A member of the African National Congress Youth League (ANCYL) in East London in the late 1940s and secretary of the Cape Youth League during the 1952 Defiance Campaign. After 1952 he continued his political activities circumspectly and became involved in publishing the clanÂdestine bulletin of the Africanist Bureau of African Nationalism. He was elected to the national executive committee of the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) in April 1959 and headed the PAC's organization in East London, a traditional African National Congress(ANC) strongÂhold. With other PAC leaders he signed a statement in 1961 denouncing preparations for the ANC-sponsored "all-in" conference. In the late 1960s he was living in East London.