ABBOTTSDALE, Cape: SPG pre-1858
ABERDEEN, Cape: DRCSA; SAfMS
ADAMS, Natal: ABCFM 1835
ADAMSHOOP, OFS: Bn 1867
ADELAIDE, Cape: UFS 1861; PCSA 1897; DGT
AFRIKANER'S KRAAL, also known as JERUSALEM or as VREDEBERG, Namibia: LMS 1815. It was visited by James Backhouse in February 1840 (p 561), who recorded the following:
"After riding about twenty-five miles from the Amse River, we arrived, long after dark, at Afrikaners Kraal, or Jerusalem, as it was often called in the days when it was a station of the London Missionary Society. At this place, which is represented in the annexed etching, there were a considerable number of mat huts scattered under the shade of large Rozyntje Booms, which are trees such as are seldom seen in this part of South Africa, except on the banks of the Orange River".
ALBANY, Cape: WMS 1821. This does not appear to have been the first Mission Station of this name to have been established in the district of Albany. The exact location of the Station referred to by John Campbell in 1813 is not known, but it could well have been the same as that established subsequently by the Wesleyan Methodists.
"Two Missionary stations had also been erected at Albany, or that part of the colony on the eastern coast, which borders on Caffraria. One established by the Moravians on the White River, near the Sunday River, which though cruelly destroyed during the Caffre was, by that untutored race, was resumed on the return of peace".
ALBERT'S KRAAL, Cape: Bn
ALEXANDRIA, Cape: CUSA 1874; LMS
ALICE, Cape: LMS 1820-1849; WMS
ALIWAL NORTH, Cape: PMMS 1870; PMMS Trade School 1892; DRCSA 1904; DGT; WMMS
ALLISON, Natal: WMMS
ALL SAINTS, near Engcobo, Cape: SPG 1859
ALL SAINTS, near Tsolo, Cape: No data available
AMADOLA, Mqanduli, Cape: WMS 1828. Burnt down in 1829 and relocated to OLD MORLEY in 1830. See MORLEY, Mqanduli, Cape.
AMAHLONGWA, Natal: ABCFM c1851
AMALIENSTEIN, Cape: Bn 1853
AMANDELBOOM, Cape: RM
AMANGAMZINE, Tabankulu, Cape: No data available
AMANZIMTOTE, Natal: ABCFM c1851; ABCFM Trade School 1883
AMATOLE BASIN, Cape: WMS; GMS
AMEIB, Namibia: RM
AMERSFOORT, Transvaal: DRCSAT 1896
AMINUIS, Namibia: Rc 1902
ANDARA, Namibia: Rc 1913
ANDERS, previously named EMDIZENI, King Williams Town, Cape: Bn 1864
ANHALT SCHMIDT, Cape: Bn 1860
ANNESDALE, also known as TAHLWATI, Natal: ZMD 1888; SPG
ANN SHAW, Cape: see MIDDLEDRIFT, Cape
ANTIOKA, Mocambique: MR 1890
APELSBOSCH, also spelt APPLESBOSCH, Natal: SKM 1886
ARKONA, also spelt ARCONA, Transvaal: Bn 1877
AVONTUUR, Cape: Bn
BABALONG, Mount Fletcher, Cape: No data available
BACKHOUSE, Cape: LMS
BACOLA, believed near Umtata, Cape: No data available
BALAZI, Cape: see BHALAZI, Cape
BALENI, Mocambique: ABCFM pre-1891
BALFOUR, Cape: GMS 1828, abandoned May 1829
BAMBITSANA, Lusikisiki, Cape: No data available
BANDA, also known as BANDA NEIRA, Zimbabwe: BPKN
BANDA NEIRA, Zimbabwe: see BANDA, Zimbabwe
BANGAZI, Natal: see BENGAZI, Natal
BANGCOLO, Cape: see MBANCOLO, Cape
BANSI POORT, Cofimvaba, Cape: No data available
BARBERTON, Transvaal: SA 1916; WMMS
BARKERVILLE, Mount Frere, Cape: No data available
BARKLY, Cape: see BARKLY WEST, Cape
BARKLY EAST, Cape: DGT; SAfMS
BARKLY WEST, formerly BARKLY, Cape: LMS 1876; WMS
BARRYDALE, Cape: DRCSA 1910
BARTON, Lusikisiki, Cape: No data available
BARVILLE PARK, Cape: WMMS
BASHEE, Cape: No data available
BATHURST, Cape: WMS 1821
BATLAROS, Cape: DKK
BAVIAANSKLOOF, Cape: see GENADENDAL, Cape
BAZIYA, Cape: see BHAZIYA, Cape
BEACONSFIELD, Cape: DRCSA 1882; Bn 1885; PCSA 1925
BEAUFORT WEST, Cape: DRCSA 1862; WMMS; Bn
BEDFORD, Cape: CUSA 1853; DGT
BEDFORD CONVENT FARM, Umtata, Cape: No data available
BEECHAMSWOOD, also spelt BECHAM WOOD, Idutywa, Cape: WMMS 1847
BEERSEBA, Transvaal: see BEERSHEBA, Transvaal
BEERSHEBA, OFS: Society not known, 1820-1848. It was visited by James Backhouse in July 1839 (pp 357-9), who recorded the following:
"The missionary station of Beersheba is represented in the accompanying etching. The town is on the ascent of a rough sandstone hill, near the bottom of which, the houses of the Missionary and artisan, the infant-school-house, chapel, etc. are situated. These, except the mission-house, were temporary buildings of mud and thatch. The houses of the coloured people were progressively improving; the round or oven-shaped huts, those composed of mats, and those which were circular and had upright, plastered sides, and thatched roofs, were giving way to what were called, in this country, Hartebeest houses. The walls of the huts with upright sides, are often double. Within the inner circle, they are much occupied with tall baskets, plastered with clay, which are used for storing corn. The Hartebeest houses, are so called from an imaginary similarity in their figure, to the outline of the species of buffalo, called in South Africa, the Hartebeest: they are usually built of reeds, and are sometimes plastered with mud; they are in the form of roofs, but the lower part of their sides often approaches toward perpendicular Some of them have holes in the roof to let out the smoke. They are larger, and more commodious than the native huts. The Hartebeest hut is represented at Fig.5. The cattle-kraals here have dry, stone-walls.
"The houses of the Bechuanas are usually very clean; they contain sundry vessels of clay, some of which are baked, and serve well as cooking-pots. In the courts attached to their houses, portions of small trees are fixed, having the branches cut short; upon these they hand small milk-bags, made of skins, and other utensils (Fig 3, p 355). Some of the people make very neat baskets of rushes, which they work so as to exhibit stripes.
"The rocky kloofs of this part of Africa produce sparingly, a species of Olive, "Olea", which sometimes
attains to thirty feet in height, and is of considerable girth; its growth is slow; its fruit, which is a small plum, does not appear to have been converted to any use. The tree is in request for fuel, and consequently, soon disappears in the vicinity of settlements".
Beersheba was also visited by Eugene Casalis, probably during the mid-1830s, when he recorded the Mission house.
"Mr. Rolland bore all this with fortitude. He took the precaution to cover in his house with a terrace, instead of an ordinary roof, in order to be safe from fire, and to secure a refuge for his family in case of a coup-de- main. Knowing that the Korannas were as cowardly as they were boasting and cruel, he did not scruple to display, in proper time and place, the weapons in his possession".
BEERSHEBA, also spelt BERSEBA, Namibia: LMS 1815; RM 1850
BEERSHEBA, also spelt BERSEBA or BEERSEBA, Transvaal: HM 1873
BEGHA, Cape: see BEKA, Cape
BEIRA, Mocambique: SPG 1893; ABCFM
BEKA, also spelt BEGHA or BHIRHA, Peddie, Cape: WMS 1836
BEKELINI, possibly also spelt BEKILENI, Engcobo, Cape: No data available
BELASE, Cape: see BHALAZI, Cape
BELEDALE, Tsolo, Cape: No data available
BELFAST, Transvaal: WMS
BEMBEZI, Zimbabwe: SPG
BENGAZI, also spelt BANGAZI, Natal: SAGM
BENONI, Transvaal: FMA 1897; BPA 1916
BENSONVALE, Cape: SAfMS 1861; LMS; WMS
BEREA, also spelt BEREE, Lesotho: P 1843
BEREA, Genadendaal, Cape: MorG 1865
BEREE, Lesotho: see BEREA, Lesotho
BERKLANDS, Cape: see HEALDTOWN, Cape
BERSEBA, Namibia: see BEERSHEBA, Namibia
BERSEBA, Transvaal: see BEERSHEBA, Transvaal
BESONDERMEID, Cape: see STEINKOPF, Cape
BETANIA, Natal: HF 1898
BETANIEN, also spelt BETHANIE or BETHANY, OFS: Bn 1834.
