Segregationist Legislation Timeline 1856-1979

Segregationist Legislation Timeline 1930-1939

The Transvaal Asiatic Land Tenure of 1930

The (Amendment) Bill is introduced by Minister of Interior as a result of recommendations of Select Committee. Proposes segregation: relocation of Indians to designated areas exempted from Gold Law within five years. No protection for those who had acquired interests on proclaimed (mining) land.

The Industrial Conciliation Act of 1930

Provided for the registration and regulation of trade unions and employers' organisations, the settlement of disputes between employers and employees, and the regulation of conditions of employment. Repealed by s 56 of the Industrial Conciliation Act No 28 of 1956

The Wage Amendment Act of 1930

This is the continuation of 1925 Act. This Act provides a single national board (the Wage Board) to recommend minimum wages and conditions of unorganised or unregistered groups of workers in all industries. The Act aimed to raise the wages of semi-skilled workers to a ?civilised? level. Ironically, the government recognised that there was a need to fix a minimum for Black workers in order to protect the White workers? wages against undercutting.

The Women's Enfranchisement Act of 1930

The Act gave only European women the right to elect and to be elected to the Houses of Parliament.

The Riotous Assemblies (Amendment) Act No 19 of 1930

This Act authorised the Governor-General to prohibit the publication or other dissemination of any ?documentary information calculated to engender feelings of hostility between the European inhabitants of the Union on the one hand and any other section of the inhabitants of the Union on the other hand? (Dugard 1978: 177). Commenced: 21 May 1930. Repealed by s 20 of the Riotous Assemblies Act No 17 of 1956.

The Asiatic Immigration Amendment Act of 1931

Indians have to prove the legitimacy of their domicile in the country.

The Native Service Contracts Act of 1932

The Act drew all Africans outside of the reserves into the agricultural economy, while extending existing controls over labour tenancy. This meant that a farmer could expel the entire tenant family if any one member defaulted on his or her labour obligation. The Act had additional elements allowing for farmers to whip tenants, as well as compel farm tenants to carry passes.

The Transvaal Asiatic Land Tenure (Amendment) Act No 35 of 1932

The Transvaal Asiatic Land Tenure Act and its subsequent amendments in 1934, 1935 and 1937 establish statutory segregation of Indians in the Transvaal end the state of uncertainty about their status in the Province that has obtained since the passing of Law 3, 1885. It is passed in 1935.

The Slums Act: Demolition of Slums of 1934

This Act is aimed at improving conditions in locations, but actually expropriates Indian property. Under the pretext of Sanitation, the Act is enforced to demolish and expropriate with the ultimate aim of segregation.

The Rural Dealers Licensing Ordinance Natal of 1935

This Ordinance causes the refusal of licenses to people whose properties have depreciated in value or whose licenses endangers the comfort and health of neighbours.

Representation of Blacks Act No 12 of 1936

Removed Black voters in the Cape from the common roll and placed them on a separate roll (Dugard 1978: 90). Blacks throughout the Union were then represented by four White senators. Commenced: 10 July 1936. Repealed by s 15 of the Representation between the Republic of South Africa and self-governing Territories Act No 46 of 1959.

The Representation of Natives Act No 16 of 1936

The Bills proposed by General Barry Hertzog in the 1920s finally got the two-thirds majority required to be passed into law 1936, when the Development Trust and Land Act (also referred to as the Native Trust and Land Act and Bantu Trust and Land Act) and the Representation of Natives Act were enacted. The Representation of Natives Act essentially stripped African people in the Cape of their voting rights and offered instead a limited form of parliamentary representation, through special White representatives. Under this Act, a Natives Representative Council (NRC), which was a purely advisory body, was also created. The NRC could make recommendations to Parliament or the Provincial Councils ?on any legislation regarded as being in the interest of natives?.

The Development Trust and Land Act No 18 1936

Expanded the reserves to a total of 13, six per cent of the land in South Africa and authorised the Department of Bantu Administration and Development to eliminate ?Black spots? (Black-owned land surrounded by White-owned land) (Horrell 1978: 203). The South African Development Trust (SADT) was established and could, in terms of the Act, acquire land in each of the provinces for Black settlement (RRS 1991/92: 381). Commenced: 31 August 1936. Repealed by Proc R 28 of 1992, 31 March 1992 (phasing out and abolishing the SADT in terms of the Abolition of Racially Based Land Measures Act No 108 of 1991)

The Aliens Registration Act No 26 of 1936

Provided for the registration and control of aliens. Assent gained: 14 June 1939; commencement date not found. Repealed by s 60 of the Aliens Control Act No 96 of 1991.

The Asiatic Land Tenure Amendment Act No 30 of 1936

Minister of Interior empowered to exempt further areas for Indian occupation with possibility of freehold title. Act accepts policy of segregation. Indians to be confined to separate areas.

The Native Trust and Land Act of 1936

The 1936 Native Trust and Land Act served to secure the provisions in the 1932 Native Service Contracts Act. The 1936 Native Trust and Land Act contained the following key provisions:
The Act integrated land identified by the 1913 Act into African reserves, and thereby formalised the separation of White and Black rural areas; The Act established a South African Native Trust (SANT) which purchased all reserve land not yet owned by the state, and had responsibility for administering African reserve areas. The SANT imposed systems of control over livestock, introduced the division of arable and grazing land, and enforced residential planning and villagisation (called 'betterment') under the guise of modernising African agricultural systems; An elaborate system for registering and controlling the distribution of labour tenants and squatters was introduced under the Act. With these provisions, any African unlawfully resident on White-owned land could be evicted; and Areas in White South Africa where Blacks owned land were declared "Black spots", and the state began to implement measures to remove the owners of this land to the reserves.

The 1936 Act provided the basis for formalising African reserve areas, as well as the eviction of tenants from farms for the next fifty years.

The Development Trust and Land Act No 18 of 1936

This Act compliments the Representation of Natives Act of 1936, in that it allows for a further 6.2 million hectares of land to be added to the African reserves under the 1913 Land Act. It also establishes the South African Native Trust, which became the Bantu Trust and then later the Development Trust. The function of the Trust is to acquire and administer all released land. This means that African people were not permitted to own land in their own right.

The Aliens Act No 1 of 1937

Restricted and regulated the entry of certain aliens into the Union and regulated the right of any person to assume a surname. Commenced: 1 February 1937. Repealed by s 33 of the Births and Deaths Registration Act No 51 of 1992.

The Industrial Conciliation Act No 36 of 1937

Provided for the registration and regulation of trade unions and employers? organisations, the settlement of disputes between employers and employees, and the regulation of conditions of employment. Repealed by section 56 of the Industrial Conciliation Act No 28 of 1956.

The Black (Native) Laws Amendment Act No 46 of 1937

Prohibited acquisition of land in urban areas by Blacks from non-Blacks except with the Governor-General?s consent (Horrell 1978: 3). Commenced: 1 January 1938. Sections repealed by the Abolition of Influx Control Act No 68 of 1986 and the Abolition of Racially Based Land Measures Act No 108 of 1991. The only section remaining in force is s 36, which amended s 7 of the Agricultural Holdings (Transvaal) Registration Act 22 of 1919 and has no discriminatory implications.

The Marketing and Unbeneficial Land Occupation Act No 26 of 1937

This Act debars Indians from holding seats on regulatory boards. It also controls imports and exports to South Africa.

The Native Administration Amendment Act No 9 of 1937

The Industrial Conciliation Act No 36 of 1937

This Act introduces the colour bar in trade unions.

The Transvaal Asiatic Land Tenure (Further Amendment) Act of 1937

Indians are prohibited from employing Whites.

The Mixed Marriages Bill of 1937

This Bill aims to prohibit marriage between Asiatics, Europeans and Africans. It is not passed, but a Mixed Marriages Commission is appointed.

The Provincial Legislative Powers Extension Bill of 1937

This Bill aims to refuse trading licenses to non-Europeans who employ White people.

The Transvaal Asiatic Land Bill of 1937

This Bill aims to deny right of owning property to any White woman married to a non-European.

The Marketing and Unbeneficial Land Occupation Act of 1937

The right of farmers (Indian) to till their own soil challenged

The Asiatics (Transvaal Land and Trading) Bill of 1938

The Union Government introduces the Asiatics (Transvaal Land and Trading) Bill , which provides protection of Indians in exempted areas for two years; certificates for trading licences to be authorized by Minister of Interior; Asiatics not allowed to appoint nominees to buy land and obtain trading licences on their behalf.

Last updated : 27-Jun-2016

This article was produced for South African History Online on 30-Mar-2011