General South African History Timeline: 1980s

1980 is declared the Year of the Charter, marking the 25th anniversary of the adoption of the Freedom charter in 1955.

1980
SACTU declares the year as the year of the Worker
1980
Massive national school boycotts rocks the townships.
1980
Fietas, Johannesburg: The Pageview Residents Association (PRA) enters into negotiations with the Department of Community Development in an attempt to keep residence.
1980 - 1983
Between 1980 and 1983 important amendments were made to the 1979 Industrial Conciliation Amendment Act, but by 1983 the following major changes had been made:
”¢The term ‘employee’ was redefined to include all persons working for an employer.
ӢRacially mixed unions were allowed.
ӢMinisterial approval was no longer required for the registration of mixed unions.
ӢJob reservation was repealed (Bendix 1989: 305).
1980
Republic of South African Constitution Fifth Amendment Act No 101:
Abolished the Senate, which was replaced with a multiracial President’s Council, consisting of sixty white, coloured and Indian nominated members. The council was charged with creating a new constitution that would give expression to coloured and Indian political ambitions. The recommendations of this body would lay the basis for the constitution of a tricameral Parliament.
Commenced: 1 August 1983
Repealed by the Constitution of Republic of South Africa Act No 200 of 1993
1980
Gazankulu: Divorce Act No 7: Commenced: 1 April 1981
1980
QwaQwa: Police Act No 7: Commenced: 27 February 1981
1980 - 1981
Commission of Inquiry on the Constitution Mandate: To inquire into and report on the introduction of a new Constitution for the Republic of South Africa
Date of Report: Interim Report: 6 May 1980
Final Report: 4 February 1981
Chair: SCHLEBUSCH, A. L.
Ref: Interim Report: RP 68/1980
Final Report: RP 23/1981
1980
Commission of Inquiry into Reporting of Security Matters regarding the South African Defence Force and the South African Police Force Mandate: To inquire into and make recommendations on - a)the delimitation of, on the one hand, the interests of the news media and the public’s right to be informed on affairs of the state and, on the other hand, the interests of the state and of its citizens as entrenched by section 118 and other provisions of the Defence Act of 1957 and the Police Act of 1958, which require that newsworthy information should sometimes not be made known;
b)ways of reconciling these interests and any changes that might be needed to the Defence Act of 1957 and the Police Act of 1958.
Date of Report: 1980
Chair: STEYN, M.T.
Ref: RP 52-80
1980
The Senate was abolished in 1980 and was replaced by a President's Council consisting of 60 members of the Chinese, Coloured, Indian and white communities.
1980
The Taxation of Blacks Amendment made further provision to put 'African taxpayers on the same footing as those of other races.'
1980
16 707 were convicted on politically-related charges.
768 people were detained up until November 1980.
1980
Attendance at African schools increased by 89% since 1965.
Boycotts of schools and universities started at secondary schools in Cape Town and spread to primary schools and spread finally to schools country-wide.
The boycott of red meat was called for by the Western Province General Workers Unions. A boycott of Colgate was also called for by the Chemical Workers Industrial union.
1980
Cape school boycotts begin. The De Lange Commission is instituted to conduct an in-depth investigation into education and to make recommendations for an education policy for South Africa.
1980
The number of economically active women in South Africa is at 31.5%.
Fatima Meer builds schools in Umlazi, Port Shepstone, Inanda, establishes Tembalihle Tutorial College and a Crafts’ Centre in Phoenix.
Zubeida Jaffer,journalist, is detained for two months after exposing police killings.
Geraldine Fraser-Moleketi goes into exile, she joins ANC in Zimbabwe and works in political structures under the late Joe Gqabi.She later becomes a member of Umkhonto we Sizwe and receives training in Angola.Geraldine receives Officer Training at Military Institute of USSR and specialized training in Cuba.
The formation of the United Women's Organization in the Western Cape. This became instrumental in the formation of the United Democratic Front.
1980
January, The Schlebush Commission holds hearings in Cape Town on the country’s constitutional future. Among the organizations submitting memoranda, or alternative proposals, are the PEP, the NRP, the South African Indian Council and Inkatha.
1980
January, In January three guerrillas were shot dead in a siege at the Volkskas bank in Pretoria. Two hostages were killed and 9 hostages and two policeman were seriously injured.
1980
3 January, A police station at Soekmekaar, Northern Transvaal, is attacked.
1980
6 January, South Africa:Signs loan agreement with Malawi.
1980
10 January, Security Police in Port Elizabeth, detain three black civil rights leaders after the Port Elizabeth Black Civic Organisation (PEBCO) decide to implement a city-wide strike and demonstrations against the planned removal of residents from Walmer. Banning orders are placed on all three on their release from detention on 27 February 1980.
1980
12 January, A British Sports Council team begins a three-week fact-finding tour of South Africa to investigate racial discrimination in sport and to report on its findings.
1980
21 January, It is revealed in Switzerland that the International University Exchange Fund’s Deputy Director, Craig Williamson, has been working as an agent for the South African Security Police. This is confirmed by the Minister of Police, Louis le Grange, on 24 January 1980.
1980
25 January, A bank and twenty-five hostages are seized at Silverton, Pretoria. Two of the hostages die; several are injured; all three ANC guerrillas are killed.
1980
31 January, The Swiss government send an official protest to the South African government over the illegal activities of South African agents operating in Switzerland and liaising with Anti-Apartheid organizations. The International University Exchange Fund (IUEF) Director, Lieutenant-General Erikssen, resigns with effect from July 1980, his health having deteriorated after the exposure of Craig Williamson. Financial irregularities are also alleged.
1980
6 February, The Prime Minister explains that the administrative rationalization is to be implemented in four states, and announces that the Department of National Security (DONS) is to become the Directorate of National Intelligence (DNI). Mr. Botha further rejects calls made by Helen Suzman, (PFP) for a Parliamentary investigation into allegations that DONS has intercepted mail and tapped telephones to build up dossiers on NP opponents.
The Minister of Cooperation and Development, Dr. Piet Koornhof, announces that the ‘72-hour curfew’ will be lifted on a trial basis in Pretoria and Bloemfontein, as part of a movement to remove restrictions.
1980
7 February, Transkei announces it is re-establishing diplomatic relations with South Africa because South Africa is now willing to negotiate over disputed land.
1980
12 February, The Quail Commission, examining, at the request of the government of the Ciskei, the question of the feasibility of independence of the Ciskei releases its report. It finds that ninety per cent of all Ciskeians favour a one-man one-vote system within South Africa and advises against independence as a first option.
1980
15 February, Prime Minister P.W. Botha decides to invite leaders of the black ‘homelands’ to join in a discussion on a ‘statement of intent’, by all South Africans.
1980
18 February, In a joint statement the leaders of seven black ‘homelands’ set out the basis of a possible consensus solution for South Africa’s constitutional future.
1980
19 February, The South African Defence Force has taken over from the police the security of Northern Natal since the area is becoming a third front in Security Force action against guerrilla infiltration.
1980
21 February, South Africa warns Mozambique it will not hesitate to strike back if Mozambique continues to shelter guerrillas conducting murderous operations and acts of sabotage against South Africa.
1980
22 February, The South African Coloured Persons’ Council Bill is introduced into Parliament. A government memorandum released on the same day gives obstruction by the Labour Party as the reason for the abolition of the previous Coloured Persons’ Representative Council. The Bill is opposed by the PEP and the NRP.
1980
28 February, An Angolan priest, the Reverend David Russell, is sentenced to a year’s imprisonment for defying his banning order and attending a church synod meeting. He is released on 18 December 1980 after the Supreme Court has, on 5 December 1980, ruled an appeal that his sentence should be suspended except for fourteen days.
1980
29 February, Justice Petrus Cillié submits to Parliament his report on the violent racial disturbances beginning in Soweto in June 1976, and covering the period to February 1977. The report concludes that the immediate cause of the riots was the government’s decision to introduce the use of Afrikaans on an equal basis with English as the official teaching medium in black schools. Underlying dissatisfaction had been exploited by activists.
1980
March, the Sunday Post launches a nationwide “Release Mandela” campaign, about 15 million sign the petition.
1980
March, A campaign is launched for the release of Nelson Mandela. Organizations supporting the campaign include the Soweto ‘Committee of, Inkatha, AZAPO, the Labour Party, the Natal Indian Congress and the South African Council of Churches (SACC).
1980
March, Following the Rhodesian elections, the Sunday Post, Johannesburg, launched a campaign for the release of Nelson Mandela; it received wide support in the country.
1980
March, Following the Rhodesian elections, the Sunday Post, Johannesburg, launched a campaign for the release of Nelson Mandela; it received wide support in the country.
1980
3 March, A large cache of arms is discovered in a township near Springs, East of Johannesburg. Together with the buried arms are bundles of ANC leatlets.
1980
9 March, Prime Minister P.W. Botha announces that all South Africa’s races will take part in a constitutional conference, but he emphasizes that he rejects one-man, one-vote and systems based on consensus and federalism.
1980
11 March, After a Cabinet meeting, both P.W. Botha and Dr. Treurnicht issue statements calling for party unity.
South Africa:Signs agreement with Taiwan for the reciprocal exemption from taxes on income.
South Africa:Signs agreement with Taiwan for the reciprocal treatment of navigation.
South Africa:Signs agreement with Taiwan for scientific and technological cooperation.
South Africa:Signs air service agreement with Taiwan.
1980
12 March, The Nederduitse Gereformerde Kerk (NGK) together with its sister church for blacks (the NGK in Afrika), Coloureds (the NG Sendingkerk) and Indians (the Reformed Church in Africa) issue a statement stating that the Churches bring no objection in principle if the authorities judge that circumstances justify reconsideration of the Immorality Act and the Mixed Marriages Act.
A court in Pretoria sentences nine blacks to terms of imprisonment from five to seven years on charges of training as guerrillas outside South Africa or recruiting others to undergo training.
1980
13 March, Lilian Ngoyi, a leading member of the Executive of the ANC dies.
1980
13 March, The former Prime Minister and President, John Vorster, re-emerges into public life with a speech in Bloemfontein in which he questions P.W. Botha’s policy initiatives and backs the hard-line taken by Dr. Treurnicht. Separate development, he says, is the salvation of South Africa.
1980
13 March, Lillian Ngoyi dies
1980
15 March, The Prime Minister states that those who disagree with the government’s 12-point strategy, accepted by all four National Party Provincial Congresses in 1979, and unanimously endorsed by the Cabinet, do not belong within the National Party.
1980
16 March, Dr. Connie Mulder, leader of the recently-formed Nasionale Konservatiewe Party (NKP), foresees a new political alliance bringing to power a conservative government.
1980
21 March, The Prime Minister dismisses allegations that the Cabinet is divided, and denies that there are differences in principle between Dr. Treurnicht and himself.
1980
21 March - 23 February, A weekend of events commemorate the twentieth anniversary of the Sharpeville shootings on 21 March 1960. Speakers attack the policy of apartheid.
1980
26 March, The 1980 Defence Budget amounts to R2,074 million or fifteen percent of the total Budget
1980
April - July, Serious unrest among the Coloured population leads to a school boycott, joined by students and teachers and accompanied by widespread demonstrations ending in violence. Over thirty people are killed in rioting,while several hundred are detained by police.
1980
April - July, In student protests all over the country, more than a thousand students as well as several lecturers and public leaders - were detained. Many students were killed or injured.
1980
April, In April the Coloured Representative Council was dissolved.
In April the Black Consciousness Movement of South Africa changed its name to the Black Consciousness Movement of Azania.
In April, the African United Automobile Workers Union split and the Motor Assemblies and Components Workers Unions of South Africa was formed (MACWUSA).
1980
1 April, The South African Coloured Persons’ Council BILL comes into force. It abolishes the Coloured Persons’ Representative Council (CRC) and provides for the creation of a Coloured Persons’ Council (CPC) to consist of not more than thirty members nominated by the State President, with an Executive comprising an Administrator of Coloured Affairs and four other members, also appointed by the State President.
1980
1 April, A summit meeting of nine southern African countries in Lusaka decided to form the Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) to promote regional development and lessen dependence on South Africa.
1980
1 April, A summit meeting of nine southern African countries in Lusaka decided to form the Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) to promote regional development and lessen dependence on South Africa.
