South African War Refugees in the Transvaal, circa 1900


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Image source: 
South African Library's computerised Index to Illustrations

The developement of guerrilla warfare after the occupation of the Boer capitals in 1900 meant the abandonment of conventional tactics: the civilian population of all races (mainly women and children) was drawn into the conflict directly. In an attempt to overcome Boer resistance, the British authorities, in September 1900, began to clear the countryside, relocating the inhabitants by force in seperate black and white 'refugee' or concentration camps.