Black Consciousness Movement
Conclusion: Black Consciousness Movement
It can be concluded that the death of Biko left a vacuum similar to the one created by the banning of the ANC and the PAC after Sharpeville. On the positive side, many youths had reached a level of consciousness about the plight of Blacks in apartheid South Africa that could not be ignored. Contrary to expectation in White circles that the death of Biko would signal the end of resistance, the struggle instead escalated as political activism increased.
The role played by Biko and his colleagues in the BCM, as well as in the fight for South Africa’s freedom cannot be under-estimated. Steve Biko’s life reflected the aspirations of many frustrated young Black intellectuals. Therefore, when he died, he became a martyr and symbol of Black Nationalism, and his struggle focused critical world attention on South Africa more than ever before.
- Bernstein Hilda, No. 46 – Steve Biko, South African History Online.
- Biko, S. [Frank Talk], “Lets Talk About Bantustans,” SASO Newsletter, September-October 1972.
- Cawthra Gavin et al (eds.) (1994), War and Resistance, Southern African Reports: The Struggle for Southern Africa as Documented by Resister Magazine, London: The MacMillan Press Ltd.
- Excerpts from Steve Biko’s address at a Black Theology seminar in Pietermaritzburg, 28 August 1971 cited in SASO Newsletter, September 1971.
- Gutteridge William (ed.) (1995), South Africa: From Apartheid to National Unity, 1981-1994, Aldershot: Dartmouth Publishing Company Limited.
- Johnson Shaun (ed.) (1988), South Africa: No Turning Back, London: The MacMillan Press Ltd.
- Lodge, T. (1983), Black politics in South Africa since 1945, Johannesburg: Ravan Press.
- Mokhtar, Z. (2007), “The most potent weapon in the hands of the oppressor is the mind of the oppressed,”http://zdmokhtar.blogspot.com (26 March) .
- Mufson S (1990), Fighting Years: Black Resistance and the Struggle for a New South Africa, Boston: Beacon Press.
- Ndlovu S. M. (1998), The Soweto Uprisings: Counter-Memories of June 1976, Randburg: Ravan Press.
- SASO Newsletter, September-October 1972, [SASO files].
- Seidman Ann (1990), The Roots of Crisis in Southern Africa, Trenton: Africa World Press.
- Sono, T (1972), “In search of a Free and New Society.” Minutes of the Proceedings of the 3rd General Students’ Council of the South African Students Organisation, St Peter’s Seminary, Hammanskraal, 2-9 July.
- Steve Biko (1978), “Let’s Talk About the Bantustans,” in I Write What I Like, London: Heinemann, cited in Mufson S, Fighting Years: Black Resistance and the Struggle for a New South Africa, Boston: Beacon Press, 1990.
- Woods D. (1978), Biko, New York: Paddington Press.
- Kane-Berman, J. (1978), Soweto: Black Revolt White Reaction, Johannesburg: Ravan Press.
- Ramphele, M. (1995), Mamaphele Ramphele: A Life, Claremont: David Phillips.