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Monday, September 12, 1977

Bantu Steven Biko, leader of the South African Students' Organisation (SASO) and pioneer of the Black Consciousness philosophy, died in police custody at the age of thirty. Biko was arrested in the outskirts of Grahamstown on 18 August 1977.

This article was produced by South African History Online on 05-Sep-2012

This Day in History Extra Dates
  • Monday, September 12, 2005
    During a three-day trip to Cuba, Mugabe says in Havana the amendments he signed into law on 9 September, marked "the liberation of our land" and prevented the "acquisition of land from British settlers".
    References:

  • Sunday, September 12, 2004
    Local media in Harare report another nine people have died of hunger in Bulawayo, despite President Robert Mugabe's assertion that there is no famine in Zimbabwe and Zimbabwe's continued block of international efforts to distribute food aid. http://www.news24.com
    References:

  • Sunday, September 12, 2004
    Rachel Alexander (Ray) Simons, legendary communist and trade unionist born in Latvia in 1914, dies in Cape Town.
  • Friday, September 12, 2003
    Local elections in Morocco takes place. The two governing coalition parties win with 30% of the vote.
    References:
    • BBC, (2004). 'Key Dates', Focus on Africa, January to March, v. 15 no 1, p. 6

  • Friday, September 12, 2003
    Rwanda leader Paul Kagame is sworn in as first elected president since the 1994 genocide.
    References:
    • BBC, (2004). 'Key Dates', Focus on Africa, January to March, v. 15 no 1, p. 6

  • Friday, September 12, 2003
    The UN Security Council votes to lift sanctions against Libya that had been in place for eleven years as a response to the 1988 bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland.
    References:

  • Wednesday, September 12, 2001
    The SA High Commission in Botswana, in collaboration with the business community of the area, hosts the first-ever South Africa Week (12-15 September) in Gaborone.
    References:
    • Burger, D. (ed)(2002). South Africa Yearbook 2001/02, Pretoria: GCIS, p. 274

  • Saturday, September 12, 1998
    Lindi Memani, SA straw-weight champion, wins the world champion title of the World Boxing Union.
    References:

  • Thursday, September 12, 1996
    Iranian President Rafsanjani arrives in South Africa as part of a six-nation tour of Sub-Saharan Africa amid opposition to it within and without South Africa.
    References:
    • Kalley, J.A.; Schoeman, E. & Andor, L.E. (eds) (1999). Southern African Political History: a chronology of key political events from independence to mid-1997, Westport: Greenwood

  • Saturday, September 12, 1998
    Jacob Mofokeng, cruiserweight boxer of SA, wins the World Boxing Union world champion title.
    References:

  • Tuesday, September 12, 1995
    South Africa signs framework agreement for financial cooperation with the European Investment Bank.
    References:
    • Kalley, J.A.; Schoeman, E. & Andor, L.E. (eds) (1999). Southern African Political History: a chronology of key political events from independence to mid-1997, Westport: Greenwood

  • Thursday, September 12, 1991
    South Africa signs trade agreement with the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic.
    References:
    • Kalley, J.A.; Schoeman, E. & Andor, L.E. (eds) (1999). Southern African Political History: a chronology of key political events from independence to mid-1997, Westport: Greenwood

  • Wednesday, September 12, 1990
    The Amsterdam-based Shipping Research Bureau publish a report entitled "Fuel for Apartheid" on oil supplies to South Africa, which estimated that South Africa's efforts to circumvent the oil embargo have cost the country more than $US 2,000 million per year for over a decade.
  • Wednesday, September 12, 1990
    The four victorious allies of World War II (WWII) and the two Germanys formally end the war, signing a treaty that clear way for a united Germany on 3 October.  The Smuts Government's support of WWII caused violent internal political struggle in South Africa and stimulated Afrikaner nationalism.
    References:
    • Muller, C.F.J. (ed)(1981). Five Hundred years: a history of South Africa; 3rd rev. ed., Pretoria: Academica, p. 440.
    •  https://www.andibradley.com/

  • Tuesday, September 12, 1989
    Adv. Anton Lubowski (37), secretary-general of the South West African People's Organisation (Swapo), is shot and killed outside his home in Windhoek. 
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau

  • Monday, September 12, 1988
    President P.W. Botha visits Mozambique and in talks with President Joaquim Chissano, Botha pledges not to support RENAMO, to defend and rebuild the Cahora Bassa power lines and to increase economic cooperation between the two countries, while Chissano approved of contact between church leaders and RENAMO. 
    References:
    • Kalley, J.A.; Schoeman, E. & Andor, L.E. (eds) (1999). Southern African Political History: a chronology of key political events from independence to mid-1997, Westport: Greenwood

  • Wednesday, September 12, 1984
    South African riot police use tear gas and whips in Soweto as unrest continue. A sweeping ban on meetings critical of the Government comes into effect. Opposition leaders criticise the ban, saying that the Government appear to be overreacting to the unrest, in which about 40 people have died in the past fortnight.

