African National Congress (ANC)

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Crowds fleeing from bullets on the day of the Massacre. © BAHA

A change to armed struggle and the state’s intensified repression 1960s

With no discernable change in government policies, some members of the African National Congress (ANC) began to move away from peaceful protest. The ANC leadership had always stressed the importance of not using violence. Secondly, this group objected to clauses in the Freedom Charter, charging that they reflected the views of “white elements” in the Congress Alliance. It is commonly held that this was reference to the Ongress of Democrats (COD).

Last updated : 10-Dec-2012

This article was produced for South African History Online on 30-Mar-2011