1980
2 April, Among those giving the Constellation’ plan warm, but qualified support, is Harry Oppenheimer. Opening the Constellation of Southern African States’ exhibit he says that this excellent idea can only succeed if racial discrimination is eliminated and a settlement is reached over Narntbm.
1980
4 April, ANC insurgents launch a rifle, rocket and grenade attack on Booysens Police Station, Johannesburg. Pamphlets are scattered demanding the release from Robben Island of Walter Sisulu.
1980
11 April, The Minister of Manpower Utilization announces the removal of the ban on the employment of skilled black construction workers in white areas.
The Prime Minister states that the government has no intention of releasing Nelson Mandela.
The United Nations Security Council unanimously adopts a resolution condemning South Africa for continued, intensified and unprovoked acts against Zambia. South Africa blames terrorist attacks launched from Zambia for border instability.
1980
12 April - 13 April, Chief Buthelezi urges his supporters to use the official community councils in black urban areas as part of the democratic struggle against the apartheid system.
1980
14 April, The Steyn Commission of Inquiry appointed to investigate relations between the Security Forces - both Military and Police - and the press proposes that new restrictions should be introduced on the publication of details of acts of political violence and the manufacture of arms. The system of accreditation of journalists should be more strictly applied and foreign correspondents should be subject to a more vigorous registration procedure.
1980
15 April, The (Coloured) Labour Party National Executive Committee resolves to expel from the party anyone accepting nomination from the government to the Coloured Persons’ Council (CPC).
The leader of the PFP states that the PFP as a party has not taken a decision regarding the campaign to have Nelson Mandela released, but he, personally, has urged his release providing he renounces violence.
1980
18 April, Zimbabwe gains its independence.
1980
20 April, Mounting protests by Coloured students against the educational and political system escalate further. Representatives of more than sixty Coloured high schools, teacher training colleges and the University of the Western Cape resolve to continue their boycott of classes. The boycott begins on 21 April 1980 and is widely observed by approximately 100,000 students from seventy schools for three weeks.
1980
21 April, The Coloured schools boycott is joined by pupils at a number of Indian schools in Pretoria and Natal. Support is also pledged by Black Consciousness groups.
1980
29 April, Hundreds of Coloured school children are arrested in Johannesburg during a student-police confrontation during the school boycott in terms of the Riotous Assemblies Act. The Prime Minister warns in Parliament that such actions would meet with the full might of the state.
1980
6 May, The Advocate-General’s report confirms that the Herstigte Nasionale Party’s office telephones have been illegally tapped and calls intercepted. He recommends stricter controls over the State Security Services’ monitoring of mail and telephone conversations.
Black PEBCO activist Thozamile Botha breaks his banning order and escapes to Lesotho.
1980
7 May, The interim majority report of the Schlebusch Commission is tabled. A minority report by the PFP members of the Commission opposes the proposal to create a President’s Council which would not include black representatives.
1980
8 May, Prime Minister P.W. Botha announces that his government accepts the recommendations of the Schlebusch Commission including the replacement of the Senate by a President’s Council comprised of sixty Whites, Coloureds, Indians and Chinese. Also proposed is the nomination of twenty additional Members of Parliament to be appointed on a proportional basis by the leaders of the political parties.
In the Fauresmith by-election the National Party retains its seat against a double right-wing challenge from the Herstigte Nasionale Party and the recently formed National Conservative Party.
1980
12 May, The British Sports Council urges the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and all other international sporting governing bodies to bring South Africa back into international competition.
1980
20 May, Signs multilateral Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources.
1980
22 May, In a joint sitting of both Houses of Parliament it is unanimously agreed to re-entrench the language rights in the constitution in anticipation of the abolition of the Senate.
1980
26 May, Fifty-three churchmen are arrested at a demonstration in central Johannesburg against the detention of a fellow clergyman who had supported the schools boycott by Coloured students, They are released on bail the following day, after being charged under the Riotous Assemblies Act, and warned to appear in court on 1 July 1980.
1980
27 May, The schools boycott spreads to universities and to rural areas and the’ homelands following warnings against political protests, widespread detentions are reported.
1980
28 May, The schools boycott spreads to the black townships and riot police are in action in Durban and Port Elizabeth. At Elsies River, near Cape Town, police fire on Coloured children, killing two and wounding three.
1980
29 May, The Republic of South Africa Constitution Fifth Amendment Bill, establishing a framework for deliberations on the country’s future constitutional, economic and social development is introduced into Parliament. The Bill is based closely on the majority recommendations of the Schlebusch Commission.
1980
30 May, National Security Intelligence and National Security Council Act No 4:
Enacted mechanisms for state security. Commenced: 30 May 1980
1980
June - July, A further series of strikes in the motor industry, affecting especially the Volkswagen works at Uitenhage, ends on 14 July with an agreement including a twenty-five percent increase in minimum wages for blacks in the industry.
1980
1 June, Umkhonto weSizwe strike at the Sasol Complex, causing damage estimated at R66 million.
1980
1 June, The SASOL I fuel plant complex at Sasolburg, fifty miles south of Johannesburg, is attacked. On the same night SASOL II at Secunda suffers an unsuccessful limpet mine explosion which fails to set off fires. Oliver Tambo, President of the ANC, claims that both attacks were made by ANC guerrilla units.
1980
6 June, Dr. Renfrew Christie, an academic and former student leader from the University of Cape Town, is sentenced to ten years imprisonment, with four other sentences of five years each to run concurrently, after being found guilty on five charges under the Terrorism Act. He is said to have supplied information to the ANC concerning South Africa’s nuclear programme, and to have exposed vital installations to the danger of sabotage.
1980
6 June, Public Security Further Amendment Act No 20:
Made further amendments regarding the declaration of states of emergency. Commenced: 6 June 1980
1980
7 June - 8 June, The South African Black Alliance (SABA) condemns the proposed composition of the President’s Council and the nomination of its members.
1980
11 June, The Wiehahn Commission publishes its recommendations on the training of black workers, including government- supported training in industrial relations.
1980
12 June, The government publishes details of proposed legislation under which the Minister of Defence could designate any place, area or installation as a national key point for which adequate security measures would have to be taken.
The Republic of South Africa Constitution Bill receives its third reading. Among its provisions are the abolition of the Senate and the creation of a sixty-member President’s Council comprising Whites, Coloured, Indian and Chinese representatives nominated by the State President for a five-year term. A new office, that of Vice State President, will be created: he will act as chairman of the President’s Council. It is opposed by the PFP principally on the grounds of the exclusion of blacks.
1980
13 June, Following a meeting 4-13 June 1980, held at the request of the African group, the United Nations Security Council unanimously adopts a resolution strongly condemning South Africa for its massive repression and for its defiance of General Assembly and Security Council resolutions. Inter alia it calls for the release of all political prisoners, including Nelson Mandela.
John Wiley, the leader of the South African Party (SAP), announces that his party is to disband. SAP representatives will retain their seats and join the National Party, thus increasing the NP strength in the House to 136.
1980
13 June, Security Council adopted resolution 473 (1980), following police violence against a series of demonstrations by students and other groups in South Africa, strongly condemning the South African regime for further aggravating the situation. It called on that regime to end violence against the African people, and take a series of measures to eliminate apartheid and grant equal rights to all South Africans. It urgently called for “the release of all political prisoners, including Nelson Mandela and all other black leaders with whom the regime must deal in any meaningful discussion of the future of the country.“
1980
16 June, The ANC issues a call for the intensification of the liberation struggle on all fronts, but demonstrations on the anniversary of Sharpeville are generally low key.
1980
18 June - 19 June, Renewed rioting occurs in the Cape. Criminal elements in the Coloured community are blamed. Official figures give twenty-nine dead and 141 injured. Damage to shops and businesses runs into millions of rands.
1980
18 June, The Netherlands Parliament voted overwhelmingly in favour of an oil embargo on South Africa.
1980
23 June, The Prime Minister warns the country that confrontation awaits it if his proposed President’s Council fails. Pretoria is prepared to create consultative bodies for Coloured. Indian and Black leaders, but not to accept majority rule as the ultimate end.
1980
25 June, Helen Joseph, the seventy-five year old political campaigner, is served with a two-year banning order. She is already a ‘listed person’, has had several restrictions previously imposed upon her, as well as being detained and sentenced to imprisonment. She regards her banning order -her fourth - as a - certificate of merit’.
1980
26 June, ANC award Isithwalandwe to Govan Mbeki and Bishop Ambrose Reeves.
1980
26 June, Zimbabwe’s Prime Minister, Robert Mugabe, announces that he will cut diplomatic ties with South Africa.
1980
July, Boycotts continue at a number of black high schools and higher primary schools, particularly in the Eastern Cape, with violent disturbances recurring.
1980
July, 10 000 Johannesburg municipal workers went on strike.
1980
1 July, The Chamber of Mines of South Africa announces wage increases of fifteen percent and twenty-eight percent respectively, for black face and surface workers in the gold and coal mining industries.
1980
1 July, Gazankulu: Police Act No 5:
Commenced: 1 July 1981
1980
8 July, Foreign Minister ‘Pik’ Botha announces that all senior members of the South African diplomatic mission in Salisbury have been withdrawn.
1980
16 July, The ‘Committee of 81’, representing all Coloured schools and colleges in the Western Cape. decide to end class boycotts.
1980
17 July, The United States expresses deep concern to the South African Ambassador, Donald Sole, over government and police response to strikes and demonstrations. Mentioned particularly are the pervasive ban on peaceful assembly, widespread detentions without charge or trial, and bannings of moderate leaders of all racial groups.
1980
18 July, The Nigerian President of the Supreme Council for Sport in Africa (SCSA) states that Britain and other countries maintaining sporting ties with South Africa are toying with the unity of the Commonwealth, African and Caribbean countries, particularly object to the British Lions Rugby Union tour of South Africa that ended on 14 July 1980.
1980
19 July - 20 July, ‘Homeland’ leaders do not necessarily reject the concept of the President’s Council, provided it is revised to include black representation. A similar stance is taken by the Urban Council’s Association of South Africa, speaking for leaders of the officially-recognized community councils in black urban areas.
1980
23 July, The Prime Minister announces that the government is establishing formal machinery to promote its concept of a ‘constellation of Southern African states’. Dr. Gerhard de Kock, the Finance Ministers Chief Economic Adviser, is appointed co-ordinator of Constellation Affairs to chair a Constellation Committee to examine, inter alia. proposals for a multilateral development bank, industrial decentralization and financial arrangements between participants.
1980
24 July, Strike of 10,000 Johannesburg municipal workers.
1980
30 July, Following decisions by the ‘Committee of 81’ on 16 July and 30 July 1980 Coloured students suspend their boycott of schools in the Western Cape.
1980
1 August, A strike by black municipal workers in Johannesburg, ends when police supervise the removal of over 1,000 dismissed men. The Chairman of the unofficial Black Municipal Workers’ Union (BMWU), Joseph Mavi, is arrested and subsequently charged under the Sabotage Act, together with the BMWU Secretary.
1980
1 August, Industrial Conciliation Amendment Act No 95:
Commenced: 1 August 1980
Repealed by the Labour Relations Act 66 of 1995.
1980
1 August, Public Security Amendment Act No 6:
Made further amendments to state security legislation, allowing for greater control by state security mechanisms.
Commenced: 1 August 1980
1980
5 August, It is reported that the Netherlands government, co-sponsors of the International University Exchange Fund (IUEF) along with the governments of Canada, Denmark, Norway and Sweden, has withdrawn its financial support for the Fund and that Denmark and Norway have also ended their contributions.
The trial begins in Pretoria of nine men accused of having planned the siege of a suburban bank in Pretoria in January, in which five people died, of belonging to the banned ANC and of having undergone military training in Angola.
1980
7 August, A delegation of the South African Council of Churches meets the Prime Minister and other government leaders, following calls by churchmen for urgent discussions on the causes of unrest in the country. The government undertakes to end all compulsory mass removals.
1980
8 August, The government abandons the proposal to create a separate black advisory council.
1980
11 August, After a meeting between P.W. Botha and the leader of the (Coloured) Labour Party and the Freedom Party, the government reportedly abandons its proposals to create a nominated Coloured Persons’ Council (CPC).