It was visited by James Backhouse in August 1839 (pp 421, 426), who recorded it as follows:
"Some of the Missionaries were busy building a brick chapel, which was also to serve as a school-house. The house in which they dwelt was of their own building, and of brick. Some of the old hartebeest houses, which they at first occupied, and which were not yet quite forsaken, were almost in ruins. "The Korannas at this Station were a tribe of Hottentots originally inhabiting the Cape Colony; from thence they emigrated into Namaqua Land. "The chapel, which is a temporary structure of reeds, was partially eaten, a few days ago, by some hungry cows, but having been repaired, about 200 persons assembled in it this forenoon".
Bethany was also visited on 20 July 1850 by Thomas Baines who made the following observations:
"Sunday, July 20. Bethany, consisting of two well-built houses, three of four indifferent ones, a church and a number of huts, lies scattered amongst a cluster of hills, composed of enormous masses of reddish brown or dark grey rock piled in wild confusion one above another and possessing a magnetic influence upon the compass. From this range issues a small fountain, and between some of the hills a vlei or pool is formed, with willows growing upon its banks. Across this, through a poort in the hill, a view of the village is obtained, a mass of solid rock arising perpendicularly from the earth partially intercepting the view. "There are about 500 Korannas, Baastards, Hottentots, Bushmen, etc., upon the books of the institution, but the greater number are now out hunting".
BETHAL, Transvaal: DRCSAT 1906
BETHAL, Cape: see BETHEL, Stutterheim, Cape
BETHANEEN, also spelt BETHANIE, Rustenburg, Transvaal: HM 1864; Bn 1906
BETHANIA, Mount Fletcher, Cape: No data available
BETHANIE, OFS: see BETANIEN, OFS
BETHANIE, Transvaal: see BETHANEEN
BETHANIEN, Namibia: see BETHANY, Namibia
BETHANY, also known as KLIPFONTEIN, Cape but may have been located in Namibia: LMS 1815; WMS
BETHANY, also known as CATO RIDGE, Natal: NMS 1898; WMS
BETHANY, OFS: see BETANIEN, OFS
BETHANY, also spelt BETHANIEN, Namibia: LMS 1815; RM 1842; WMS
BETHANY, near Bremersdorp, Swaziland: SAGM 1891
BETHANY, near Hlatikulu, Swaziland: NFEH 1922
BETHEL TRAINING COLLEGE, Butterworth, Cape, formerly the MARANATHA TRADE SCHOOL, Grahamstown: SDA 1917
BETHEL, Namaqualand: WMMS
BETHEL, also known as DOHNE, Stutterheim, Cape: Bn 1837. It was visited by James Backhouse in February 1839 (pp 241-242), who recorded the following:
"Bethel is a station of the Berlin Missionary Society. It is situated in the territory of the Caffer Chief, Gacela, who has ceded a considerable piece of land to it, which is well situated for irrigation. The cottage of the Missionary is built of sods and plastered: it was the work of the Missionary's own hands, as were also several outbuildings, one of which served for a chapel. In the vicinity there were several kraals of the natives, most of whom were rich in cattle. Several of them were Counsellors of the neighbouring Chiefs. The industrious example of the Missionary had induced many of the men to work in their gardens, which formerly were cultivated solely by the women".
BETHEL, Natal: HF 1894; HM
BETHEL, Swaziland: SAM
BETHEL, District of Lichtenburg, Transvaal: HM 1886
BETHEL, District of Pietersburg, Transvaal: see MOLEPO, Transvaal
BETHELSDORP, Port Elizabeth, Cape: LMS 1802; CUSA 1804. It was visited by Henry Lichtenstein in 1804 (pp 294-5), who reported as follows;
"It is scarcely possible to describe the wretched situation in which this establishment appeared to us, especially after having seen that at Bavianskloof. On a wide plain, without a tree, almost without water fit to drink, are scattered forty of fifty little huts in the form of hemispheres, but so low that a man cannot stand upright in them. In the midst is a small clay-hut thatched with straw, which goes by the name of a church, and close by, some smaller huts of the same materials for the missionaries. All are so wretchedly built, and are kept with so little care and attention, that they have a perfectly ruinous appearance.
"Since I began printing this book I have been informed that in the year 1807, the old Vander Kemp, following his colleague's (Read's) example, had married a young Hottentot girl about thirteen, whose freedom, with that of her mother, he had purchased; not, however, living with her formally as his wife.
"His (Vander Kemp's) own hut is totally destitute of all comfort, even of any approach to neatness, and is perfectly consistent with the negligence of earthly cares which he preaches. He remarked, not without great self-satisfaction, how little was necessary to the support of life; but he would surely have done much better when he drew these Hottentots around him, to have inspired them with some sort of taste for the refinements of civilization, rather than to have levelled himself with them, and adopted their habits of negligence and filth. It appears to me that Vander Kemp is of little value as a missionary …”
John Campbell visited Bethelsdorp in March 1813 and reported extensively upon events there, probably because of the concern being expressed in Europe at the time as the result of the Rev Vanderkemp's "controversial" missionary methods (pp 71-73):
"I had heard much against Bethelsdorp, since my arrival in Africa, and I must confess it has a most miserable appearance as a village. The houses are mean in the extreme, and apparently very irregularly placed; they say, however, that the huts were arranged according to a plan, which I believed after it was pointed out to me, but in consequence of some having fallen down, and their owners having built elsewhere, others have gradually decayed in consequence of the people leaving them to go into the service of the farmers, and others of the inhabitants being called to public service, the original plan has been completely deranged; and now it appears as irregularly built as the city of Norwich or the town of Manchester. The ground on which it stands is barren in the extreme, so that nothing green is to be seen near the houses: this also adds to the gloominess of the village. There are neither trees nor gardens to relieve the eye; but all this arises from the total want of good water, except near the barren spot where the village stands. In consequence of the miserable appearance of the village, the settlers are by many people reported to be extremely indolent.
"He (Colonel Vickers) expressed the same sentiments that I entertained with respect to the external appearance of Bethelsdorp, and thought the civilization of the people must be greatly retarded by the mean manner in which they live.
"I could not be acknowledge to the Colonel, that I was affected with the first view I had of Bethelsdorp, much in the same way as he had been; but on examination, I found there were causes which the missionaries could not controul -that they had always supposed they had no security for their continuance at that place, owing to its barrenness and other considerations, that they had therefore built their houses of reeds, which, though they look very well at first, soon fall into decay, and assume a ruinous appearance; and that from the number of the people constantly in the service of the boors, and the most active being called to perform public service, such as going against the Caffres, and serving as guides at the different military posts, for which they have hitherto received no remuneration, their families have been starving at home. For the sake of example, I stated that only two days ago, twelve men were demanded to go against the Caffres; and yesterday, fifteen men, with their pack oxen, were ordered to repair to the different military posts as guides, etc. Now had these men been building houses of clay, which are thought the best that can be reared in this part of Africa, they would either be mouldered or washed down before they could return to finish them. The people know this, and are thereby discouraged from rearing more permanent buildings. I mentioned that I was not stating these things as complaints against Government, for perhaps the state of affairs renders them indispensably necessary, but mentioned them as causes of the present appearance of the settlement.
John Campbell also conducted extensive enquiries into Bethelsdorp's perceived failure (in European eyes!) to become a model missionary village, devout and industrious, much like Genadendal. This appears to be a summary of his substantive investigation.
"Substance of conversations with the missionaries at Bethelsdorp, in reference to the civil state of that settlement, at a meeting held in Mr. Read's house, March 21st etc. 1813. Present - Messrs. Read, Ulbricht, Wimmer, Smith Corner and Bartlet.
ON THE CULTIVATION OF LAND
"They stated that they had tried to cultivate different parts of the lands of Bethelsdorp in vain, before they came to the present place, which they have now cultivated with success.
Q. Could you not clear part of the hill on the east-side of Zwartkopts river?
A. The bushes are always green, and will not burn – we have tried it frequently, but without success.
Q. Could you not try to improve some other parts of the lands, according to the methods employed in Europe, which you might learn from books on agriculture?
A. Mr. Wimmer, who is very industrious in cultivating the ground allotted to him, insisted that the means employed in Europe, would be of no use in Africa. I stated in reply, that agriculture was an extensive science - that different kinds of manure suited different grounds, which has been discovered by a variety of experiments; and observed, that it might do good were the Society to send out some publications on that subject.
"I next stated the various complaints made against the miserable appearance of the village.
A. The people have had many discouragements from building better houses - uncertainty of being permitted to remain at Bethelsdorp - many calls upon the people to public service -the present houses looked much better when they were first built.
"I stated that it would have a comfortable appearance, had every house a garden behind it like those of the Moravians at Bavian's Kloof.
