Books, Articles, Documents and papers pertaining to Towards a people's culture, Art and Resistance under apartheid

Books, Articles, Documents and papers:

·        Protest art in South Africa 1968 - 1976: a study of its production, context and reception (a thesis) – Erica Clark

This study examines protest art of the early Seventies in South Africa.  Clarke argues that the protest works which most forcefully broke from the modernist assumptions of the 1960s were most attuned to the shift of oppositional political consciousness that occurred, in about 1968, with the emergence of the Black Consciousness Movement and New-Left thinking in South Africa. Amongst the works discussed are early post-modernist "combines", drawings in an expressive realist idiom, paintings, serigraphs, cartoons and sculptures. Forms of protest such as graffiti, posters, banners and T-shirts are also considered.

·        Photography and the Liberation Struggle in South Africa – A thesis by Alex Fattal

This paper seeks to better understand how photographs have been used in South Africa as ideological and consequently political weaponry. Questions I will pose include; how has the colonial state employed photographic imagery to construct and preserve white hegemony? How have people opposed to exploitative white supremacy utilized photography to undermine the photographic discourse created by the State, and the racist ideology that discourse supports? What countermeasures has the State engaged in to stifle photographic subversion? How have resistance photographers circumvented those countermeasures? And how did resistance photography contribute to the liberation struggle?

·        The Neglected Tradition: Towards a New History of South African Art (1930 - 1988) - edited by Steven Sack

An art exhibition and book with chapters on the The polly street era and the Rorke's Drift Art and Craft Centre. The project points out how little information there is on the art of black South Africans.

·        Protest art in South Africa 1968 - 1976: a study of its production, context and reception (a thesis) – Erica Clark

This study examines protest art of the early Seventies in South Africa.  Clarke argues that the protest works which most forcefully broke from the modernist assumptions of the 1960s were most attuned to the shift of oppositional political consciousness that occurred, in about 1968, with the emergence of the Black Consciousness Movement and New-Left thinking in South Africa. Amongst the works discussed are early post-modernist "combines", drawings in an expressive realist idiom, paintings, serigraphs, cartoons and sculptures. Forms of protest such as graffiti, posters, banners and T-shirts are also considered.

·         Photography and the Liberation Struggle in South Africa – A thesis by Alex Fattal

This paper seeks to better understand how photographs have been used in South Africa as ideological and consequently political weaponry. Questions I will pose include; how has the colonial state employed photographic imagery to construct and preserve white hegemony? How have people opposed to exploitative white supremacy utilized photography to undermine the photographic discourse created by the State, and the racist ideology that discourse supports? What countermeasures has the State engaged in to stifle photographic subversion? How have resistance photographers circumvented those countermeasures? And how did resistance photography contribute to the liberation struggle?

·         The Neglected Tradition: Towards a New History of South African Art (1930 - 1988) - edited by Steven Sack

An art exhibition and book with chapters on the The polly street era and the Rorke's Drift Art and Craft Centre. The project points out how little information there is on the art of black South Africans. And yet these artists have been recognised and known by their own communities and by art lovers in South Africa and abroad. It is in the ' official ' histories and art museums that this art has not been fully represented. It is for this reason that this exhibition was titled: The Neglected Tradition.

·         It's Never Too Early - A personal record of African art and craft in KwaZulu-Natal 1960 – 1990 by Jo Thorpe This book has chapters broken down into decades starting from 1960s-1990s on art developments in Kwazulu Natal. Many of the artists and groups discussed in this feature are included in this book.

·         Culture in another South Africa (Conference documents put into a book).

This book is an important compilation, for the purposes of this feature this link goes to the document titled, ‘In the name of Art – A reflection on Fine Art’ by Steven Sack. Press the back button to view the contents of the book.  

·         Critism and Censorship in the South African "Alternative" Press with particular reference to the cartoons of Bauer and Zapiro (1985 - 1990) - by Mario Pissarra (thesis)

Cartooning is an extremely heterogeneous practice whose genealogy can be traced back to caricature. This paper does not concern itself with the diversity that can be found in the cartoons Derek Bauer and Jonathan Shapiro (Zapiro), but rather chooses to focus on the potential of cartooning as a critical a practice.

·         Article: Thamsanqa Culture is a Weapon of Struggle

Our Art must become a process — a living, growing thing that people can relate to, identify with, be part of, understand; not a mysterious world a universe apart from them.

·         Article: Medu and the culture of liberation.

In 1977, a group of “cultural workers” from the townships fled into exile in Gaborone, Botswana; including Molefe Pheto, from Mhloti Theatre. In Gaborone they established the cultural organisation Medu Art Ensemble (Medu is a SePedi word meaning roots). Medu ran units specialising in music, theatre, graphics and visual arts, photography; and “research and production” (writing).

Outside Art links

·         Art South Africa

·         The South African art times

·         Arthrob - ArtThrob is South Africa's leading contemporary visual arts publication, reporting on the national arts ...

·         The Africa South Art Initiative (ASAI) - its Main object as: “Promoting and supporting the development of a critical discourse on the visual arts in Africa”.

·         Art archives - South Africa