1980
15 August, The offices of a member of the Prime Ministers’ team, responsible for drawing up plans for a Southern African ‘constellation of states’, Professor Jan Lombard, are destroyed at the University of Pretoria. A rightwing group, the Wit Commando later claims responsibility for the bomb attack.
1980
15 August, Preservation of Good Morals Act No 14:
Dictated segregation similar to that required by South African apartheid laws.
Commenced: 15 August 1980
1980
20 August, The Prime Minister meets Lesotho’s Chief Leabua Jonathan in an attempt to improve relations between the two countries.
1980
22 August, Leaders of Port Elizabeth’s black secondary school children, decide to end a four-month boycott of classes. Negotiations have taken place between the local parents’ committee and the Port Elizabeth Students Council (PESCO).
1980
26 August, Prime Minister P.W. Botha, announces a reorganization of his government, with effect from 7 October, including the appointment of seven new ministers.
1980
27 August, The government decides to lift the ban on political meetings affecting the main metropolitan areas. Announcing this, Minister of Justice Alwyn Schlebusch, says he will not hesitate to reintroduce the ban if it is necessary to maintain public peace.
1980
1 September, Dr. Andries P. Treurnicht, Minister of Public Works, Statistics and Tourism, is unanimously re-elected as the National Party’s leader in the Transvaal. As the chief spokesman for the conservative wing he re-affirms that the party will continue to work for independent national groups on a geographical basis.
1980
2 September, Zimbabwe announces it has severed diplomatic relations with South Africa, but will maintain a trade mission in Johannesburg.
1980
3 September, African Defence Force (SADF) and Lieutenant-General Jan Geldenhuys as Chief of the Army, with effect from October 1980.
John Wiley, former leader of the South African Party, is elected as National Party member for Simonstown, defeating the PFP candidate by 1,182 votes in an eighty-two per cent poll.
1980
4 September, At a congress in Bloemfontein, the Prime Minister says that the National Party has to draw together as many people as possible, allowing them to maintain their separate identities, but uniting them in a common front against Marxism.
1980
14 September, The Council of Unions of South Africa (CUSA) was formed, comprising 9 affiliates.
1980
19 September, The town of Mafeking is officially surrendered by the Republic of South Africa to the Republic of Bophuthatswana, and upon its transfer changes its name to the African form ‘Mafikeng’.
1980
22 September, Signs treaty with Zimbabwe for the reciprocal appointment of trade representatives
1980
24 September, Closure of more than seventy black schools, mainly in the Cape Province. is ordered by the government following five months of boycotts by pupils. Talks with community leaders have failed and incidents of violence continue.
1980
29 September, The former Secretary for Information, Dr. Eschel Rhoodie, is acquitted by the Bloemfontein Appeal Court of five charges of fraud. His conviction and sentence are set aside.
1980
October, In October the Media Workers Association of South Africa called for a boycott of all commercial newspapers. MWASA was previously known as the Writers Association of South Africa.
1980
2 October, The Prime Minister appoints fifty-six members to the President’s Council, comprising forty-one Whites, seven Coloureds, seven Indians, and one Chinese.
1980
3 October, The leader of the New Republic Party, Vause Raw, states that his party is prepared to give the President’s Council a chance as a start on the road to a negotiated future.
1980
5 October, Chief Lennox Sebe, Chief Minister of the Ciskei, accepts independence in principle, and wins endorsement for his stand at a rally in Zwelitsha, near East London. He pledges to hold a referendum on the issue.
1980
6 October, Parliament meets in special session to elect the National Party candidate, Alwyn Schlebusch, as the nation’s first Vice-President. In this role, he will be Chairman of the President’s Council, from 1 January 1981.
1980
17 October, The Prime Minister, P.W. Botha, concludes a five-day state visit to Taiwan, during which he and his twenty-member delegation meet Taiwan’s Premier and other officials and discuss substantial cooperation in economic and technical projects.
1980
23 October, In the by-elections at East London North, the seat is won by the conservative NRP, defeating the PFP’s candidate D. John Malcomess who had previously held the seat.
Amendments to loan agreement with Malawi.
1980
28 October, KwaZulu: Labour Amendment Act No 9:
Commenced: 28 November 1980
KwaZulu: Divorce Act No 10:
Commenced: 28 November 1980
1980
31 October, The draft laws are gazetted providing some benefits for black people. These include greatly increased mobility and security of tenure for blacks qualified to be in white areas. Piet Koornhof claims the proposed Bills are the beginning of a process of normalizing race relations.
1980
3 November, A nationwide strike is launched by black journalists for increased pay and for recognition of their union, the Media Workers’ Association of South Africa (MWASA).
1980
5 November, Disturbances break out in the black townships of Port Elizabeth and police open fire on rioting crowds. Tensions rise in the areas.
1980
10 November, South Africa:Signs multilateral treaty extending the declaration on the provisional accession of Colombia to GAIT.
1980
12 November, The Minister of (black) Education and Training announces that compulsory education for black children will be introduced in stages, with a first programme beginnning near Pretoria.
1980
13 November, South Africa’s Medical Association agrees to ask its ethical committee to conduct a public investigation into issues raised by the death of Steve Biko in police custody in November 1977.
1980
26 November, At the end of the Soekmekaar and Silverton trial in Pretoria, three young black men are found guilty of high treason, as well as of attempted murder and robbery with aggravating circumstances and are sentenced to death. Six others are given prison sentences. The ANC calls on the world community to intervene to save the men.
1980
28 November, Mandela receives the Jawaharlal Nehru Award.
1980
28 November, At a ceremony at the headquarters of the International Committee of the Red Cross in Geneva, the ANC President, Oliver Tambo, declared the adherence of the organisation to the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and Protocol 1 of 1977 on the humanitarian conduct of war.
1980
29 November, At a National Party rally in Ladysmith (Natal), the Prime Minister restates his policies. The government is not thinking in terms of a union or a federal form of government for all population groups, nor of one man, one vote, but proposes to establish a constellation of states.
1980
10 December, A new Coloured political movement, the Congress of the People (COPE) is launched in Cape Towns Bellville district.
1980
12 December, A white extremist group, the ‘Wit Kommando’ claims responsibility for the bombing of the offices of Professor F.A. Maritz at the University of South Africa.
During the thirty-fifth Regular Session, the United Nations General Assembly adopts two resolutions concerning South Africa’s nuclear capacity, requesting the Security Council to prohibit all forms of co-operation with South Africa in the nuclear field and demanding that South Africa submit all its nuclear installations to inspection by the International Atomic Energy Agency.
1980
16 December, The United Nations General Assembly adopts a total of eighteen resolutions on the situation in South Africa and problems created by the application of the governments apartheid policy.
1980
17 December, The results of the referendum on the issue of independence for Ciskei, held on 4 December 1981, are announced. They show a decided majority in favour of independence.
1980
23 December, Four black newspapers, Post Transvaal, Saturday Post, Sunday Post and the Sowetan, are banned on a technicality on the same day that the eight week strike of black journalists ends.
1980
29 December, Justice Coetzee in the Rand Supreme Court refuses to lift an order barring resumption of publication of four black newspapers. Security police serve three-year banning orders on the President and Vice-President of the black journalists’ trade union, Media Workers of South Africa. A storm of protest erupts, even from the strongly pro-government Afrikaans press.
1981
Declared the Year of the Youth to pay tribute to the heroism displayed by the youth.
1981
Fietas, Johannesburg: July Allan, ‘the China Man’, an owner of a sweet shop, is forced to leave Pageview. He moves to a northern suburb of Johannesburg with his sister, Ming, but finds the transition very painful, remarking on the difference in treatment he receives from his new customers, who ridicule him for being Chinese and take products from his shop without paying.
1981
Fietas, Johannesburg: The Save Pageview Association (SPA) is established, replacing the Pageview Residents Association (PRA), which in turn had replaced the Pageview Traders and Standholders Association after the eviction of traders from Pageview to the Oriental Plaza. Most people have moved to Lenasia, but 67 Indian families still remain in Pageview ‘illegally’. They are all members of the SPA.
1981
Fietas, Johannesburg: The Pageview mosques come under threat of demolition in order to make way for a highway. The SPA and various Muslim bodies lodge complaints to the City Council of Johannesburg and it is found that, in terms of the ‘protection of religious rights’, buildings on these grounds cannot be demolished.
1981
The formation of the United Women's Organisation in the western Cape. This became instrumental in the formation of the United Democratic Front (UDF) in 1984.
1981
KwaNdebele proclaimed a self-governing territory.
Ciskei independence.
1981
The Status of Ciskei Act No 110: Enabled Ciskei to get its independence.
1981
KwaZulu: Act on the Code of Zulu Law No 6: Commenced: 29 October 1982
1981
Commission of Inquiry into Security Legislation Mandate: To inquire into, report and make recommendations on the necessity, adequacy, fairness and efficacy of legislation pertaining to the internal security of the Republic of South Africa.
Date of Report: 21 November 1981
Chair: RABIE, P.J.
Ref: RP 90-81
1981
The National Party won the general election by winning 131 of 165 seats in parliament.
The Anti - South African Indian Council Committee and the Transvaal Anti-SAIC Committee were formed to oppose South African Indian Council elections. Less than 20% of registered voters cast ballots, in Fordsburg the percentage poll was 1,75%.
Over fifty organisations banded together to campaign countrywide against the 20th anniversary celebrations of the South African Republic.
Twelve African National Congress members killed when South African armed forces attacked Matola in Mocambique.
At least fourty attacks by ANC insurgents occurred during 1981.
630 people were detained in 1981.
1981
Just under twenty people were banned in 1981.
The Government-appointed De Lange Commission of Enquiry into Education recommended equal opportunities for education including equal standards for everyone.
A boycott of Wilson-Rowntree sweets was called by the South African Allied Workers Union.
There were 342 strikes affecting 87 189 workers as compared to 1976 where there were 245 strikes affecting 28 013 workers.
1981
The De Lange Report recommends a single department of education for all South Africans, education of equal quality for all, and a changed schooling structure. It is met with a mixed reception.
1981
1 January, QwaQwa: Special Taxation Act No 8:
Commenced: 1 January 1981
1981
9 January, Draft legislation is published giving owners and managers of hotels and restaurants the right to admit blacks.
1981
14 January, Under a proposed amendment to the Population Registration Act South Africans of all races will have their fingerprints taken and recorded on a central fingerprint register. A uniform identity document will be issued to all races.
1981
19 January, In a referendum organized by King William’s Town municipality, the voting is overwhelmingly against incorporation into the Ciskei. despite a recommendation from the van der Walt Commission on consolidation of the homelands that this he done.
1981
20 January, The Minister of the Interior informs the Argus Printing and Publishing Company that if it applied for re-registration of the Post newspapers these would be banned because they had aimed at creating a revolutionary climate in South Africa. This decision is widely condemned.
1981
22 January, Percy Qohoza, who had resigned as editor of the Post papers on 13 January 1981 and left immediately for the United States, says in Washington that in the light of the Minister’s remarks it is difficult to see how a credible newspaper for blacks can ever be created in South Africa.
Student committees decide to end the boycott of black schools, the Congress of South African Students (COSAS) having declared itself in favour of suspending the action in order to ‘regroup forces and formulate a new strategy’.
1981
23 January, In the House of Assembly, twelve new nominated members are sworn in. They include Professsor Owen Horwood, former Leader of the Senate.
1981
27 January, A Marine Traffic Bill empowers the Minister of Transport Affairs to order ships to be stopped or searched if they are believed to be carrying drugs or cargo in persons constituting a threat to the sovereignty, integrity or political independence of South Africa. The Bill is passed on 2 February 1981 with the support of all parties.
Former President John Vorster says he has decided to withdraw from politics for family reasons.
The government decides to close The Post and The Sunday Post because they have become media for communist viewpoints.
1981
28 January, Prime Minister Botha announces that general elections to the House of Assembly and the Provincial Councils will be held on 29 April 1981, on the grounds that seventeen parliamentary and thirteen provincial by-elections are due in the near future. They are to be held eighteen months earlier than is necessary under the Constitution.
The Security Police arrest Major A.M. Kozlov, a senior officer in the Soviet KGB, during his third visit to South Africa in 1980, on charges of spying in South Africa.
Signs loan agreement with Lesotho.