A. The people are discouraged from doing so by the barrenness of the ground where the village stands - the want of water - the depredations of goats, etc.
Q. Could not the small river which runs across Bethelsdorp be conducted so as to water these gardens?
A. The river is often dry, and likewise it cannot be conveyed to ground so high as that on which the village stands.
Q. Could the houses be built farther down that river, where the sides are lower?
A. The lower down the river, the less water there is, and it becomes brackish, (or impregnated with salt-petre).
Q. Could not the village be built on Zwarkopts river?
A. No; the water is brackish, and unfit for use.
Q. Could not more trees be planted about the village?
A. The ground is so rocky and dry, they will not grow.
In spite of the conclusiveness of these answers Campbell was still induced to come to the following conclusions:
"No man who knows any thing of the Moravians will condemn them for want of exertion to improve their people in civilization; yet in visiting their settlements, you will find Hottentots in their original, native, scanty skin dress, the same as at Bethelsdorp, and living in as mean houses; and you will hear the missionaries speaking with regret concerning the indolence of many of the settlers. Truth however obliges me to confess, that had the founder of Bethelsdorp (Dr Vanderkemp,) been more aware of the importance of civilization, there might at least have been more external appearance of it than there now is. He seems to have judged it necessary, rather to imitate the savage in appearance, than to induce the savage to imitate him - perhaps, considering his conduct countenanced by what Paul says, of his becoming all things to all men, that he might gain some. The Doctor would appear in public without hat, stockings or shoes, and probably without a coat. I leave it to commentators to determine how far that passage did or did not countenance his practice; but I never heard of any other missionary following his example.
"I know that the flying reports against Bethelsdorp in the colony, have been shipped off to London by gentlemen of various casts; and though some of them can say that they have seen Bethelsdorp, which naturally gives currency to their reports, yet I must say that I never heard of one man (though I made inquiry,) who ever remained a sufficient time to know what Bethelsdorp really was. Had the ground on which the village stands been fertile enough to raise trees and gardens, this would have satisfied most; they would have written in praise of the beauties of Bethelsdorp; but glory to God, Bethelsdorp has been the birth-place of many a child of God, many an heir of eternal life; yet this indubitable fact is seldom put into the opposite scale.”
Eugene Casalis visited Bethelsdorp, probably in 1833, when he recorded the following impressions about the place, as well as its founder, Vanderkemp:
"A few miles from Port Elizabeth lies Bethelsdorp, the oldest of the stations which the London Missionary Society has founded amongst the Hottentots. Here it was proposed to make preparations for out long journey into the interior.
"Turning our backs to the sea, and directing our steps northwards, we soon reached a hamlet of about sixty houses, grouped round a mission-house with thatched roof, and a roomy though modest-looking chapel and school. This was Bethelsdorp, the creation of Van der Kemp. He died at the Cape in 1811, while pleading for the last time the cause of the Hottentots.
"The place seemed to us very little favoured from a worldly point of view. The soil is poor, light, almost sandy, and there is hardly water enough for domestic needs. Irrigation being impossible, agriculture offers few resources to the inhabitants. Evidently the Hottentots were not their own masters when they decided to make in this place their first attempt at a civilized life. There was in the neighbourhood a beautiful site offering advantages of every kind, but some whites had already taken possession of it. It is there that the flourishing town of Uitenhage has sprung up.
"The chapel, which holds six or seven hundred hearers, if often too small. It is opened not only on Sundays, but every evening of the week, and I blushed to see that the number of those attending these daily devotions surpassed that of the congregation one sees in some French places of worship on the Sabbath.
"He (Vanderkemp) had as a maxim that in the matter of clothes and linen the missionary should possess only what he was actually wearing, and in food should confine himself to what the natives ate. His ideas on this point were so decided that he insisted on the London Missionary Society allowing only œ30 a year to his workers. It was not so much that he aimed at economy, as that he possessed a fixed idea that in order to raise the natives to his own level he must in everything which was not reprehensible go down to theirs -a principle of which experience has demonstration the falsity. It was, in fact, giving up civilisation. It is said that once an English officer in the diplomatic services in Caffreland asked directions to the doctor's dwelling of a white man whom he found brick-making, without a hat, and in a costume as light as that of the natives. The surprise of the officer may be imaged on learning that the man before him was the one he sought. Following out the same idea, Van der Kemp in his old days married an Hottentot woman whom he had led to share his faith, but who remained to the end utterly uncultivated, and who caused him much embarrassment.
James Backhouse also visited Bethelsdorp in November 1838 (p 154), and reported as follows:
"Bethelsdorp, which signifies Village of Bethel, consists of a square of whitewashed, red-tiled, stone houses, and several other houses and cottages, arranged as little streets. Many of the cottages belong to Hottentots; the houses of the square belong to Missionaries, or to the Society, and include the school-houses and the chapel".
Thomas Baines visited here in May 1853 when he reported as follows:
“The village of Bethelsdorp, of which a drawing, as it should appear, is given in the 'African Researches', lies nearly half-way upon the road to Port Elizabeth. The houses bear testimony to the negligence and improvidence of their owners. The bridge still lies as the last flood left it. The reason, I understood, was too dry for the cultivation of gardens.”
BETHESDA, also known as MAPHUTSENG, Lesotho: P 1843
BETHESDA, near Gatberg, Cape: MorG 1817
BETHESDA, Upington, Cape: LMS 1808
BETHESDA, Natal: HM
BETHESDA, Transvaal: DRCSAT 1865
BETHLEHEM, OFS: P 1860; SPG 1864; DRCSAO 1873
BETHULIA, OFS: see BETHULIE, OFS
BETHULIE, also spelt BETHULIA, OFS: PMS 1835; DRCSAO 1893. It was visited by James Backhouse in June and July 1839 (pp 354-5), who recorded the following:
"Bethulia is near the Zwarte Rivier, and about four miles and a half below its junction with the Caledon, which is its principal tributary. The Settlement presented an interesting aspect from one of the contiguous hills, which I ascended several times to acquire warmth. The mission-house was a humble thatched dwelling, of brick. There were also a few adjacent buildings, chiefly of clay, comprising a chapel, school-house, and wagon-shed. These stood near a streamlet issuing from a fountain, between two basaltic ridges, and irrigating a strip of corn-land. At a right-angle with these, and along the winding-foot of a ridge of tumbled basalt, lay the habitations of the natives, who were of different Bechuana tribes, but chiefly Barolongs. Their establishments generally consisted of a low, circular, thatched hut, (Fig 1.) and of two or three mat-huts for their servants, (Fig.4.) within a circular enclosure, of erect, dry sticks. A multitude of these, some of them situated rather distantly among the hills, with a few large circular cattle-kraals, of sticks or stone, interspersed, formed this little city, of about 2,000 inhabitants.
"I visited some small settlements among the hills. The people being of different tribes, had their dwellings variously formed. Those of the Barolongs were circular, and had upright sides plastered with clay, and thatched tops; they were surrounded by a fence of dry sticks: Fig 1. Some of the others were conical, and others were hemispherical, with a protruding neck: Fig. 2. Both of the latter were plastered over with clay, and opened into circular enclosures of sticks, reeds, or the cane-like stems of Caffer-corn. These enclosures were neatly swept; the people cooked their victuals in them, and sat in them in the day-time. The doorways of their huts were so low, that some of them could scarcely be entered on the hands and knees. This precaution was adopted to keep out beasts of prey. The doors were of rough wicker work. At one of the huts, some people were eating sour milk out of a cylindrical wooden vessel, with wooden spoons, of large size, and a female was boiling a little meal and milk on a small fire of wood, in an earthen vessel, for a child which she had at her back. The people were all dressed in skins; most of them wore beads round their necks, and brass earrings in their ears; some had also rings of brass around their arms".
BEULAH, Natal: see UMKOMAAS, Natal
BHALAZI, also spelt BALAZI, BALASI, BHALASI or BELASE, Qumbu, Cape: No data available
BHAZIYA, also spelt BAZIYA or BAZEIA, Umtata, Cape: MorG 1858
BHIRHA, Cape: see BEKA, Cape
BIG UMNGAZI, Port St Johns, Cape: No data available
BIRKLANDS, Cape: see HEALDTOWN, Cape
BIRT'S (first) MISSION, Cape: see MXHELO, Cape
BIRT'S (second) MISSION, Cape: see PEELTOWN, Cape
BISCHOFFKREUZ, Transvaal: see MALITZI, Transvaal
BITYI, Qumbu, Cape: No data available
BIYELA, Natal: Sch 1902; SKF 1903
BLAUBERG, also known as BOCHUM-BLAUBERG, Transvaal: Bn 1868. Alexander Merensky gave the following account:
"Our northernmost mission station Blauberg was located in the district of Soutpansberg, which at that time bordered on tse-tse-fly country".
BLEIDEVERWACHT, Namibia: RM
BLEJDEVERWACHT, Cape: LMS
BLIJDE VOORUITZICHTSFONTEIN, Cape: see KICHERER, Cape
BLINKKLIP, Cape: LMS
BLINKWATER, also known as TIDMANTON, Fort Beaufort, Cape: LMS 1840; CUSA 1857. It was visited by James Backhouse in May 1839 (p 323), who recorded that:
"We were at three solemn, crowded meetings in a small wattle-and-dab hut; several pious people were present. In two of them we had much to communicate: J. Read interpreted into Dutch, and another person into Caffer. A few Caffers came from other kraals, notwithstanding the weather was cold and wet. The huts at this place had, with a few exceptions, erect walls, thatched roofs, and reeded doors. The proprietor of one in which we found accommodation, had made himself a wooden sofa, table, stools, and other articles of furniture".
BLOCK DRIFT, Cape: Society not known 1829-1851; GMS. It was visited by James Backhouse in February 1839 (pp 215-6), who recorded that:
"The Residence of the Diplomatic Agent, at Block Drift, is a neat, stone house, erected at his own cost, upon a piece of land that the Caffers ceded to him; and on which he was carrying on improvements with a view to the benefit of these people. By means of Caffer labour, at the expense of about thirteen pence a day for each man, he had formed a dam in the Tyumie River, and had cut a water-ditch or sloat, by which a considerable piece of ground was irrigated. Part of this ground he offered to allow some of the neighbouring chiefs to cultivate; but notwithstanding they had plenty of oxen, it was difficult to prevail upon them to plough the land. They required to see Indian Corn, Pumpkins and other vegetables grown, by the application of water only to their roots, before they would believe that they would grow without the tops being also moistened. - C.L. Stretch had at this time commenced another ditch at a higher level, calculated to irrigate about a thousand acres, but he found the work too great for him. Being satisfied of its importance, we made application to some of our Friends in England, who kindly assisted him in this benevolent undertaking, and the ditch was completed in 1841. After watering the lands of the adjacent missionary station of Love Dale, the stream is conveyed across the dell of the Gaga River, in wooden troughs, to a large plain, which it fertilizes. Several ploughs and spades were also subsequently sent out, by the liberality of many Friends, who contributed various sums for the promotion of agriculture among the native tribes of Southern Africa. Some of these have been successfully brought into use at this spot, and others in the neighbourhood".
BLOEMFONTEIN, OFS: SPG 1862; Bn 1875; DRCSAO 1893; SDA 1913; SAfMS; WMMS
BLYTHSWOOD, also spelt BLYTHWOOD, Cape: UFS 1877; FSC Trade School 1884
BOCHUM-BLAUBERG, Transvaal: see BLAUBERG, Transvaal
BOGOTA, Mocambique: ABCFM pre-1891
BOKSBURG, also known as BOKSBURG NORTH, Transvaal: Bn 1911; FBS 1918
BOKSBURG NORTH, Transvaal: see BOKSBURG
BOLOTWA, also known as ST JOHN BAPTIST, Cape: SPG 1858; Mor 1861; MorG 1914; DGT. The Rev Robert Mullins was stationed here in 1857 as a young priest.
BONKOLO, Queenstown, Cape: WMS 1850
BOOTSCHAP, Botswana: WMMS
BOOYSENS, Transvaal: SPG
BOQENI, believed near Butterworth, Cape: No data available
BORIGELONG, Cape: LMS
BORITSA, believed near Lady Grey, Cape: No data available
BOSCH HOEK, also known as MATAU and as VLAKLAAGTE, Transvaal: HM 1903
BOSCOMBE, also known as HERMANNSBURG, Natal: HM 1854
BOSHOF, OFS: DRCSAO 1875
BOSHUANA MISSION, Cape: WMS 1821
BOTHITONG, Cape: see MOTITO, Cape
BOTMAN'S KRAAL, also known as BOTMAN'S CAFFRES, Cape: see UMXELO
BOTSABELO, Eastern Transvaal: see BOTSHABELO, Transvaal
BOTSABELO, Western Transvaal: MHLF 1903
BOTSHABELO, also spelt BOTSABELO, Eastern Transvaal: Bn 1865. The Mission was established some 19 Km north of Middelburg by Alexander Merensky whose descriptions of the architecture and planning of the settlement are quite comprehensive. Unfortunately these are too long to be included in this volume.
"On the 8th February 1865, I, together with my wife and child and a small group of natives who had joined us on the way from Lydenberg, arrived at the place which we soon named "Botshabelo" - the place of refuge ... I was relieved that a hut had also been made ready for me, because had I wanted to use the waggon for building purposes, I would have had to unload my humble belongings and expose them to the heavy rains that poured down. The prospect of finding dry accommodation was most comforting after such a tiring journey; therefore it was all the more disappointing to discover that our little reed hut, built by a young farmer, had collapsed under the fearsome downpour. The poles upon which the roof had rested were too flimsy and the clay infill too heavy. As a result the roof had collapsed and lay inside on the floor, while water poured in in great torrents from above. As a result, with the help of some people who fetched the materials for me, I was able to erect a round reed hut which, although not really finished, we were able to move into on the evening of the second day. Later on, after we had built in a small glass window, it became rather homely. The little house measured only about six feet in diameter, but we had so few household possessions that we did not need to worry where to store the stuff, and it shared our space and shelter. We lived in the reed hut, happy and content, for 9 months, and even had travellers and neighbours in as guests.
"The Bokopa also soon built many reed and grass huts, thus we were all quickly sheltered safely and could put all our thoughts to the future.
In time the settlement became more substantial:
"The walls and roof of the mission house were made of reed, the church was built with stone and a reed roof. About 100 feet higher up the slope above the house and church we built a fort and called it Fort Wilhelm. The walls were built in stone and their cavity was filled with dagga. The fort had 12 feet high walls and resembled a peasant's fortification, not unlike some medieval city walls in southern Germany. These were 4 to 5 feet wide at the base; the upper part was narrower and had embrasures. The Post was finally finished with a central tower.
"Had peaceful conditions prevailed, it would have been natural for the natives to lay out their village in a form different from that of their forefathers, and we would at least have been able to partition the homesteads of the family units by roads ... This restriction, which had determined the native's form of village planning since olden times, had to do for us as well, and forced us to erect the houses of those living in the plain as closely together as possible, while others, the people of Masserumule, Machale and Makoetle, built their huts partly in a thicket below the fort, along the mountain side ... Houses were strung together by means of courtyard walls as is the manner with all Basuto cities ... It was only later, once we had grown strong, and no longer feared an attack, that we could allow ourselves to break up the closed circle of homesteads by means of streets, and that we could allow single people to build on streets further afield. The huts which our people built from brushwood, twigs and grass were simple and poor, to say the least, but, as soon as the first famine was over, some families started to build better houses according to their custom. Since this required many poles, this led to the destruction of many young trees in the sparsely wooded area about us. ... The erection of round huts whose walls were built with rocks and which carried a conical roof constructed in a simpler if less pleasing way than the load-bearing roof structure of a Basuto hut was generally encouraged. The roof was thatched, as in former times, with grass. This is the best and most practical roof in Africa where the climate is subject to rapid temperature changes, from the clod of night to the heat of day. It is only the fact that it burns easily, that it may eaten by (termite) ants and is a host for vermin that is to be regretted. Doors of houses became taller and taller and, here and there, a little window was added. The old huts alongside them were retained as outbuildings for some time afterwards. About the houses and huts the ground was levelled by the busy hands of the women who built "lapas", the inner courtyard, according to their abilities.
"For the first 9 months we lived in our little reed house; by then a little building had been completed which had a layout such that it could be used later as the kitchen wing of a new house. Its walls had been built solidly by Mr Kupfernagel with rocks, upon these low walls was set the thatched roof. Lofts are not usual in Africa but one enjoys the circulation provided by the enlarged space inside the house. The house consisted of two little rooms and next door I established my study under a thatched roof canopy, so that, for now, our immediate needs were satisfied. Because we owned no furniture, apart from a chest of drawers, two tables and a couple of chairs, the house was not at all cramped by household possessions. Eventually, with time, a small kitchen was built for my wife in front of this house. She had now been in Africa for two years and had performed her household duties daily in all sorts of weather conditions, in wind, rain and out in the open under a burning sun. Soon after I began the construction of a larger house. It was determined that it be built with fired bricks as we were fortunate to find the necessary clay close nearby. Bricks were formed rapidly and once the fires in the field kilns were lit, these produced excellent hard bricks of excellent quality. The missionaries helped unstintingly with the brick laying, so that the walls were ready within three weeks. Because I also wanted to make this house into a fortification, I roofed it with a flat limestone-plastered roof, such as we see in some southern (European) countries, and often in the low rainfall areas of South Africa. Whenever the news of an imminent attack reached us, I had all too often looked at the inflammable roof above, dreading the worst for my wife and child. The limestone took a three-day journey to cart here and then it was only fired with difficulty. The roof was erected as well as was possible, with the help of a neighbour who had had some experience in this.
"This roof remained a source of worry for many years because it kept leaking, and a wet lime roof over our heads led to the family developing irritations and illnesses as a result. It was therefore replaced in 1875 with a corrugated iron roof. The house was provided with simple, yet effective doors and windows by our artisan brothers, and after we had erected an enclosed verandah, made from corrugated iron, on the side of the house facing the yard, containing storage kists and provisions, it became a virtual "palace" for me and my family, for which we thanked God heartily. The house consisted of a small corridor with two rooms on each side. Two small cubicles under the verandah were set aside as guest rooms for travellers and missionaries staying with us for a time. As was to be expected, during the mid-day and afternoons the temperature soared under these corrugated iron roofs, comparable to the famous lead roofs of Venice. The floors in all rooms were still formed in clay which were smeared weekly and polished with cow dung, but by then we had already become used to this typically South African practice.
"The congregation's need for a church was also soon to be realised. The first to be erected was the combined church and school building, with low stone walls and a large thatched roof ... our settlement drew even more people, such that after a year we had to enlarge the building. We lengthened it and widened the apse. Later on the building served as a school and subsequently as a store room for, after another year had gone by, we had to build a second and larger church.
"The foundations and walls (of the second Church) were built from rocks which had to be broken from rocky outcrops by koevoet. The thousands of pieces necessary for the construction were all carried by our people on their shoulders, as were the many others used as infill for the foundations which were six feet broad at their base. The laying of bricks was done mainly by an old Norwegian bricklayer, who turned up at our place one day. We missionaries also helped with the brickwork of the gothic arch over the apse and with the apse itself. The self-supporting roof structure was painted with a reddish brown paint, which we extracted from iron-bearing ore, giving the 70 foot long church a dignified look from the interior. When it was nearly finished, we were visited by missionary Prozesky, who decorated the back wall, the pulpit and the apse by painting them, and covered the window openings of the apse with oiled and painted linen such that they looked like stained glass windows. The church also has a gallery ... Within a few years the need for a larger school building began to be felt as the old church, which had been converted to a school, did not serve the needs of our community any more, as 300 children attended its classes daily. Therefore a larger school building was erected in 1871 which ultimately contained 400 children daily. It was built in front of the fort, on the lower part of the hill which was wild and rocky ... The high foundations, for which an immense amount of stone was needed as infill was laid by the natives ... the walls themselves were built by a German bricklayer, the roof was thatched with grass straw quite professionally by Basuto ...”
BOUWERSDALE, Engcobo, Cape: No data available
BOWDEN, Queenstown, Cape: No data available
BRAKPAN, Transvaal: HFMA 1921
BRANDFORT, OFS: DRCSAO 1882
BRANDVLEI, Cape: DRCSA 1912
BREDASDORP, Cape: DRCSA 1914
BRITSTOWN, Cape: DRCSA 1882
BROOKE'S NEK, Kokstad, formerly in the Cape but now in Natal: No data available
BROWN'S PLACE, Transvaal: CN 1922
BROWNLEE'S, Cape: see BUFFALO RIVER, Cape
BUCHANAN, Cape: UFS 1886; UPCM
BUCHANAN, Alice, Cape: The stone church was erected by the Rev Richard Ross. No further data available.
BUCHANAN, Middledrift, Cape: NBC 1876. Established by the Rev GJ Buchanan, an American of African origin.
BUCHANAN, Qumbu, Cape: UPCM
BUCHAP, probably in Lesotho, exact location unknown: Formerly a Mission outpost of the PMS. Visited by Arbousset and Daumas in about 1836 (17-18) who recorded that:
"The first village to which we came on our journey was Buchap, situated about twelve miles to the north of Platberg. The site of the village is extensive, the land is fertile, and the pasturage good; but as there is a deficiency of water, the population is by no means numerous: there cannot be more than about fifty inhabitants.
"The appearance of Buchap is sad and desolate. There is not trace of cultivation - not a sound - scarcely a sign of life. Some huts formed of mats, suspended from poles, may be seen amongst the rocks, ... a little further, and in a retired spot, something like a cottage built in the european style, the ruined condition of which tells that it has long ago been abandoned; -with the exception of one room, in which some corn has been deposited, all the apartments are empty, and serve as a retreat to the swallow and the bat: - such is Buchap".
BUFFALO RIVER, also known as TZATZOE or BROWNLEE'S, King William's Town, Cape: LMS 1826. It was visited by James Backhouse in February 1839 (pp 236, 237),who recorded that:
"In the afternoon we proceeded about twelve miles, to King Williams Town ... This Station of the London Missionary Society, is situated upon the Buffalo River, which, though but a small stream, has, like most of the Caffrarian rivers, a permanent flow of water. The place has the aspect of an English village ... The house occupied by John Brownlee, the Missionary, was burnt by the Caffers after he left it. Colonel Smith subsequently took possession of it, repaired it, and added to it, arguing against J. Brownlee's claim to the site and materials, that it was taken in war from an enemy! In the overruling of the Most High, it has, however, been restored to its worthy owner and his family, with the addition of Colonel Smith's improvements. Two of the other houses are occupied by traders, and a third, by a family connected with one of them. One is also occupied by Jan Tzatzoe, the Chief who lately visited England, one by his aged father and uncle, one is used as a chapel, another as a school- room, and others are now the residences of Caffer families.”
BUFFALO RIVER, Natal: WMS
BUFFALO THORNS, Tembuland, Cape: SAB 1895
BUFFELSDRIFT, Cape: Bn
BUFUMBA, Elliotdale, Cape: No data available
BUKUVENI, Flagstaff, Cape: No data available
BULAWAYO, Zimbabwe: SDA 1894; SPG 1897; BC 1899; PCSA 1908; WMMS
BULILIMA, also known as BULILIMA-MANGWE, Botswana: LMS 1895
BULILIMA-MANGWE, Botswana: see BULILIMA, Botswana
BUMBANA, believed near Umtata, Cape: No data available
BUNJA, Namibia: Rc 1927
BUNTINGVILLE, Ngqeleni, Cape: SAfMS 1830; WMS 1830; Trade School (OLD BUNTINGVILLE moved to NEW BUNTINGVILLE in 1864). It was visited by James Backhouse in March 1839 (p 263), who recorded that:
"The population of Buntingville was about 500; the people were dwelling in beehive huts, except the families of the Missionary and Catechist.
"Continuing our journey, we passed Quba, or Turveys Bush, near sunset; to this place the Buntingville station was about to be removed, on account of the want of pasturage, garden-ground, and wood, and of a liability to the failure of water, at the present site.”
In 1898 Harvey Wilkinson, who was then resident missionary at Buntingville, compiled the following report entitled "From Namaqualand to Pondoland" published by "The Methodist Churchman" of 6 January 1898:
"The Mission House is large and lofty. It was built originally as a Native Industrial Training Institution, so the accommodation is more than ample for the requirements of the Mission family. One wing is used as a church. The building is in a bad state of repair. I am told that Conference cannot or will not make a grant for up-keep or repairs. There are no local resources available, so the natural process of disintegration must go on unchecked.
"We found the large house destitute of furniture and of the most ordinary household requisites. I have my readers to image the expedients to which we resort until our own goods arrived and were unpacked.
We are surrounded here by a dark, dense mass of heathenism. Scenes new and strange to us meet our view every day. The country is densely populated, and these Pondos are low down in the scale of civilization. Their bottomless superstitions, their vile habits and heathen customs - their system of polygamy and witchcraft - their incessant beer-drinks and heathen dances which are attended by unspeakable abominations - these present a terrible barrier to the spread of Christianity and civilization. Our few schools and preaching places are like so many points light, but at present they only seem to emphasize the density of the surrounding darkness. To Christian faith it is certain that this moral gloom must one day be scattered by "the True, the Only Light", but there will need much prayerful strenuous toil and more consecrated Christian giving before this consummation so devoutly to be wished is attained.
"On a recent Sunday going to and from an appointment with my inter-preter we passed through several scenes which are distinctly typical of this heathen country. Some of the people, taking advantage of the slight showers that had fallen, were ploughing their lands. Others, a little further on, were threshing out their Kaffir corn - for there is no Sabbath in heathen Pondoland. At one kraal a large beer-drinking party and congregated. The leaden looks and besotted appearance of some, and the incoherent talk and wild gesticulations of others plainly indicated that they had been freely imbibing Utywala. It is astonishing to see the quantity of beer one man can consume. We were invited to drink with them, but we were not taking any, and we turned away with sadness from a sight so repulsive. At another kraal were a large number of women dancing. The evolutions through which those women put themselves were bewildering to an onlooker. One moment, feet and arms were moving violently, accompanied by a weird monotonous song, the next, with a simultaneous shriek the whole company jumped several feet into the air. It all seemed exhausting work, and an expenditure of energy worthy of a better cause. Scenes such as these may be witnessed almost any day in this immediate neighbourhood, and they have a depressing effect upon a new comer.
"In Western Pondoland there is abundant scope for the most aggressive Evangelism, and for our Church to retreat or retrench here will be nothing less than criminal. Let the hosts of our Christian Israel in the coming Missionary anniversaries furnish adequate means for a more determined attach on this stronghold of the Devil, and let us take it in the name of Christ the King!"
BURGHERSDORP, Cape: WMS 1852; DRCSA 1905
BURNS HILL, Keiskammahoek, Cape: GMS 1830; UFS 1844; LMS. It was visited by James Backhouse in February 1839 (pp 229, 230), who recorded that:
"The Mission premises at Burns Hill consisted of the houses of the Missionary and his assistant, a neat, little, stone chapel, and two cottages belonging to native schoolmasters. Some Caffers also resided near, and Sutu, the reigning widow of Gaika, the late principal chief of Western Caffraria, had her kraal or "Great Place" about a mile distant.
"The number of Caffers present at the morning devotions was small, but most of them were decently clothed; eleven of them were members of the church".
BUSHMAN INSTITUTION, Tarkastad, Cape: No data available
BUSHMAN'S KRAAL, OFS: Bn
BUSHMAN STATION, Glen Grey, also known as FREEMANTON, FREEMANTLE or as the BUSHMAN'S SCHOOL, Cape: LMS 1840, later renamed Mount Arthur
BUTONGWENI, Ngqeleni, Cape: No data available
BUTTERWORTH, Cape: SAfMS 1827; WMMS 1827; SAfMS Trade School 1888; SDA 1917. It was visited by James Backhouse in March 1839 (p 255), who recorded that:
"The settlement of Butterworth is in the country of the Chief Rhili, a son of the late Hintza; it consists of a commodious mission-house, a few cottages, and several (indigenous) huts".
Thomas Baines visited Butterworth in December 1851 and recorded that:
"Early on Sunday morning we moved to the southward, and in the course of the afternoon arrived at Butterworth, a little village on the junction of the Gua and Geguana rivers, consisting, beside the chapel and mission premises, of three or four thatched houses, a considerable number of huts - and rondheuvels, a kind of dwelling scarcely superior - and an immense kraal in which, during the night, the herds already captured by Colonel Eyre were secured. In the central square stood a small building partaking of the character of belfry and market cross. To this was affixed a list of prices. One fowl sold for two sticks of tabacco, twenty-four strings of beads, or sixpence; and one stick of tobacco, Gordon Cummings's assertion to the contrary notwith-standing, passed current at threepence".
BUWA, Cape: WMS
BUXTON, Cape: LMS 1829-1851
BYRNE, Natal: No data available
CABA, believed near Qumbu, Cape: No data available
CABA VALE, believed near Qumbu, Cape: No data available
CABAZANA, Mount Ayliff, Cape: No data available
CACA, Engcobo, Cape: No data available
CACADU, Glen Grey, Cape: No data available
CACADU, Tabankulu, Cape: No data available
CAFFRELAND, Cape: WMS 1821; LMS 1847
CAGUBU, Port St John, Cape: No data available
CALA, Cape: SAfMS 1884
CALDERWOOD'S KOP, Victoria East, Cape: Society Not Known, c1856
CALEDON, Cape: DRCSA 1847
CALEDON INSTITUTION, Swellendam, Cape: LMS 1811
CALITZDORP, Cape: DRCSA 1880; Bn
CALVINIA, Cape: DRCSA 1892
CAMAMA, Cofimvaba, Cape: No data available
CAMPBELL, also known as CAMPBELLSDORP, Cape: LMS. In about 1836 Arbousset and Daumas commented upon the condition of the Khoikhoi population of Campbell:
"They now live at Griqua Town and Campbell's Dorp. They have given up their miserable huts for houses more healthy, and more commodious; and their sheepskin cloaks for European clothing.”
Campbell was also visited by Frederick Selous in November 1871, when he recorded the following:
"Campbell's-dorp had evidently known better days, for there were many deserted gardens and ruined cottages about the place; still, although most of the people seemed a lazy, poverty-stricken lot, some of the better class of Griquas were living in houses quite as comfortable as those of the lower class of Transvaal Boers".
CANA, Lesotho: P 1846
CANA, also spelt KANA, Transvaal: HM 1867
CANCELE, Mount Frere, Cape: No data available
CANCIBE. also spelt CANZIBE, Ngqeleni, Cape: No data available
CANDU, Idutywa, Cape: No data available
CANGO, Cape: LMS
CANTI, Umtata, Cape: No data available
CANZIBE, Cape: see CANCIBE, Cape
CAPE TOWN, Cape: SAfMS 1816; DRCSA 1839; MorG 1883; SAGM Trade School
CARDELANGA, believed near Umtata, Cape: No data available
CARMEL, OFS: P 1846
CARNARVON, Cape: RM 1847
CAROLINA, Transvaal: DRCSAT 1888
CATANA, Mount Frere, Cape: No data available
CATHCART, Cape: WMS 1880
CEBE, Kentani, Cape: No data available
CEFANE, Engcobo, Cape: No data available
CEGCUANA, Butterworth, Cape: No data available
CENDANI, also spelt eCENGANI, Butterworth, Cape: No data available
CENTENARY, Zimbabwe: LMS 1897
CENTOCOW, Umzimkulu, Natal: Rc
CERES, Cape: DRCSA 1882
CEZA, Natal: SKM 1903; BPA 1922
CHAIMITE, Mocambique: IHM 1921
CHALAMBI, also spelt CILAMBI, Mocambique: SPG 1895
CHA MATLALE, Transvaal: see MATALA, Transvaal
CHAMBONI, Mocambique: SPG
CHAMIE, Cape: see MGWALI, Cape
CHARLESTON, Natal: SAM
CHIBE, Zimbabwe: see TSCHIBI, Zimbabwe
CHIBI, Zimbabwe: DRCSA 1900
CHIBINI, also spelt CIBINI, Cape: No data available
CHICHONGI, Mocambique: MSR 1875-1923
CHICHOUMBANE, also spelt CHIKHOUMBANE, Mocambique: MR
CHIKHOUMBANE, Mocambique: see CHICHOUMBANE, Mocambique
CHIKORE, Zimbabwe: ABCFM 1895
CHIMANZA, Zimbabwe: WMMS
CHIMNEY PEAK, Umzimkulu, Cape: No data available
CHINGOMBE, Zimbabwe: DRCSA
CHRISTIANBERG, also spelt CHRISTIANENBURG, Natal: Bn 1854
CHRISTIANENBURG, Natal: see CHRISTIANBERG, Natal
CHUANE, Transvaal: HM
CHUMIE, Cape: GAMS 1820; UPC 1847 (may have been the same as GWALI, Cape). It was visited by James Backhouse in February 1839 (p 210), who recorded the following:
"The Chumie Mission Station belongs to the Glasgow Missionary Society. It consists of a neat chapel, used also as a school-room, the residence of the missionary, and two other houses, with some outbuildings of stone. It is situated on a streamlet issuing from a range of bold, basaltic hills, among which wood and rock and grassy slopes are beautifully intermingled.
Backhouse also had some comments to make on missionary efforts at Chumie (p 211):
"Soga was the first Caffer, that by his own effort, led out the water of a little stream, and irrigated a piece of ground for the growth of Indian and Caffer Corn, with a view to profit. The common custom among the Caffers was to share their provisions with those who were not supplied; and by thus allowing the idle to live upon the industrious, exertion was paralyzed; but Soga had had moral courage enough to break through this bad custom as well as some others; he would not allow the other Caffers to work for him without wages, and when they came to beg of him, he told them, that he paid them for their work and they must pay him for his corn. In case he slaughtered an ox, he also sold its flesh, and refused to give it away, according to the common custom of his nation, which generally left the persons slaughtering, only one meal, all his neighbours considering it their privilege to assist him to eat. This man had a son named Festini, who was also a reformer among the Caffers. When he was married, he refused to slay an ox, and make a feast, or to have a dance; but about a month after his marriage, the relatives of his wife determined that these customs should not be dispensed with; they therefore took an ox out of his father's cattle-kraal and slaughtered it, and proceeded in their usual way; but Soga and Festini took no notice of these things; the former went to his garden, and the latter to his school, as though nothing was going on out of the usual course.
"Festini had been instructed in the school at Chumie, which he still attended at certain times. About a year before this period, he told William Chalmers that he thought he could instruct a few of the children at his own kraal, if he had some lessons. These were readily furnished, and the young man erected a hut of European shape, of mud and wattles, thatched; here he collected about thirty children, whom he taught gratuitously; in ten months he exhibited some pupils able to read the Caffer Scriptures very fairly. A few weeks after our visit, Festini openly avowed himself a Christian, and was admitted into communion with the church at Chumie".
CHUMIE HOEK, Alice, Cape: an outstation of KNAPP'S HOPE
CHUTES VICTORIA, Zimbabwe: see VICTORIA FALLS, Zimbabwe
CIBINI, Cape: see CHIBINI, Cape
CILAMBI, Mocambique: see CHALAMBI, Mocambique
CITEAUX, Natal: Rc
CLAIRVAUX, Natal: Rc
CLANWILLIAM, Cape: DRCSA 1846
CLARKEBURY, Engcobo, Cape: SAfMS 1830; WMMS. It was visited by James Backhouse on 6 March 1839 (p 257), who recorded the following:
"The station of Clarkbury was commenced about 1831. It consists of a decent, brick Mission-house with a colonnade in front, a chapel, also of brick, but plastered with mud, and having a paper-felt roof, two or three rude cottages, and numerous Caffer huts. About one hundred Tambookie families resided here at this time".
CLARKSON, Humansdorp, Cape: MorG 1839
CLARKVILLE, Bizana, Cape: No data available
CLIFFDALE, Tabankulu, Cape: No data available
CLUMBER, Cape: WMMS
CLYDESDALE, Umzimkulu, Cape: SPG 1871
COGWANA, Tsolo, Cape: No data available
COGWANA, Umtata, Cape: No data available
COLANA, Mount Frere, Cape: No data available
COLESBERG, Cape: SPG 1848; DRCSA 1885; DGT; WMS
COLIGNY, Umtata, Cape: see DE COLIGNY, Umtata, Cape
COLUMBA, Kentani, Cape: UFS 1878; PCSA
COMPOUNDS, Johannesburg, Transvaal: DRCSAT 1906
COMPOUNDS, Kimberley, Cape: DRCSA 1907
CONCORDIA MINE (also known as KONKORDIA) Cape: RM 1863; WMMS
CONCORDIAVILLE, Namibia: WMMS
CONNAMARA, Harding, Natal: No data available
CONSTANTIA, Cape: SPG
CORHANA, also spelt CORANA, Transkei, Cape: No data available
CRADOCK, Cape: SAfMS 1840; SPG 1850; LMS; WMMS
CRITCHLOW, Bizana, Cape: FMA 1908
CROSSROADS, Peddie, Cape: No data available
CROUCH'S, Butterworth, Cape: No data available
CROWN REEF, Transvaal: SACIM
CULUNCA, Qumbu, Cape: No data available
CUMMING'S, Cape: see iQIBIRHA, Middledrift, Cape
CUNNINGHAM, Butterworth, Cape: UFS 1868
CWECWENI, also spelt CWENWENI, Engcobo, Cape: WMS
CWELE, Ngqeleni, Cape: No data available
DAGGABOER, Cape: WMMS
DAGGAFONTEIN, OFS: WMS
DANGWANA, Cape: No data available
DANIEL'S KUIL, Cape: No data available. It was visited by James Backhouse in September 1839 (p 450), who recorded the following:
"The day was showery and pinching, but we travelled six hours and a half, to Daniels Kuil, "Daniels Den", a scattered settlement of cottages and mat huts. This place was purchased by Waterboer from a Griqua Chief; this purchase of landed property was the first which took place in this country, where if a man broke up land, and cultivated it, this act was considered to give him a right to the place, until he abandoned it. The native name of Daniels Kuil signified Elephants' Reeds, but elephants are not now found within a great distance of this place; its present inhabitants are connected with Griqua Town; they grow their corn here, being able to irrigate the land from springs which rise under the hills".
DARLING, Cape: DRCSA 1908
DE AAR, also known as DE AAR JUNCTION, Cape: DRCSA 1903
DE BANIJAI, believed in the Transvaal: DRCSA
DEBERHA, Engcobo, Cape: No data available
DE COLIGNY, also spelt COLIGNY, Umtata, Cape: No data available
DE DOORNS, Cape: RM 1907
DERBY, Transvaal: SPG 1871
DE RUST, Cape: see KRUIS RIVER, Cape
DE TUIN, Cape: RM
DEWETSDORP, OFS: No data available
DIAMOND FIELDS, Cape: see KIMBERLEY, Cape
DIEP RIVER, Cape: SAfMS 1900; WMS
DINDINI, Bizana, Cape: No data available
DIPHERING, OFS: WMS
DITHAKONG, also known as LATTAKOO, Cape: LMS 1816
DOEBRA, Namibia: Rc 1904
DOHNE, Cape: see BETHEL, Stutterheim, Cape
DOKODELA, Libode, Cape: No data available
DOMBADEMA, Zimbabwe: LMS 1895
DORSKRAAL, Cape: MorG
DORDRECHT, Cape: SAfMS 1868; WMS
DRIEFONTEIN, Natal: WMS
DUDUMENI, Flagstaff, Cape: No data available
DUFFBANK, also known as DUFF, Idutywa, Cape: No data available
DUMALISILE, Willowvale, Cape: No data available
DUMANENI, Qumbu, Cape: No data available
DUMISA, Natal: SAGM 1898
DUMRANS, Umtata, Cape: No data available
DUMSE, also spelt DUMSI, Tabankulu, Cape: No data available
DUNDEE, Mount Ayliff, Cape: No data available
DUNDEE, Natal: SAfMS 1864; SKM 1891
DUNEN, Cape: Bn
DUNXA, Transkei, Cape: No data available
DURBAN, formerly FINGO MISSION, Peddie, Cape: WMMS 1831
DURBAN, Natal: WMS 1847; SPG 1855; DNa 1872; NMS 1890; ABCFM 1892; SAGM 1894; HF 1903; SAfMS 1917; SDA 1920
DURBANVILLE, Cape: SPG
DUSHANE'S TRIBE, Cape: see TAMAKA, Cape
DUTYINI, Bizana, Cape: see NDLOVU, Bizana, Cape
DYSSELDORP, Georgetown, Cape: CUSA 1838; LMS
DOUGLAS, Cape: Bn 1894
EAST LONDON, Cape: WMMS 1849; SAfMS
EAST RAND, Transvaal: see NEW COMET, Transvaal
EBENEZER, Cape Town, Cape: DRCSA 1839
EBENEZER, Olifants Rivier, Cape: RM 1831; DRCSA 1910. It was visited by James Backhouse in March 1840 (pp 590, 592), who recorded the following:
"The missionary-station of Ebenezer, which is represented in the accompanying cut, was an original kraal of Hottentots; it was secured to them along with a tract of land, by the Government, which also gave a charge over it to the Rhenish Missionary Society.
"Several of the people were living in huts built of reeds, which were more substantial dwellings than mat huts, but not transportable. A windmill was about to be erected on a low rounded hill, of reddish purple Porphyry, in which white quartz crystals were imbedded".
EBENEZER, Leribe, Lesotho: P 1859
EBENEZER, Natal: FMA 1900; HM
EBENEZER, Swaziland: NFEH 1914
EBENEZER, Transvaal: HM 1871
EBERFELD, Namibia: RM
EBUFUMBA, Cape: SAGM
EBUWA, Cape: WMS
EDAMBE, Natal: Sch 1909
EDENBURG, OFS: DRCSAO 1895
EDENDALE, Pietermaritzburg, Natal: SAfMS 1847; WMS 1852. See also MAHAMBA, Swaziland
EDENDALE, Transvaal: Bn 1905
EDWALENI, Natal: FMA 1901
EHLANZENI, Natal: HM 1856
EHLOMOHLOMO, Natal: HM 1862
EINSIEDELN, Natal: Rc
EKAMBE, also spelt EKOMBE, Natal: see KAMBE, Natal
EKOMBALENI, Natal: HM
EKOMBE, also spelt EKAMBE, Natal: see KAMBE, Natal
EKUFUNDISWENI, Natal: see UMLAZI, Natal
EKUHLENGINI, also spelt EKUHLENGENI, Natal: see EKULANGENI, Natal
EKUKAYENI, Natal: No data available
EKULANGENI, Natal: HM 1867
EKUTALENI, also spelt EKUTULENI, Natal: SKM 1888
EKUTANDANENI, Natal: NMF
ELANDS KLOOF, Cape: DRCSA 1860
ELAND'S POST, Cape: Society not known 1829-1851
ELIM, Cape: MorG 1824. It was visited by James Backhouse in October 1838 (p 99), who recorded the following:
"Elim was commenced as a mission-station, in 1824. It is on the same plan as Genadendal, but more regularly built; the cottages form a regular street, at the top of which are the chapel and the dwellings of the Missionaries. The place is very bare of trees, but young planted ones are fast springing up. It is well supplied with water, and has about 400 inhabitants".
