The Joint Declaration of Cooperation ("Three Doctors’ Pact") is signed

Dr. G.M. Naicker, Dr. A.B. Xuma and Dr. Y.M. Dadoo signing the Pact Image source

Sunday, 9 March 1947

Sixty-five years ago (1947-2012) the Joint Declaration of Cooperation known as “Three Doctors’ Pact” was signed by three doctors,  Dr. A.B. Xuma, president of the African National Congress (ANC); Dr. G.M. Naicker, president of the Natal Indian Congress (NIC) and Dr. Y.M. Dadoo, president of the Transvaal Indian Congress. This was done in the recognition that all 'non-Europeans' should unite in the struggle against the National Party government and it's segregationist policies. This agreement was a forerunner to the Congress of the People, which drafted the Freedom Charter in 1955.

• South African History Online ‘1947-Joint Declaration of Cooperation’,from SAHO [online], Available at: [Accessed: 17 February 2012]
• The University of KwaZulu Natal, ‘The Dadoo-Xuma-Naicker Pact from SAHO [online]. Available at:[Accessed: 17 February 2012]
• South African Communist Party, ‘Three Doctors’ Pact, March 9, 1947’, from SAHO [online], Available at[Accessed: 17 February 2012]

Last updated : 18-Jan-2018

This article was produced for South African History Online on 16-Mar-2011