1981
30 January, The South African Army raids Mozambique and assassinate 12 ANC members.
1981
30 January, General Constand Viljoen, Chief of the South African Defence Force, announces that earlier in the day a South African commando has attacked and destroyed the planning and control headquarters of the ANC at Matola, Maputo, Mozambique.
1981
30 January, South African commandos raid Matola, attacking three residences of South African refugees; 12 ANC members were killed and 3 kidnapped. Eleven South Africans were killed.
1981
2 February, A new black daily paper, promising to expose political ills, appears in Johannesburg. The Sowetan has the same format as the banned Post and Sunday Post and is apparently following the same editorial policies.
1981
3 February, The President’s Council is formally inaugurated as a policy-advisory, problem-directed, reform-orientated and future-looking body. The new tri-racial Council, consisting of sixty-one nominated White, Coloured and Indian members is the first multi-racial institution of its kind to be established in South Africa.
1981
5 February, Police announce the arrest of a number of whites in connection with sabotage acts for which the Wit Kommando has claimed responsibility on 15 August 1980 and on 12 December 1980.
1981
6 February, The government withdraws three controversial Parliamentary Bills relating to freedom of movement of the black population for penetrating revision by a ten-member technical committee headed by Justice Rossouw.
1981
8 February, Mozambique stresses its continued support for the ANC, in a statement made at the funeral of twelve ANC members killed in the South African raid on Matola, Maputo, on 30 January 1981.
1981
14 February, President Samora Machel of Mozambique, declares solidarity with the plight of the South African people, as a reaction to the massacre.
1981
14 February, A new right-wing group Aksie Eie Toekoms (Action for our Own Future) (AET) is founded in Pretoria, mainly by Afrikaner academics. It stands for strict racial segregation at all levels.
1981
20 February, Prime Minister P.W. Botha announces that the Ciskei will become fully independent on 4 December 1981.
1981
21 February, The Republic of South Africa Constitution Amendment Bill, providing for the extension of the terms of office of nominated and indirectly elected members of the Assembly, after the dissolution of Parliament and empowering the State President to alter the names of electoral divisions by proclamation, is condemned by the opposition as gerrymandering.
1981
22 February, The Minister of Manpower Utilisation warns that the government is planning to take a tougher line with the rapidly expanding and increasingly militant black trade unions. The newly established industrial court may be used to discipline certain unions.
The Soviet Union supports Mozambique after the South African raid on Matola by sending two warships to Maputo. More are expected soon.
1981
23 February, The Prime Minister declares that Soviet threats will not prevent South Africa from attacking ANC bases in Mozambique.
1981
27 February, The Minister of Police announces the arrest of five further alleged Wit Kommando members.
1981
2 March, The United Nations General Assembly Credentials Committee rejects the credentials of the South African delegation, by six votes to one
1981
6 March, The United Nations General Assembly resolution calls on the Security Council to impose comprehensive sanctions against South Africa to compel it to end its illegal occupation of Namibia.
1981
11 March, Govan Mbeki is presented with the Fucik Award.
1981
18 March, The PAC announces in Dan es Salaam that it has reinstated seventy-two members expelled from the movement in July 1978.
1981
20 March, KwaNdebele proclaimed a self-governing territory.
1981
23 March, Nominations for the elections close with candidates for the 165 seats in the House of Assembly being nominated as follows: National Party, 155; Progressive Federal Party seventy-seven, Herstigte Nasionale Party, eighty-nine; New Republic Party, thirty-eight; National Conservative Party, nine and Aksie Eie Toekoms, two.
The HNP’s policies are defined by its leader, Jaap Marais: no concessions to the black man; withdrawal of South Africa from the United Nations; no mixing of races in sport, parks, hotels or theatres; a homeland for Coloureds and no political mixing with them and an inflation rate of only two percent.
1981
24 March, The government announces that it is terminating its preferential trade agreement concluded with Rhodesia in 1964.
1981
25 March, Dr. C.P. Mulder, speaking for the National Conservative Party (NCP) discloses that his party has reached an understanding with the HNP not to nominate candidates against one another.
The leader of the NRP, Vause Raw, states that the country’s major parties are divided and in disarray and that the NRP could lay the base for a regrouping of moderates.
1981
30 March, From 1 June 1981, holders of Zimbabwean passports will require visas to enter South Africa. The Zimbabwean government reciprocates amid deteriorating relations in both political and economic spheres.
The Irish government’s efforts to persuade the Irish Rugby Football Union to call off its tour of South Africa fail.
1981
3 April, The PFP issues its election manifesto, laying emphasis on the party’s aim of caring for the voter, linking the future security and welfare of the whites with the security and welfare of blacks.
1981
6 April, The Heads of State of Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique and Swaziland meet in Mbabane, to discuss South African military incursions and subversive activities against black Southern African states.
1981
13 April, The Transkei Legislative Assembly approves a Criminal Law Amendment Bill making it illegal for anyone to publish anything about the Transkei government without ministerial approval.
1981
16 April, The government seizes the passport of Bishop Desmond Tutu, the Anglican General Secretary of the South African Council of Churches, apparently because of his speeches made in the United States in March 1981.
1981
17 April, The government announces that King William’s Town will not be handed over to the Ciskei at independence.
1981
20 April - 21 April, A bomb explosion during the night at a power station near Durban, causes an extensive blackout and temporarily paralyzes industry in the area. It is attributed to members of the ANC.
1981
29 April, The elections result in the return to power, with a slightly reduced majority, of the National Party and notable gains for the opposition Progressive Federal Party. Right-wing opposition groups, led by the HNP, more than quintriple their votes, but gain no seats.
1981
30 April, The Prime Minister warns neighbouring states against supporting ‘terrorist’ movement operations from their territories, but re-iterates that he is ready to conclude non-aggression pacts with them.
1981
May, Police make more than seventy arrests at student and trade union demonstrations, protesting against official celebrations marking the twentieth anniversary of the founding of the Republic of South Africa.
1981
8 May, Relations between Zimbabwe and South Africa deteriorate further when the Minister of Police, L. le Grange, threatens retaliatory action if Robert Mugabe persists in supporting the ANC.
1981
12 May, P.W. Botha is re-elected as National Party leader.
1981
14 May, The United Nations General Assembly publishes a roster of sixty-five multi-national companies supposedly in ‘criminal collaboration’ with South Africa and a blacklist of some 270 sportsmen and women who have furthered sports contacts with South Africa. This publication was subsequently updated.
1981
15 May, First register of sports contacts with South Africa published by the Special Committee against Apartheid.
1981
20 May - 27 May, International Conference on Sanctions against South Africa organised by the United Nations, in cooperation with the OAU, at UNESCO House, Paris.
1981
22 May, The Minister of National Education has approved amendments to certain Acts, to encourage the normalization of sports relations.
1981
25 May - 27 May, There are several sabotage attacks - in Soweto, on the Natal coast, East London and in Durban - for which the ANC claim responsibility.
1981
30 May, State President M. Viljoen describes the twenty years since South Africa became a Republic as a ‘golden era’ during which the country has experienced phenomenal growth and development in the economic, industrial, scientific and technological fields.
1981
31 May, Nation-wide protests and boycotts of the celebration of 20 years of the South African Republic.
1981
June, A nationwide campaign to reject the so-called “Republic celebrations” is launched. Mass detentions and banning follow.
1981
1 June, Festivities to mark the twentieth anniversary of the South African Republic reach a climax with a massive military display in Durban, attended by P.W. Botha, the Prime Minister.
Three offices of the PFP are petrol-bombed in Johannesburg. Responsibility is claimed by the South African Liberation Support Cadre (SALSC).
1981
3 June, Rioting breaks out in the Coloured townships south-west of Johannesburg. A class boycott and arrests follow.
1981
11 June, Lesotho and South Africa decide to establish a consultative committee to resolve misunderstandings arising from the movement of people across their common border.
1981
15 June, In two separate statements, the ANC and the UN Committee Against Apartheid call for a more concerted and intensified effort from the international community to bring about change in South Africa.
Six South African members of the PAC are sentenced to fifteen years’ imprisonment, by the Tanzanian High Court, for the killing in Dar es Salaam of David Sibeko, PAC representative at the United Nations.
1981
16 June, On the anniversary of the Soweto uprising, police and troops cordon off Soweto and other black townships in the Johannesburg and Pretoria areas, stopping and searching all vehicles. Sporadic clashes occur near the Regina Mundi Roman Catholic Church in Soweto.
1981
18 June, ILO General Conference in Geneva condemned apartheid as degrading, criminal and inhuman, and decided to give ILO assistance to South African liberation movements. It set up a permanent conference committee to monitor South Africa’s racial policies and approved ILO technical assistance to liberation movements through a voluntary fund.
1981
18 June, ILO General Conference in Geneva condemned apartheid as degrading, criminal and inhuman, and decided to give ILO assistance to South African liberation movements. It set up a permanent conference committee to monitor South Africa’s racial policies and approved ILO technical assistance to liberation movements through a voluntary fund.
1981
21 June, Police confirm the capture of eight leaders of the Nigeria-based South African Youth Revolutionary Council (SAYRCO).
1981
30 June, Zwelakbe Sisulu, President of the Black Media Workers Association of South Africa, and son of Walter Sisulu, is arrested under security laws that provide for unlimited detention without trial.
The campaign against dissident South African students continues with the banning of three more students immediately after the serving of restriction orders on Andrew Boraine, President of the National Union of South African Students (NUSAS) and son of opposition M.P., Dr. Alex Boraine.
1981
1 July, KwaNdebele: Public Services Act No 3:
Commenced: 1 July 1981
1981
16 July, Joe Gqabi assassinated in Salisbury.
1981
17 July, The Government Gazette announces an extension to the provisions of the 1964 Tear Gas Act to widen the range of those empowered to use tear gas.
1981
21 July, Explosions occur at two electrical power stations in the Eastern Transvaal. Responsibility is claimed by the ANC’s military wing Umkhonto We Sizwe.
1981
31 July, The first person to be banned under the 1976 Internal Security Act, Fatima Meer, is banned again for a further five years.
1981
1 August, For the sixth time in eight months, a leader of the Media Workers’ Association of South Africa (MWASA) is banned. Its Acting President and senior reporter on the East London Daily Dispatch, is served with a two-and-a-half year banning and house arrest under the Internal Security Act.
1981
9 August, International Day of Solidarity with the Struggle of Women of South Africa and Namibia was observed for the first time, on the 25th anniversary of the demonstration of South African women against pass laws.
1981
9 August, International Day of Solidarity with the Struggle of Women of South Africa and Namibia observed for the first time, on the 25th anniversary of the demonstration of South African women against pass laws.
1981
12 August, A rocket attack is launched on the Voortrekkerhoogte military area near Pretoria, which leads to the larger black townships in the Pretoria- Johannesburg area being
1981
12 August, Four rockets exploded in Voortrekkerhoogte, a large military base in a suburb of Pretoria. The ANC claimed responsibility.
1981
14 August, Co-operation and Development Minister, Piet Koornhof, states that uncontrolled squatting cannot. be tolerated, and will not be allowed in the interests of the squatters themselves... No squatting will be allowed on the relevant site in Nyanga.
1981
18 August, Deadlock is reached between the Peninsula Administration Board and the Nyanga squatters.
Three black men are found guilty of high treason and of having been involved in the sabotage of SASOL fuel installations and the attack on Booysens Police Station. They are sentenced to death, with appeals being lodged on their behalf.
1981
19 August, A mass arrest of 2,000 Nyanaga squatters is carried out, under immigration legislation allowing summary deportation. They are to be charged under the Admission of Persons to the Republic Regulation Act of 1972.
1981
20 August, Mass protests in Cape Town over the enforced removal from Nyanga camp are followed by widespread criticism both within and without South Africa.
South Africa bans three white Zimbabweans from visiting South Africa and addressing members of the University of Cape Town
1981
25 August, Confrontation between South Africa and Transkei over the deportation and return to Transkei of squatters from the Cape Town area.
1981
September, South African troops occupied a large area in southern Angola.
1981
22 September, The Broederbond reverses its 1972 decision to expel HNP members from its ranks. This is interpreted as confirmation of growing Afrikaner discontent over P.W. Botha’s ‘enlightened approach’ to racial matters.
1981
23 September, The Rand Supreme Court rules that blacks from the homelands can establish the right to reside permanently in towns in white South Africa.