  • Saturday, September 12, 1981
    The SA rugby team loses the third test against new Zealand in Auckland 22-25 and the series 1-2.   Ray Mort scores three tries.
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau

  • Wednesday, September 12, 1979
    South Africa's new Ambassador to the United Nations, Adriaan (Riaan) Eksteen, presents his credentials to the secretary-general, Dr. Kurt Waldheim.
    References:
    • Kalley, J.A.; Schoeman, E. & Andor, L.E. (eds) (1999). Southern African Political History: a chronology of key political events from independence to mid-1997, Westport: Greenwood

  • Tuesday, September 12, 1978
    On the eve of the first anniversary of the death of Steve Biko, police arrest sixteen people including his brother, his sister and her husband and close friends of the family.
    References:
    • Kalley, J.A.; Schoeman, E. & Andor, L.E. (eds) (1999). Southern African Political History: a chronology of key political events from independence to mid-1997, Westport: Greenwood

  • Monday, September 12, 1977
    Stephen (Steve) Bantu Biko, the leader of the Black Consciousness Movement, dies in detention.
  • Thursday, September 12, 1974
    Military officers depose Emperor Haile Selassie from the Ethiopian throne he had occupied for more than fifty years.
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau
    •  https://www.andibradley.com/
    •  https://www.news24.com

  • Friday, September 12, 1975
    The Coloured Persons Representative Council (CRC) adjourns without passing its budget and urges the government to meet its demands for Parliamentary representation and full rights as citizens.
    References:
    • Kalley, J.A.; Schoeman, E. & Andor, L.E. (eds) (1999). Southern African Political History: a chronology of key political events from independence to mid-1997, Westport: Greenwood

  • Wednesday, September 12, 1973
    Hettie Smit (S.J. Van Vuuren), SA author, dies.
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau

  • Tuesday, September 12, 1972
    Dr. H. Muller is elected as the National Party's leader in the Transvaal, following the resignation of B. Schoeman. His election is considered to make him the successor-designate to John Vorster as Prime Minister.
    References:
    • Kalley, J.A.; Schoeman, E. & Andor, L.E. (eds) (1999). Southern African Political History: a chronology of key political events from independence to mid-1997, Westport: Greenwood

  • Saturday, September 12, 1970
    The SA rugby team wins the fourth test against New Zealand 20-17 in Johannesburg, thereby winning the series 3-1.
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau

  • Monday, September 12, 1966
    Minister of Defence P.W. Botha announces in Cape Town that the posts of Secretary for Defence and Commandant-General of the Defence Force are to be combined under one head.

  • Sunday, September 12, 1965
    Vincent Lawrence, community leader and Mohandas Gandhi's confidential clerk, dies in Durban. He was born in Madras, India, in 1873 and came to SA in 1894. Apart from his political activities, he was a prominent member of the Catholic Church and actively engaged in charitable work.
    References:
    • Sonderling, N.E. (ed.) (1999). New Dictionary of South African Biography, v.2, Pretoria: Vista.

  • Thursday, September 12, 1963
    Chad closes its air space to South African and Portuguese aircraft.

  • Monday, September 12, 1960
    The Central African Republics, Ghana and Guinea threaten to withdraw their troops from a security force unless the United Nations gives up its control of Leopoldville radio and the Congo's airports.
    References:

  • Monday, September 12, 1955
    An earthquake in which sixteen people die strikes Cairo, Egypt.
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau

  • Wednesday, September 12, 1951
    Willem Hendrik Adriaan Boshoff, S.A.artist, is born in Vanderbijlpark, Transvaal.
    References:
    • Rankin: Images of Wood, p. 92

  • Monday, September 12, 1949
    Jeremy Cronin, South African Communist Party politician and former political prisoner in the Pretoria Maximum Security Prison, is born in Durban.
    References:
    • Hayes, S. (ed)(2000).  Who's Who of Southern Africa 2001 ..., Graighall: Jonathan Ball.

  • Thursday, September 12, 1940
    WWII:  Italian forces begin an offensive into Egypt from Libya.
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau
    •  https://www.andibradley.com/

  • Saturday, September 12, 1931
    Andries J. Bester (81), Boer commandant during Anglo-Boer War 2, dies in Paul Roux, OFS.
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau

  • Thursday, September 12, 1907
    Prof. Felix Lategan, first professor in Afrikaans and Dutch at the University College of the Western Cape, is born.
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau

  • Wednesday, September 12, 1923
    Southern Rhodesia is formally annexed to the United Kingdom.
    References:

  • Saturday, September 12, 1903
    The SA rugby team beats the British Isles for the first time in a rugby test series by winning the third test in Newlands 8-0.   They shared the first two matches.
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau

  • Tuesday, September 12, 1905
    The Victoria Falls Bridge is opened.
    References:

  • Wednesday, September 12, 1900
    Anglo-Boer War 2:  The governor of Portuguese East Africa, J.J. Machado, invites Pres. Kruger to stay in the official residence in Lourenço Marques as guest. Kruger, highly suspicious, interprets this as being placed under 'house arrest'
    References:
    • Cloete: The Anglo-Boer War: a chronology

  • Friday, September 12, 1890
    The 'Chartered Company' hoists the Union Jack at what is now Harare, the capital of Zimbabwe.
    References:
    • Potgieter, D.J. et al. (eds)(1970). Standard Encyclopaedia of Southern Africa, Cape Town: NASOU, v. 10, p. 138

  • Thursday, September 12, 1878
    Cleopatra's Needle, the obelisk of Thothmes II, is erected on London's Embankment.
  • Monday, September 12, 1864
    Abraham Esau, Calvinian Coloured leader and martyr is born in Kenhardt, Cape Colony.  He aided the British Imperial cause during Anglo-Boer War 2 and was brutally assaulted and murdered when captured by a Boer division.
    References:
    • Verwey: New Dictionary of South African Biography
    •  Cloete: The Anglo-Boer War: a chronology

  • Monday, September 12, 1853
    The chairman of the Central Road Board of the Cape Colony, P.B. Borcherds, opens Bain's Kloof Pass to traffic.  The pass was designed by A.G. Bain and the work was done by convicts. It took over four years to complete.   News24 gives the date as 13 September.
    References:
    • Potgieter, D.J. et al. (eds)(1970). Standard Encyclopaedia of Southern Africa, Cape Town: NASOU, v. 2, p. 10
    •  https://www.news24.co.za

  • Saturday, September 12, 1812
    Robert Biggar, SA trader and adventurer, is born in Cowpur, Scotland.
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau