Congress of Democrats, gathered at Kliptown on 25 and 26 June 1955, resolved to...
The passive resistance campaign was launched on 13 June 1946 and finally suspended on 31 May 1948. The report of the Passive Resistance Council, reproduced here almost in its entirety, relates the...
The South African Institute of Race Relations sponsored a symposium in 1956, the theme of which was 'The Indian as a South African'. Four papers were presented; we reproduce one given by...
A joint planning council of the African National Congress and the South African Indian Congress resolved to embark upon a mass campaign for the repeal of a battery of discriminatory laws, chief...
It is common knowledge that Indians came to South Africa in two categories, namely as indentured Indians and as 'free' or 'passenger' Indians. The former came as a result of a triangular pact among...
When the Group Areas Act was passed in 1950, all Indian political organisations strongly opposed it. The N.I.C., S.A.I.C., and the S.A.I.O. passed resolutions at their annual conferences...
My concerns in this chapter are two-fold. The first is to sketch the formation of SANSCO in late 1979. The second is to analyse SANSCO's ideology and politics. With respect to the latter, I show how...
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It is generally recognised that mass popular struggles during the 1970s and 1980s played a pivotal role in eroding apartheid and creating the conditions for the transition to democracy in South...
From the book: My Spirit Is Not Banned by Frances Baard and Barbie Schreiner When I got to court they said, 'Eh, you will be very surprised to see who is going to give evidence against you...
From the book: My Spirit Is Not Banned by Frances Baard and Barbie Schreiner There were such a lot of things happening at that time, and some very good things too. In 1955 a very great thing...
From the book: My Spirit Is Not Banned by Frances Baard and Barbie Schreiner The struggle continues 'I don't know what you mean by "tired". I can't give up because the...
Author: Frances Baard and Barbie Schreiner
'[Neither] Jail nor death must hold fear for our leaders. They must feel always that the people are with them. And the people for their part must nurture and cherish their leaders. For the...
Author: Frances Baard and Barbie Schreiner
Publication date: 1986
From the book: My Spirit Is Not Banned by Frances Baard and Barbie Schreiner All this time there was still this thing of passes for women going on, and the women still protesting. Quite soon...
From the book: My Spirit Is Not Banned by Frances Baard and Barbie Schreiner One day when I got up to go to work it was very cold, and it was raining outside. It was in the middle of June, in...
This book tells the story of Frances Baard, a black South African woman who was a trade unionist, political activist and a women's leader both in the Eastern Cape and in national campaigns. It...
From the book: All That Glitters by Emilia Potenza This feature has explored the devastating changes that industrialisation brought for the majority of people in South Africa. From being...
Author: Emilia Potenza
The African National Congress of South Africa, founded in January 1912, got a lot of support from Mahatma Gandhi, who had already begun his campaign of passive resistance against racism. E.S. REDDY...

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