1981
24 September, In the first post-independence election in Transkei, the ruling Transkei National Independence Party (TNIP) is returned to power winning virtually all seventy-five elected seats.
1981
30 September, The sixth and final report of the Wiehahn Commission, inquiring into labour legislation, is tabled in Parliament. Dealing with the mining industry, its main recommendation is that Blacks as well as Whiles and Coloured workers should be issued with blasting certificates.
1981
October, Early October. A separate alliance of right-wing parties is formed, comprising the National Conservative Party (NCP) and the Aksie Eie Toekoms (AET) together with the Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging (AWB) or Afrikaner Resistance Movement, led by Eugene Terre’blanche, and the Kappie Kommando, an organization of Afrikaner women.
1981
2 October, KwaZulu: Police Amendment Act No 11:
Commenced: 2 October 1981
1981
6 October, Dr. D. de Villers wins the Piketberg, Western Cape, seat for the National Party with a slightly reduced majority.
1981
8 October, Equal education for all races, including a provision that will allow white government schools to admit blacks, is proposed in the Human Sciences Research Council, Committee report, chaired by Professor J.P. de Lange. Eleven guiding principles are laid down.
1981
11 October, In a provisional White Paper on the De Lange education report, the government reaffirms its commitment to the policy of separate education departments.
1981
16 October, The Status of Ciskei Bill is signed by the State President, having been opposed at all stages by the opposition parties. It confers Ciskei citizenship on approximately two million Xhosa people, of whom about half live permanently outside Ciskei’s borders.
1981
23 October, President Kaiser Matanzima of Transkei announces his intention to retire from the Presidency in February 1982, to devote more time to tribal and family affairs. By April 1982 this has not happened.
1981
26 October, The ANC claims responsibility for an attack on a police station at Sibasa, near the capital of Venda, Thohoyandou. Nevertheless the Venda government charge three ministers of the Lutheran Church with murder.
The South African Indian Council requests the Prime Minister to reverse the Cabinet’s decision not to return Pageview and District Six to their respective Indian and Coloured communities. The Prime Minister refuses this request and a massive boycott of the Indian elections follow.
1981
November, Tshifiwe Muofhe died in detention in November.
1981
1 November, A new Labour Relations Amendment Act becomes effective, banning only links between unions and political parties.
1981
1 November, Labour Relations Amendment Act No 57:
Redefined ‘employee’ to cover all black workers, including local and foreign migrants and commuters (SRR 1981: 202). The Act deleted the 1956 provision which prohibited the establishment of new unions (SRR 1981: 203). It gave black workers the right to organise and abolished job reservation. However, it clamped down on unions’ involvement in politics by, for example, prohibiting any union, federation or employers’ organisation from giving financial assistance to a person involved in an illegal strike (SRR 1981: 203-4). Union headquarters could not be established in independent states (SRR 1981: 203). This Act repealed the 1953 Black Labour Relations Regulation Act which provided for works and liaison committees, and replaced these with works councils (SRR 1981: 203).
Commenced: 1 November 1981, excluding the provisions of s 21(b): 1 November 1982 and s 63(1): 1 March 1982
Repealed by the Labour Relations Act No 66 of 1995.
1981
3 November, The government appoints a judicial Commision of Inquiry, under the chairmanship of Justice C.F. Eloff, to investigate the inception, development, objects, history and activities of the South African Council of Churches (SACC), as well as organizations and people giving money or assets to the Council.
1981
4 November, The first elections to the South African Indian Council are held. Of the SAIC’s forty-five members, forty are up for election, five being nominated, but only 10.5 per cent of the electorate vote.
1981
4 November, Elections to the South African Indian Council were boycotted by over.
1981
19 November, Mr. Griffith Mxenge, member of ANC and prominent lawyer, assassinated.
1981
20 November, A total of eighty-two agreements between South Africa and Ciskei are signed in Cape Town by Chief Sebe and the Prime Minister and other Cabinet Ministers.
Signs multilateral agreement on the control of pollution of water resources in the South African region.
1981
25 November, Forty-five mercenaries from South Africa landed in Seychelles, attacked the airport and caused heavy damage. Those who were not captured and detained by Seychelles security forces fled by hijacking an Air India plane which they diverted to South Africa.
1981
December, Fietas, Johannesburg: Officials of the Department of Community Development hand eviction notices to the remaining 67 families in Pageview. This means that they have to evacuate the premises or be forcibly removed. The families lodge an application before the Rand Supreme Court to restrain the Department of Community Development from evicting them from their homes. Pending the decision of the court the families are allowed to stay.
1981
December, The Ciskei became an independent homeland' in December.
1981
3 December, Ciskei becomes the fourth black ‘homeland’ to be granted independence. Chief Sebe is elected President by the National Assembly, consisting of both elected members and thirty-seven hereditary chiefs.
1981
4 December, The bantustan of Ciskei was proclaimed “independent“.
1981
4 December, Ciskei becomes an independent homeland.
1981
10 December, The Committee of Artists of the World against Apartheid was established in Paris with the support of the Special Committee against Apartheid.
1981
10 December, Committee of Artists of the World against Apartheid established in Paris with the support of the Special Committee against Apartheid.
1981
14 December, Ciskei accepts independence. Chief Lennox Sebe becomes its first president.
1981
29 December, Winnie Mandela is banned for a further five years and continues to be restricted to the small town of Brandfort.
1982
South African army raids Maseru, Lesotho, killing 42 people.
1982
The bombing of South Africa's only nuclear power station at Koeberg, outside Cape Town, took place on 18 December 1982.
1982
Fietas, Johannesburg: White’ people receive leases to their first homes in primarily the southern part of Pageview. By the end of the year they start moving in.
1982
Security Police continue to take measures including detentions and banning orders against students, journalists, clerics, black leaders, and a British citizen Steven Kitson. Guerrilla activity by the ANC increases markedly.
1982
International Year of Mobilisation for Sanctions against South Africa [proclaimed by the General Assembly in resolutin 36172B of 17 December 1981].
1982
International Year of Mobilization for Sanctions against South Africa.
OAU crisis over dispute concerning admission of Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.
1982
Black Local Authorities Act No 102:
Provided for the establishment of local communities, village councils and town councils for blacks in certain areas.
Commenced: 1 August 1983
Repealed by the Local Government Transition Act No 209 of 1993
1982
The Ciskei National Assembly amends its Constitution so that no law in effect in the territory can be declared invalid by any court of law on the grounds that it contravenes fundamental human rights.
1982
Labour Act No 18: Enacted labour legislation similar to that of South Africa.
Commenced: 29 April 1983
1982
Gazankulu: Business and Trading Undertakings Amendment Act No 7:
Commenced: 1 April 1983
1982
KwaZulu: Marriage Amendment Act No 9:
Commenced: 25 February 1983
1982
Commission of Inquiry into the Monetary System and Monetary Policy in South Africa
Mandate: To inquire into and report on the oversight on the monetary system and the monetary policy in South Africa.
Date of Report: November 1982
Chair: DE KOCK, G.P.C.
Ref: RP 93/1982
Commission of Inquiry into the Mass Media Mandate: To continue with and build on the work of the Van Zijl Commission (1950-64), the Commission of Inquiry on Security Matters regarding the Defence Force and the Police Force (1979-80) and the Meyer Commission (1969-71), which investigated the desirability of establishing a television service.
Date of Report: 1982
Chair: STEYN, M.T.
Ref: RP 89/1981 ( 3 vol. )
1982
In the Western Cape two federations of civic associations were formed. They were the Cape Areas Housing Action Committee and the Federation of Cape Civics.
The National Union of Mine-workers was formed.
Membership of FOSATU passed the 100 000 mark.
The International Security Act of 1982 replaced the International Security Act of 1950, the Suppression of Communism Act of 1953, the Riotous .Assemblies Act of 1956, and sections of the General Laws Amendments. The Act served to consolidate all security legislation. Other security legislation passed were the Protection of Information Act, Intimidation Act, and the Demonstrations in or near Court Buildings Prohibition Act.
264 people were detained.
1982
85 people were restricted under the Internal Security Act.
87 people were either refused passports or had them withdrawn.
Sporadic boycotting of schools and universities continued.
1982
Barbara Hogan is arrested for High Treason,and sentenced to ten years imprisonment for belonging to banned organization, ANC.
(Dorothy Nyembe awarded Soviet Union’s People’s Friendship Award.
Ruth First is killed by a letter bomb in Maputo.
1982
5 January, The forty-five mercenaries alleged to have commandeered an Air India Boeing and forced it to fly to Durban, after attempting a coup in the Seychelles in November 1981, appear in magistrates’ courts in five South African cities. They are all to go on trial in South Africa.
1982
7 January, The Acting General Secretary of the Lutheran Church in South Africa claims that in addition to four ministers detained in Venda, T. Muofhe, a Lutheran elder, has died in custody. Brigadier T.R. Malandzi, head of Venda’s National Force confirms this.
1982
8 January, The ANC President, Oliver Tambo, declares, at a gathering in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, celebrating the seventieth anniversary of the founding of the ANC, that under the slogan ‘Unity in Action’ that 1982 will be a year of massive actions against the apartheid system.
1982
11 January, The United Nations Special Committee against Apartheid launches the International Year of Mobilisation for Sanctions against South Africa.
1982
21 January, A spokesman for the Lutheran World Federation, meeting in emergency session in Geneva, says there are now twenty-one people detained in Venda, two of whom are believed to have ‘died of torture’. Attempts by the President of the South African Council of Churches, the Reverend Peter Storey and Bishop Tutu, to visit the detained clergymen are frustrated and they are expelled from Venda.
1982
February, Fietas, Johannesburg: The Department of Community Development starts digging up roads and trenches around the remaining residents of Pageview’s houses. This results in further court cases after which the trenches had to be moved. This period is referred to as the ‘siege of Pageview’.
1982
February, In February Nell Aggett died in detention.
1982
1 February, The official Commission of Inquiry into the media, appointed in June 1980, under the chairmanship of Justice M. Steyn, tables its report. It recommends that a general council of journalists should be established by law to regulate entry into the profession and sit in judgement on journalists accused of violating a statutory code of conduct. The report’s findings and recommendations are widely opposed.
1982
3 February, The six-man Commission of Inquiry into security legislation, under the chairmanship of Justice P.1. Rabie, presents its report and recommendations. It suggests that a Ministry of Law and Order be established with two separate components of Police, and a Directorate of Internal Security.
The Venda Attorney General announces he has ordered an inquiry into the death of Mr. Muffle to be held in the Sibasa Magistrate’s Court in May.
Three draft Bills revising and streamlining South Africa’s security laws are placed before Parliament, their object being to regroup and consolidate more than thirty existing security laws. The proposed legislation consists of: (i) an Internal Security Bill, to deal with the four redefined offences of terrorism’, subversion’, sabotage’ and ‘communism’; (ii) a Protection of Information Bill to replace the existing Official Secrets Act; and (iii) a Bill to combat a new offence of intimidation. These embody the recommendations of the Rabie Commission.
1982
5 February, Dr. Neil Aggett, acting Transvaal Regional Secretary of the African Food and Canning Workers’ Union (AFCWU) is found dead in his cell at the Security Police Headquarters in John Vorster Square, Johannesburg, having been detained, along with several other Trade Union leaders on 27 November 1981. Widespread concern and condemnation, both external and internal, follow. He is said to be the forty-sixth person to have died in Security Police custody since 1963.
Signs treaty with Taiwan concerning cooperation in agricultural science and technology.
1982
5 February, Dr. Neil Aggett, a trade union leader, died in detention. He was the first white to die in detention.
1982
11 February, A call for a thirty minute work stoppage, in protest against the death of Dr. Aggett, is supported by virtually all independent black unions, and tens of thousands of workers. Outrage at his death cuts across racial lines, with white opposition politicians, lawyers, academics and churchmen leading demands for the end of prolonged detention without trial in solitary detention and the intolerable pressures it creates.
1982
11 February, More than 85,000 workers all over South Africa participated in a 30-minute work stoppage in protest against the death in detention of Dr. Aggett, and 5,000 persons attended his funeral two days later in Johannesburg.
1982
16 February, The Prime Minister confirms that the government accepts the Rabie Commission on security legislation recommendations, although these are criticized by the legal profession and politicians.