ELIM, Pondoland East, Cape: CMML 1896
ELIM, Natal: HM 1870; CMML 1920
ELIM, Namibia: FMS 1908
ELIM, also known as LEMANA, Transvaal: MSR 1879
ELLIOT, Cape: SRG 1906; SPG
ELY, Cape: GMS
EMAHLABATINI, also spelt MAHLABATINI, Natal: NMS 1860
EMAKABELINI, also spelt EMAKUBALENI, Natal: HM
EMANGWENI, Natal: Bn 1863
EMAUS, Natal: see EMMAUS, Natal
EMBABAAN, Swaziland: see MBABANE, Swaziland
EMDIZENI, Cape: see ANDERS, Cape
EMFUNDISWENI, Flagstaff, Cape: see MFUNDISWENI, Flagstaff, Cape
EMFUTYINI, Natal: HM
EMGWALI, Engcobo, Cape: see MGWALI and CLARKEBURY, Cape
EMGWALI, Stutterheim, Cape: UFS 1839; PCSA; GMS
EMHLABENI, Cape: WMS
EMJANYANA Leper Colony, Cape: SPG 1894
EMKABATINI, Natal: ABCFM
EMKINDINI, Natal: ZMD 1900; SPG
EMLAZI, Natal: HM
EMMAUS, also known as POSSELT'S MISSION, Stutterheim, Cape: Bn 1843, destroyed and abandoned in 1845; rebuilt as WARTBURG in 1855
EMMAUS, Natal: Bn 1847; Rc; Hm
EMMAUS, Transvaal: see MABAALSTAD, Transvaal
EMNYATI, Natal: HM
EMOUS, Umzimkulu, Cape: No data available
EMPANGENI, Natal: NMS 1851; SPG
EMPANGWENI, Natal: HM 1863; NMS
EMPOLONJENI, Swaziland: SPG
EMSENI, also known as GEORGENAU, Natal: HM 1890
EMSHANE, Natal: ABCFM
EMTIMJAMBILI, near Mpande's Kraal, Natal: Sch 1844
EMTULWA, Natal: SKM 1896
EMVUZI, Griqualand East, Cape: SPG 1894
ENDHLOVINI, Natal (but may have been in the Cape): HM 1858
ENDHLOZANA, Cape: see ENHLOZANA, Cape
ENDINGENI, also known as PENIEL, Swaziland: CN 1910
ENDULINI, East Pondoland, Cape: SAGM
ENDUMENI, Natal: HM
ENDWEDWE, Natal: WMS
ENGCOBO, Cape: ECS 1860; SAfMS 1900; SPG
ENGELA, Namibia: FMS 1921
ENGLAND'S KRAAL, Transvaal: DRCSA
ENGOTINI, Cape: MorG 1859
ENHLIMBITI, Natal: ABCFM
ENHLONGANA, Natal: HM
ENHLONHLWENI, Natal: SPG 1892; DNa
ENHLOZANA, also spelt ENDHLOZANA, Cape: ZMD 1872; SPG 1907
ENHLOZANA, also spelt ENDHLOZANA, Swaziland: SPG 1881
ENKELDOOORN, Zimbabwe: SPG
ENON, Uitenhage, Cape: MorG 1815
ENSIKENI, also known as INDAWANA, Cape: SPG 1872-1878
ENTHLAZE, also known as ST BARNABAS, Cape: ECS 1871; SPG
ENTOMBE, Natal (but may have been in the Transvaal): HM 1861
EMTOMBENI, also spelt ENTOMBENI, Natal: HM 1879
ENTUMASI, Cape: MorG
ENTUMENI, Natal: Sch 1852
ENWUBI, Natal: No data available
ENYEZANE, Natal: HM 1859
ENZINCUKA, also spelt EZINCUKA, Cape: Mor 1881
EOTIMATI, Natal: NMS 1886
EPIFANE, Tsolo, Cape: No data available
EPUKIRO, Namibia: Rc 1904
EPWORTH, Zimbabwe: WMMS
ERMELO, Transvaal: Bn 1899; DRCSAT 191O; WMMS
ESELSBANK, Cape: RM
ESHOWE, also spelt ETSHOWE, Natal: NMS 1861; SAfMS 1890; SA; SPG
ESIDUMBINI, Natal: ABCFM 1849
ESINYAMBOTI, Natal: see ISINYAMBUSI, Natal
ESIVIVANENI, also known as SIVIVANENI, Harding, Natal: No data available
ESTCOURT, Natal: SAfMS 1884; DNa
ETALANENI, Natal: ZMD 1885; SPG
ETEMBENI, Cape: Bn 1868; WMS
ETEMBENI, Natal: see ITEMBENI, Natal
ETOMBENI, Natal: HM
EVANSDALE, Natal: SAfMS Trade School 1895
EZULWENI, Swaziland: SAGM 1896
FAIRFIELD, Cape: see FARMERFIELD, Cape
FAIRVIEW, Natal: FMA.1890
FARMERFIELD, Grahamstown, Cape: WMS
FAR VIEW, Mount Fletcher, Cape: No data available
FATHER BOOM'S, probably located in northern Botswana: No data available, and no name has been given for its location. It was visited by Emil Holub in about 1876 when he recorded the following:
"The mission station of Father Booms consisted of some huts and single-storey wooden dwellings. The last mentioned served as refectorium with a little chapel attached to it on the north side of the house".
FAURESMITH, also known as SANNASPOORT, OFS: SPG 1862; WMS
FERGUSON, Transvaal: IHM 1908
FICKSBURG, OFS: DRCSAO 1865; SAfMS 1890. In 1895 John Widdicombe published this account of the construction of Ficksburg Church:
"The church was, in truth, a very humble building. It was really nothing more than two rooms of a not very large cottage knocked into one … A few days after ... there was a terrific hurricane, which did much damage to all kinds of buildings in many parts of the country. The little chapel did not escape its violence. It was unroofed, the rafters broken in pieces, and the sheets of galvanized iron rolled up like so much paper, and whirled away to a considerable distance in the veldt".
FILIPI, Harding, Natal: see NYANDENI, Harding, Natal
FINGO MISSION, Cape: WMS 1836, renamed D'URBAN in 1841
FITKIN MEMORIAL, Swaziland: CN 1914
FLAGSTAFF, also known as ST GEORGE'S, Cape: SPG 1899
FLETCHERVILLE, Mount Fletcher, Cape: No data available
FLORENCE, Swaziland: SAM
FOLWENI, Matatiele, Cape: see ESIFOLWENI, Matatiele, Cape
FORDSBURG, Johannesburg, Transvaal: DRCSAT 1892
FORT ARMSTRONG, Cape: Society not known 1829-1851
FORT AYLIFF, Herschel, Cape: No data available
FORT BEAUFORT, Cape: SAfMS 1838; SPG 1840; PCSA 1897; WMMS. James Backhouse visited the town in January 1839 (p 181), and recorded the following:
"Fort Beaufort consists chiefly of military barracks, a few cottages occupied by officers, some soldiers' huts, and a few stores. A Wesleyan chapel was in course of erection; a school house in the mean time accommodated the congregation".
FORT BELINGWE, Zimbabwe: SKM
FORT BOWKER, Willowvale, Cape: No data available
FORT FRANCIS, Cape: WMMS
FORT HARE, Cape: UFS 1917; SAfMS 1920
FORT HOOK, Herschel, Cape: No data available
FORT MALAN, Willowvale, Cape: No data available
FORT PEDDIE, Cape: WMS 1850
FORT WATERLOO, Cape: SPG 1854 (moved to Newlands on the Kahoon River, where it is believed to have been renamed ST LUKES)
FORT WILLIAMS, Middledrift, Cape: No data available
FORT WILLIAMS, Fort Beaufort, Cape: LMS 1816, abandoned 1818, probably as the result of William's death
FOTIMATI, Natal: No data available
FRANCISTOWN, Bechuanaland: SPG
FRANKFORT, OFS: SAfMS 1896
FRANSBURG, Glen Grey, Cape: No data available
FRANSHOEK, Cape: see FRENCH HOEK, Cape
FRASERBURG, Cape: DRCSA 1884
FREEMANTLE, Cape: see MOUNT ARTHUR, Cape
FREEMANTON, Cape: see MOUNT ARTHUR, Cape
FRENCH HOEK, also spelt FRANSHOEK, Cape: DRCSA 1894
FRENCH RAND, Transvaal: SACIM
FRIEDAU, TransvaaL: P
FRIEMERSHEIM, near Mossel Bay, Cape: DRCSA 1899
FUTYE, Mqanduli, Cape: No data available