1982
17 February, South Africa:Signs security agreement with Swaziland.
1982
18 February, Botswana accuses South Africa of kidnapping a former Soweto student leader, Peter Lengene, from Gaborone and transporting him to South Africa. The Minister of Police confirms his presence in South Africa.
1982
19 February, The Minister of Justice, Kobie Coetsee, announces that the most comprehensive and intensive investigation is being carried out into the death in detention of Dr. Neil Aggett. A formal inquest will be held soon.
1982
20 February, Prime Minister P.W. Botha describes the National Party policy of inter-racial consultation and joint responsibility, as ‘a form of power-sharing’. He expects that every Cabinet Minister will submit to this statement.
1982
24 February, Twenty-two Members of Parliament refuse to support a motion of confidence in Prime Minister P.W. Botha at a National Party Parliamentary caucus meeting. The Prime Minister gives them eight days to decide whether they wish to remain in the Party: they must recant by 11 am. on 3 March 1982.
1982
25 February, Louis Ie Grange, Minister of Police and Prisons, states in the House of Assembly that twenty-one trade unionists have been detained since the beginning of 1981, of whom ten have been released without charge and ten are still being held.
1982
28 February, More than 200 of the Transvaal National Party vote on either Dr. Treurnicht or Mr. Botha’s interpretation of Party policy. The vote is 172 to thirty-six votes in favour of the Prime Minister. Dr. A. Treurnicht is immediately suspended as the Transvaal Party chairman.
1982
March, Walter Sisulu, Raymond Mhlaba and Andrew Mlangeni and Nelson Mandela moved to Pollsmoor Prison. A few months later they are joined by Ahmed Kathrada.
1982
March, In March, fifteen National Party members broke away to form the Conservative Party.
1982
2 March, The inquest into Dr. Aggett’s death begins, and is immediately adjourned for six weeks, to allow further investigation.
Dr. Andries Treurnicht resigns as Minister of State Administration and of Statistics and announces the formation of the Conservative Party. It becomes the third largest Parliamentary group with sixteen Members of Parliament.
1982
3 March, In municipal and rural council elections in the Transvaal the National Party is still dominant, but loses ground to both the left and the right. The Herstigte Nasionale Party is elected to public office for the first time, winning six of Pretoria’s thirty-six seats.
1982
6 March, F.W. de Klerk, Minister of Mineral and Energy Affairs, is unanimously elected the new leader of the Transvaal National Party.
1982
7 March, Six Front Line States meet in Maputo and decide to coordinate further their military and economic policies to counter South Africa’s economic and military aggression.
The Commission of Inquiry into the constitutional, political, economic and social development of KwaZulu,Natal set up by Chief Buthelezi in August 1980, publishes its report. Its central recommendation - that Natal should be merged with the KwaZulu ‘homeland’ to form a new multi-racial regional administration - is rejected by the government.
1982
9 March, Venda Advisory Council Act No 8:
Provided for a state advisory council to dictate state policy. Commenced: 9 March 1982
1982
10 March, Over fifty squatters begin a hunger strike in St. George’s Cathedral, Cape Town, protesting against evictions from Nyanga squatter camp. The strike ends on 1 April 1982 after a meeting with Dr. P. Koornhof.
The trial begins in the Natal Supreme Court of the mercenaries accused of hijacking an airliner to flee from the Seychelles after a failed coup on 25-26 November 1981.
1982
11 March, Chief Gatsha Buthelezi maintains that majority rule, tempered by safeguards for whites and other minorities, offers the only realistic alternative to deepening confrontation.
Two former Soweto student leaders, K. Seathlolo and Mary Loate, are sentenced to fifteen and ten years’ imprisonment under the Terrorism Act.
1982
14 March, A bomb wrecks the ANC offices in Islington, London, shortly before the beginning of a mass rally organized by the Anti-Apartheid Movement.
In a radio and television interview, Prime Minister P.W. Botha, sets out the principles on which he is leading the government towards a new Constitutional dispensation.
1982
14 March, London office of ANC bombed.
1982
15 March, Evidence of the government’s complicity in the abortive coup plot against the Seychelles’ Socialist government, is taken in camera.
1982
18 March, The Preferential Trade Agreement with Zimbabwe, due to expire next week, has been extended.
1982
20 March, At a meeting in Pretoria, attended by some 7,000 to 8,000 people, the Conservative Party of South Africa (CPSA) is launched. It brings together, in alliance with Dr. Treurnicht and the National Party rebels, the National Conservative Party (NCP or Nasionale Konservatiewe Party) and the Aksie Eie Toekoms (AET). It outlines fifteen guiding principles, of which the most important is that every group should have its own political structure and authority.
1982
20 March, A powerful bomb at 2:05 am destroyed the cells behind the Langa Commissioner's Court in Cape Town where thousands of pass law offenders are sentenced. The blast caused widespread damage in the office which houses personal files on Africans in the Western Cape. It was apparently part of ANC campaign aimed at creating confusion in the apartheid administration by destroying records of blacks. It took place on the eve of the anniversary of the Sharpeville massacre. No one was injured.
1982
21 March, Declaration by about 1,500 Mayors calling for the release of Nelson Mandela and all other South African political prisoners published by the Special Committee against Apartheid. (The Declaration was initiated by the Lord Provost of Glasgow, the Right Honourable Mr. David Kelly, with the support of the Special Committee.
1982
21 March, Declaration by about 1,500 Mayors calling for the release of Nelson Mandela and all other South African political prisoners published by the Special Committee against Apartheid. (The Declaration was initiated by the Lord Provost of Glasgow, the Right Honourable Mr. David Kelly, with the support of the Special Committee against Apartheid).
1982
23 March, South Africa is to expand its military call-up to include all white men aged between seventeen and sixty-five, almost doubling the size of its forces. Commando units are to be strengthened.
1982
24 March, The United Nations Security Council Commission of Inquiry, investigating the abortive Seychelles coup, fails to reach a definitive conclusion on the extent or level of South African knowledge or responsibility.
1982
25 March, In announcing the 1982 Defence Budget, Owen Horwood reaffirms that the government’s highest priority remains that of giving South Africa an effective defence capability and a self-sufficient arms industry.
1982
25 March - 20 April, The Seychelles coup trial is adjourned to allow the defence and prosecution to go to the Seychelles to hear key witnesses.
1982
26 March, Eight political detainees are released. They will all appear as state witnesses in the ‘Barbara Hogan case’ on 30 April 1982.
1982
28 March, ARMSCOR’s Chairman announces that South Africa has produced a world-beating 155-millimetre artillery system - the G5 gun.
1982
April, Siphiwo Mtimkhulu of COSAS disappeared in April, 1982.
1982
1 April, Nelson Mandela and three other ANC leaders were moved from Robben Island to Pollsmoor prison.
1982
8 April, The Bloemfontein Appeal Court turns down appeals by three ANC members sentenced to death in November 1980.
1982
13 April, The inquest into Dr. Aggett’s death reopens, and it is argued that he met his death by ‘induced suicide’.
1982
14 April - 16 April, A special Commission, empowered by the Supreme Court, hears evidence in Victoria, Seychelles, relating to happenings at the airport during the attempted Seychelles coup.
1982
15 April, The main provisions of the Constitutional Amendment Bill give rise to speculation that Coloured and Indians are to be appointed to senior government posts.
1982
21 April, A Group Areas Amendment Bill introduced on 7 March 1982 and enacted on 21 April, maintains the existing commitment to the principle of separate residential areas, schools and amenities for different races, but excludes sports from its provisions.
1982
30 April, President Kaunda of Zambia meets the Prime Minister, P.W. Botha on the Botswana border to discuss the political situation in Namibia and South Africa. This is the first meeting between any leader of a Front Line State and a South African premier since the Victoria Falls meeting between B.J. Vorster and President Kaunda on 25-26 August 1976.
1982
6 May, Three leaders of the black South African Allied Workers’ Union (SAAWU) are charged under the Terrorism Act. They are remanded in custody until 28 May and their names added to the pending ‘Barbara Hogan trial’.
1982
11 May, The leader of the Herstigte Nasionale Party, Jaap Marais, is charged in the Pretoria Regional Court with disclosing secret information on the country’s oil supplies.
The Prime Minister announces that eight very important Western intelligence agents, held by the Soviet Union, and one South African soldier, held in Angola, have been exchanged somewhere in Europe for Major AM. Kozlov, a senior Soviet intelligence officer arrested in South Africa in July 1980.
1982
12 May, The multiracial President’s Council presents its recommendations for a reform of the constitutional and political system. Its principal proposal is that a degree of power-sharing between the White, Coloured and Indian communities should be introduced at central government level. The Black community is specifically excluded, except at local government level. The proposals are rejected by Black leaders and criticized by both wings of the opposition.
1982
12 May, A powerful bomb damaged the office of the West Rand Administration Board in Meadowlands, Soweto, at 7:00 pm. No one was injured.
1982
21 May, A full bench of eleven judges of the Appeal Court upholds an appeal against a conviction under the Terrorism Act, on the grounds that the Act is inconsistent with Bophuthatswana’s Declaration of Fundamental Rights enshrined in it’s Constitution and based on the European Convention on Human Rights.
1982
22 May, The Intimidation Act specifies that it is an offence to assault or threaten any person in order to compel or induce that person ‘to do or to abstain from doing any act or to assume or to abandon a particular standpoint’.
1982
24 May - 26 May, Asian Regional Conference for Action against Apartheid, Manila, organised by the Special Committee against Apartheid in cooperation with the Government of the Philippines.
1982
24 May - 26 May, Asian Regional Conference for Action against Apartheid, Manila, organised by the Special Committee against Apartheid in co-operation with the Government of the Philippines.
1982
1 June, The inquest into Dr. Aggett’s death is adjourned for the third time when police object to the use, as evidence, of a statement made by Neil Aggett fourteen hours before his death, in which he declares under oath, that he has been assaulted and tortured.
1982
2 June, The State President commutes the death sentences on three black men, for their part in the attack on the Soekmekaar Police Station in 1980, to life imprisonment.
1982
2 June, Intimidation Act No 72: Repealed s 10-15 of the Riotous Assemblies Act No 17 of 1956.
Commenced: 2 June 1982
1982
2 June, Internal Security Act No 74:
Following the recommendations of the Rabie Commission of Inquiry, this Act provided for the following:
Ӣ Sections 4 and 6: Banning of organisations, if the Minister had reason to believe than an organisation was using, encouraging, or threatening violence or disturbance in order to overthrow or challenge state authority or bring about change.
ӢSections 5 and15: Banning of publications.
ӢSections 19(1) and 20: Banning of people, including confinement to a particular district, prohibition from attending any kind of meeting and prevention from being quoted. Also provided for house arrest.
ӢSection 28: Indefinite preventive detention.
ӢSection 29: Indefinite detention for interrogation. Detainees were held in solitary confinement.
Ӣ Section 29(2): The validity of a detention order was not subject to court challenge.
ӢSection 31: Detention of potential witnesses for not longer than six months or for the duration of a trial.
ӢSection 30: Empowerment of the Attorney-General to order that prisoners arrested be refused bail.
”¢Section 50: Fourteen-day preventive detention. A low-ranking police officer could detain a person deemed to be threatening public safety. For the detention to be extended beyond fourteen days, a magistrate’s permission was required.
ӢSections 46-53: Prohibition of meetings.
”¢Section 54: Redefinition of ‘communism’ to include campaigns of civil disobedience and creation of racial hostility between European and non-European races of the Republic (SRR 1982: 222). This definition was removed by the 1991 Internal Security and Intimidation Amendment Act.
”¢Section 54(2): Proscription of such activities as the promotion of ‘general dislocation’ or the causing of ‘prejudice or interruption’ to an industry or undertaking ‘with the purpose of effecting social, political, constitutional, industrial or economic change’.
Ӣ Section 56(1): A ban on the publication or dissemination of any stateme made by a listed person, except with the permission of the Minister of Law and Order.
ӢSection 62: Prohibition of actions causing, encouraging or fomenting feelings of hostility between different population groups.
Commenced: 2 July 1982. IN FORCE: CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE.
1982
3 June, The Protection of Information Act is given Presidential Assent. Under threat ofre this might endanger state security.
Revised figures for the Defence Budget indicate the funds available to the South African Defence Force have been increased to R3,068 million.
1982
4 June, A senior ANC member, P. Nyaose and his wife, are killed by a car bomb in Swaziland. Their deaths are blamed on the South African government by Alfred Nzo, the ANC Secretary-General.
The Supreme Court rules that the statement of Neil Aggett is admissable as evidence. heavy penalties the Act implicitly places the onus on the press not to publish reports of a detention whe
1982
4 June, A bomb exploded in the elevator of the building in the centre of Cape Town which houses the President's Council. One man was killed. According to Security Police, 60 attacks by insurgents belonging to the ANC were recorded last year. That number compares with 19 in 1980 and 12 in 1979.
1982
5 June, The Commission of Police reports a wave of bomb attacks on major installations, buildings used by government departments and quasi-government organisations.
Prime Minister P.W. Botha persuades a combined gathering of the Provincial and Parliamentary caucuses of the National Party to accept the new constitutional proposals.
The inquest into the death of Dr. Neil Aggett reopens after a seven week break.
1982
10 June, The newspaper proprietors and editors of all the main South African newspapers, both English and Afrikaans, unanimously opposed to the government’s planned legislation, decide at an emergency meeting in Johannesburg to establish a media council which will operate independently from the State.
1982
14 June, Albertina Sisulu, wife of ANC leader, Walter Sisulu is placed under a banning order for the fifth time since 1963.
The Minister of Cooperation and Development, Dr. Piet Koornhof, announces in the KwaZulu Legislative Assembly in Ulundi, that the KaNgwane national state and the lngwavuma district in the north of KwaZulu are to be incorporated into the Kingdom of Swaziland. This Cabinet decision is strongly opposed. Outrage is expressed not only by the governments of KwaZulu, KaNgwane and ‘homeland’ leaders but by all four opposition parties.
1982
16 June, An ANC spokesman in Lusaka calls for increased participation by white sympathizers in the black emancipation struggle.
On the anniversary of the Soweto uprising, police bar forty-seven local and overseas journalists from entering Soweto and tear gas is later fired to disperse crowds at the Regina Mundi Cathedral.
1982
17 June, Dr. Koornbof defends the proposed border adjustment between Natal and Swaziland as ‘a step towards the fullfslment of a long-cherished ideal of the Swazi people... to be united under one king in one country’.
1982
18 June, The Government Gazette publishes a Proclamation by which the forty-two member KaNgwane Legislative Assembly is dissolved, and, together with the Ingwavuma district, placed under the direct control of the Department of Cooperation and Development, despite the opposition of the great majority of the Legislative Assembly.
1982
20 June, The Swaziland government welcomes South Africa’s offer to hand over parts of KaNgwane and KwaZulu to Swaziland, since, it claims the territory is historically Swazi.
1982
23 June, A Defence Amendment Bill provides for a re-organization of the defence system intended to give the South African Defence Force (SADF) adequate manpower to deal with almost every conceivable threat, internal or external, but as flexibly as possible so as to ensure the minimum of disruption to normal life.
1982
24 June, The police confirm that three leading members of the black journalist trade union, the Media Workers Association of South Africa have been arrested and detained under the General Laws Amendment Act.
1982
25 June, The Durban Supreme Court cancels the state’s announcement of 18 June 1982 that it has repossessed the Ingwavuma region of KwaZulu, on the grounds that the government did not meet its legal obligation to consult fully with the KwaZulu authorities before making its announcement. The State President responds by issuing a new Proclamation, under a different law, once again placing Ingwavuma under government control.
1982
29 June, After the Court is told by the Head of Interrogation at John Vorster Square, Major Arthur Cronwright, that the Security Police have withheld statements by Dr. Aggett because they contain secret information relating to the Communist Party, and that he had given permission for Dr. Aggett to be interrogated for a sixty-two hour period, the inquest is adjourned until 20 September 1982.
Libya, as chairman of the OAU, supports Swaziland’s claims to South African territory. Its Foreign Minister outlines Libya’s position during a visit to Mbabane, at the end of June.
1982
30 June, The Provincial Council of Natal passes at a special sitting, a resolution urging the government to hold a referendum in Natal and in the Ingwavuma region of KwaZulu on the proposed land deal. The government has also been challenged to hold a referendum by Enos Mabuza, former Chief Minister of KaNgwane.
1982
July, Fietas, Johannesburg: Two Pageview residents, a mother and her four-year-old daughter, are killed when a neighbouring wall that was being demolished collapses on them. The tragedy is blamed on the City Council and the Department of Community Development, who are blamed of negligence and a lack of precautions in their operations.
1982
1 July, It is announced that some political prisoners have been granted remission of their sentences and released.
Helen Joseph, who has been under a series of banning orders since she became the first South African to be placed under house arrest in October 1962, is released from such restrictions.
1982
2 July, The Internal Security Act becomes operative. Opposition parties oppose the massive powers given to the authorities to investigate any organization or publication.
1982
6 July, Following an order granted to the KwaZulu government by the Supreme Court in Natal, officials of the Department of Cooperation and Development begin withdrawing from the disputed Ingavuma area. The Prime Minister denies that he is going to reconvene Parliament to deal with this crisis, but may exercise this option later.
The Prime Minister announces a government reorganization, including the creation of a new portfolio of Constitutional Development, the rearrangement of six ministries and the appointment of three new Ministers.
1982
16 July, South Africa’s first State President, Charles Robberts Swart, dies, aged eighty-seven.
1982
30 July, The Federal Congress of the National Party supports the set of constitutional reforms outlined by Prime Minister P.W. Botha, and explained to the Congress by the Minister of Constitutional Affairs, Chris Heunis. If enacted, Parliamentary rule, based on the Westminster model, will be replaced by a Presidential system, with real power still concentrated in white hands. The tri-cameral structure is specifically designed to maintain National Party control of legislation.
1982
August, Ernest Dipale died in detention.
1982
5 August, The twentieth anniversary of the arrest of Nelson Mandela is marked by a call for his release by China, publicized in the Communist Party organ, the Peoples Daily and an appeal signed by more than 2,000 mayors from fifty-three countries, made public by the United Nations Centre Against Apartheid in New York.
1982
6 August, Three ANC members are sentenced to death for attacks directed against the Moroka and Orlando Police stations in Soweto and the Wonderboom Police station in Pretoria in which four policemen were killed. The attacks took place in May 1979 and December 1981.
1982
8 August, Lieutenant-General Johann Coetzee, Head of the Security Police, announces that Ernest Dipale, arrested under the new Internal Security Act and charged with furthering the aims of a banned organization, has been found hanged in his cell at John Vorster Square. He is the forty-seventh person to die in detention. PFP’s justice spokesperson, Helen Suzman, calls for the whole structure of detention laws to be changed.
1982
9 August, The PFP’s spokesman on Police Affairs, Ray Swart, calls for a commission of inquiry into all aspects of the conditions of detainees under security legislation. The Minister of Law and Order promises a clear-cut policy statement on the treatment of security detainees, but it will not be a formal code of conduct, nor will it be embodied in a law.
1982
13 August, The Minister of Manpower, S.P. Botha, states there have been 182 strikes in the first six months of 1982, involving 51000 workers. Disputes in the gold mines have been violent, resulting in riots and some deaths.
1982
17 August, Dr. Ruth First, wife of ANC leader Joe Slovo, and herself a political activist, is killed by a letter bomb in Maputo.
1982
19 August, In a by-election in Germiston the National Party retains its seat, but with a reduced majority, reflecting a considerable swing to the Conservative Party.
1982
25 August, The World Alliance of Reformed (Presbyterian and Congregational) Churches (WARC) suspends the Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk (NGK) and the Nederduitse Hervormde Kerk (NHK) from membership because of their support for apartheid. They may still attend meetings, but no longer have the right to vote.
1982
26 August, The World Alliance of Reformed Churches (WARC) chooses the South African Reverend Alan Boesak, of the Dutch Reformed Mission Church, as its new President.
1982
27 August, National Security Act No 13: Replaced Proclamation R252 of 1977. Provided for detention without trial, banning of individuals and outlawing of organisations and publications. Offences were defined in typically broad terms (SRR 1982: 386-7). Commenced: 27 August 1982
1982
6 September, Former American Secretary of State Dr. Henry Kissinger, lectures South Africans on the need for racial reform and a new Constitution during a two-week private visit to South Africa.
1982
14 September, The Transvaal Congress of the National Party overwhelmingly supports P.W. Bothas constitutional proposals.
1982
21 September - 21 December, During the proceedings of the General Assembly of the United Nations resolutions are adopted appealing for clemency for ANC members sentenced to death for alleged guerrilla activities, asking the IMF to refrain from granting credit or assistance to South Africa, and condemning a South African raid into Lesotho on 9 December 1980.
1982
22 September, The Nederduitse Hervormde Kerk (NHK) severs its ties completely with the World Alliance of Reformed Churches (WARC) rather than accept WARCs ruling that apartheid is contrary to the scriptures.
1982
30 September, The Appeal Court in Bloemfontein rules that the Presidential Proclamation issued in June, purporting to restore Ingwavuma to South African jurisdiction, is null and void since the State President acted ultra vires. It is announced that a Commission under the chairmanship of Frans Rumpff, will be appointed to investigate and report on conflicting claims between KwaZulu and Swaziland.
1982
1 October, A report compiled by the Detainees’ Parents Support Committee provides detailed evidence of systematic torture as an integral feature of the detention system.
1982
9 October, Applications for parole by the thirty-four mercenaries involved in the Seychelles attempted coup are refused. Most are due to be released in January 1983.
1982
16 October, The Southern African Black Alliance (SABA) and the PFP declare their total opposition to the pending constitutional changes involving the creation of a tricameral Parliament
1982
21 October, Barbara Hogan is sentenced in the Rand Supreme Court to an effective ten years in prison for high treason and membership of the ANC. Hogan admitted her membership, but pleaded not guilty to treason.
1982
27 October, An intensified campaign to enforce the pass laws leads to increased prosecutions in the Cape Town area. The government is working towards stricter enforcement of influx control, particularly in the Western Cape.
1982
28 October, The Reverend Beyers Naudé is served with his second banning order, restricting him for a further three years. The order is the first to be served under the comprehensive new security law, the Internal Security Act of 1982, on the sole discretion of the Minister of Law and Order, and the decision cannot be questionned in court.
1982
3 November, Four leading South African journalists are charged under the new Protection of Information Act. The charges relate to reports concerning National Intelligence Service agent Martin Dolinchek, his involvement in the Seychelles attempted coup, and NIS reaction to his capture by Seychelles security forces.
1982
4 November, The results of four Parliamentary and three Provincial Councils by-elections demonstrate a vote of confidence by the electorate in the governments proposals for constitutional reform.
1982
5 November, On the 20th anniversary of the General Assembly resolution on sanctions against South Africa, the United Nations presented awards, for outstanding contribution to the international movement for sanctions against South Africa, to:
the late President Houari Boumediene (Algeria)
Romesh Chandra (India)
Madame Jean Martin-Cisse (Guinea)
The Most Reverend Trevor Huddleston, C.R. (United Kingdom)
The late Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. (United States of America)
Jan Nico Scholten (Netherlands)
1982
13 November, Security Police have failed to obtain a single conviction against any of the twenty trade unionists detained and interrogated during the last eighteen months.
1982
22 November, The President’s Council, mandated to consider South Africa’s constitutional future, releases its final report. Central items of its plan include establishment of a strong executive President chosen by a triracial electoral college, a three-chamber Parliament representing the White. Coloured and Indian communities, and a division between national and communal interests. It reaffirms the need for separation of executive and legislative power.
1982
23 November, Swaziland and Lesotho take steps to clear themselves of suspicion of allowing insurgents of the ANC to use their territory as springboards for attacks on South Africa.
1982
25 November, The government concedes another legal defeat in its attempts to transfer the KaNgwane ‘homeland’ to Swaziland. Dr. Piet Koornhof, Minister of Development and Cooperation, announces the withdrawal of a Proclamation dissolving the Legislative Assembly of KaNgwane issued in June 1981. As a result of the settlement, Enos Mabuza, Chief Executive Councillor of KaNgwane, withdraws his application to the Pretoria Supreme Court for return of the administration of KaNgwane to the tribal authorities. The government is ordered to pay his legal costs.25 Nov. 1982 Minister of Law and Order, Louis le Grange, announces a new series of directives for the protection of detainees.
1982
26 November, South Africa:Signs loan agreement with Malawi.
1982
27 November, Prison authorities release thirty-four of the forty-two mercenaries involved in the hijacking of an Air India plane after the abortive Seychelles coup. Released after four months imprisonment are twenty-one South Africans, six Britons, five Zimbabweans, one Australian and one Austrian. The eight still in prison include the commando leader, Colonel Mike Hoare.
1982
2 December, Afrikaans poet, Breyten Breytenbach, is released from prison after serving seven of the nine years to which he was sentenced in 1975.
1982
3 December, South Africa:Signs amendment to multilateral Convention on Wetlands.
1982
9 December, South African forces raid houses in Maseru, killing thirty members of the ANC and seven women and children caught in the crossfire. A chain of sabotage incidents within South Africa are blamed on the ANC command structure in Lesotho. The incursion is widely condemned
1982
13 December, Security Police arrest the leader, Eugene Terreblanche and eight other members of the Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging (AWB) after uncovering illegal arms caches in different parts of the country.
1982
17 December, Up to 100 ANC members are reported to have been detained in Swaziland. The arrests are confirmed by the Swaziland Police Commissioner and a large cache of arms in the north of the country is found.
1982
18 December - 19 December, Four explosions occur at the Koeberg nuclear power station for which the ANC claims responsibility.
1982
21 December, At the conclusion of a forty-four-day inquest into the death in detention of the white trade union leader, Dr. Neil Aggett, the Johannesburg magistrate, Pieter Kotze. finds that no one is to blame for his death. The verdict, which completely exonerates the Security Police, is greeted with astonishment and anger.
1983
Sisulu visit by Zwelakhe after United Democratic Front launch.
1983
the South African Defence Force uses direct intervention to eliminate ANC bases and it supported opposition groups who challenged governments in neighbouring states that harboured ANC saboteurs.
1983
Raid on Gaborone, Botswana, killing ANC personel.
1983
By the end of 1983, neighbouring states appeared reluctant to provoke South Africa by openly showing active support for the ANC ï·“ï·“ but they did not turn their backs completely on the ANC either.
1983
Republic of South Africa Constitution Act No 110:
Provided for the establishment of a tricameral Parliament consisting of separate legislative houses for whites, coloureds and Indians. Matters before Parliament were to be divided into ‘general affairs’ (to be discussed by all houses and applying to all South Africans) and ‘own affairs’ (relevant to one particular race group). The Constitution also made PW Botha both the formal and executive head of state and Commander-in-Chief of the South African Defence Force.
Commenced: 3 September 1984, except ss 48, 49(1)-(3), 50 & 102(9): 24 February 1984.
Repealed by the Constitution of Republic of South Africa Act No 200 of 1993.
1983
Electoral Act No 18: Provided for state elections and the creation of a voters’ roll. Commenced: 17 February 1984
1983
The National forum committee was revived. 100 organisations were present.
CUSA's membership reached the 100 000 mark. Its fastest growing affiliate was the National Union of Mineworkers.
Boycotts and demonstrations at schools affected 10 000 pupils country-wide. At least 22 meetings were banned. Simon Mndawe and Paris Malatji died in custody.
48 people died in 220 incidents of insurgency since 1976. 172 ANC insurgents were killed during that period
1983
The government issues a White Paper which accepted the De Lange guiding principles but rejects the major recommendation of a single education department for all.
The government places more emphasis on technical education. It encourages industry to set up training programmes to 'upgrade' black workers. Trade unions also began to play a more active role in providing education for workers.
Student protests joined broader protests against elections for the new Tricameral Parliament. Start of the Education Charter Campaign.
1983
January - April, Three bomb explosions damage the old building housing the Supreme Court in Pietermaritzburg, and the new building nearing completion.
1983
2 January, Several ANC members detained in Swaziland decide to leave the country voluntarily for Mozambique. A further group of seventeen ANC members leave Mawelawela refugee camp, near Mbabane, fearing a South African attack.
1983
4 January, At its annual conference in Eshowe, Natal, the Labour Party overwhelmingly adopts a resolution stating that it seeks to represent the Coloured community in a restructured Parliament, even though it rejects the racial premises on which the constitutional proposals are based. This decision is welcomed by the Prime Minister but criticized by other political organizations. Three leading members resign immediately after the Conference
1983
7 January, The Government Gazette proclaims that only one-fifth of District Six, will be returned in its entirety to its earlier status and again be designated a Coloured area.
1983
12 January, The South African Indian Council (SAIC) decides to give the government’s constitutional proposals ‘a reasonable chance’, provided the Indian community approves them in a referendum.
1983
19 January, Chief Buthelezi meets President Matanzima of Transkei at Tongaat, north of Durban, where they dedicate their homelands to opposing the constitutional proposals which exclude blacks.
1983
22 January, The TIC is re-launched in Johannesburg and Mr Molvi Saloojee, the last president of the TIC and resident of Fietas dies.
1983
23 January, At the annual congress of the Transvaal Anti-SAIC Committee held in Johannesburg, it is decided to revive the old Transvaal Indian Congress and to establish a united democratic front to mobilize resistance on a national scale to participation by Indians and Coloureds in the new Constitution.
1983
26 January, The Prime Minister calls a special press conference to announce that a senior South African naval officer, commanding Simonstown dockyard, Commodore Dieter Gerhardt and his wife, have been detained for questioning in connection with alleged espionage.
1983
27 January - 28 January, The third Annual Meeting of the Council of Ministers of the SADCC and representatives of donor countries and organizations, held in Maseru, is marked by further criticism of South Africa’s foreign policy and deliberate interference in the region.
1983
1 February, The government is to establish a special Cabinet committee to look at the problems of urban blacks.
1983
4 February, South Africa:Signs meteorological treaty with Taiwan.
1983
7 February, Cedric Mayson, former Methodist Minister, banned for five years in 1977 and detained on 27 November 1981, appears before the Pretoria Supreme Court on charges including treason and being a member or an active supporter of the ANC. He is released on bail, flees the country and arrives in Britain the day before his case is due to resume on 18 April 1983.
1983
15 February, South Africa:Signs multilateral Convention on Agency in International Sale of Goods.
1983
15 February, National Security Amendment Act No 35:
Empowered police officers to detain and interrogate persons suspected of having committed or intending to commit an offence. Commenced: 15 February 1983.
1983
17 February, Signs agreement with Swaziland and Mozambique on the establishment of a tripartite permanent technical committee on water resources.
1983
18 February, A bomb explosion in an administrative building in the Batho township of Bloemfontein, injures seventy-six blacks while seeking registration for employment. The ANC denies responsibility.
1983
21 February, The Minister of Manpower, Fanie Botha, the leader of the Conservative Party, Dr. Andries Treurnicht, and one of his senior lieutenants, Tom Langley, all resign as Members of Parliament and begin a trial of strength between the Conservative Party and the National Party.
1983
4 March, Four senior newspaper editors are found guilty on between one and three counts under the 1982 Protection of Information Act, and sentenced to fines (mainly suspended) of from R300 to R2000. Information published relating to the involvement of NIS self-confessed agent, Martin Dolinchek, in the Seychelles attempted coup, was held to have been prejudicial to the security or the interests of the Republic.
1983
16 March, In elections to the 100-member Lebowa National Assembly, Dr. Phatudi’s ruling Lebowa People’s Party wins more than three-quarters of the forty elective seats.
1983
21 March, The twenty third anniversary of Sharpeville, the International Day for the Elimination of Apartheid, is marked by messages issued by the United Nations Special Committee against Apartheid and the Pan Africanist Congress.
1983
21 March, Publication of declaration for the release of Nelson Mandela and all other South African Political Prisoners signed by over 4,000 public leaders. The declaration was initiated by Archbishop Trevor Huddleston in cooperation with the Special Committee against Apartheid
1983
21 March, Publication of declaration for the release of Nelson Mandela and all other South African Political Prisoners signed by over 4,000 public leaders. The declaration was initiated by Archbishop Trevor Huddleston in co-operation with the Special Committee against Apartheid.
1983
26 March - 27 March, The Lesotho government accuses South Africa of launching raids into Lesotho. South Africa denies this.
1983
30 March, Prime Minister P.W. Botha announces that, contrary to previous indications, the constitutional proposals will be put to a referendum of the white electorate.
1983
2 April, Saul Mkheze, leader of a black farming community, is shot dead during a protest meeting at Driefontein, 200 miles east of Johannesburg. The United States State Department calls on 5 April for a full investigation into the circumstances of his death, and on 7 April the Foreign Minister, Pik Botha, says the government ‘deeply regretted’ such incidents.
1983
7 April, The French government decides to request all sporting bodies to end links with South Africa, since the government is against racial discrimination in all its forms.
1983
9 April - 10 April, At a meeting in Cape Town seven predominantly black trade unions decide in principle to form a federation, estimated to have a potential membership of about 180,000.
1983
11 April, Chief Leabua Jonathan, Prime Minister of Lesotho, tells the National Assembly that Lesotho is faced with a war with South Africa.
1983
13 April, A Defence Amendment Bill provides for an alternative form of national service for conscientious objectors, who oppose military service on religious grounds. The offer is not extended to objectors motivated by political values.
1983
25 April, The Labour Party, in anticipation of probable expulsion, announces it has withdrawn from the South African Black Alliance (SABA).
1983
28 April, The Prime Minister, P.W. Botha, orders the Minister of Law and Order, le Grange, to investigate the activities of the Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging (AWB).
1983
30 April, The Prime Minister meets Lesotho’s Minister of Foreign Affairs, discusses the revival of the Highland Water Scheme and emphasizes the paramount importance of economic and geographic facts in establishing realistic relations between the two countries.
1983
May, Late May: The government is planning to build a large new township, Khayalitsha, twenty-five miles outside Cape Town. More than 150,000 black people living in townships near Cape Town, will be expected to move to the new development. This is a policy reversal of the government’s virtual freeze on all building for blacks in the Cape.
1983
May, The Transvaal Indian Congress was revived.
1983
5 May, The Republic of South Africa Constitution Bill is placed before the House of Assembly. It is opposed by the Conservative Party, while the PFP abstains. It is read a second time on 18 May, the New Republic Party (NRP) supporting the government, the other opposition parties voting against it.
1983
6 May, The KwaNdebele Legislative Assembly passes a unanimous motion instructing the homeland’s Cabinet to begin independence negotiations with South Africa.
1983
10 May, Three parliamentary by-elections in the Transvaal represent a major electoral test for the Conservative Party. They result in the technical regaining of one seat by the National Party from the Conservative Party, while Dr. Treurnicht’s success in holding his seat represents an effective defeat for the National Party.
1983
19 May, Signs treaty with Taiwan relating to the acceptance of international tonnage certificates.
1983
20 May, a car bomb exploded outside Pretoria's air force headquarters leaving seventeen killed and more than 200 injured.
1983
20 May, Outside the headquarters of the South African Air Force (SAAF), and other government offices, a car bomb explodes in Pretoria killing nineteen and injuring about 200 people.
The Minister of Defence, General Magnus Malan, announces that a total of six districts, all on or near South Africa’s borders with Swaziland and Mozambique, are now activated under the 1982 Amendments to the Defence Act. In three of them, all white men up to the age of fifty-five, will have to register for commando duty.
1983
20 May, A car bomb explosion near the headquarters of the South African Air Force resulted in 17 dead and several hundred injured. The ANC claimed responsibility for the blast.
1983
21 May, A total of thirty-two organizations join to form the United Democratic Front (UDF) to oppose the constitutional proposals.
1983
23 May, In retaliatory action for the Pretoria car bomb, the South African Air Force (SAAF) launch a raid on six ANC targets in the suburbs of Maputo.
1983
23 May, South African Air Force bombers attacked a Maputo suburb. Five Mozambicans (including two women and two children) and one South African refugee were killed. Over 30 injured.
1983
23 May, South African Air Force planes bombed suspected ANC houses in Maputo.
1983
26 May, Traffic flow slows at the border posts between South Africa and Lesotho is reported following bomb explosions in Pretoria and Bloemfontein, for which the ANC office in Lesotho first claims, and later denies, responsibility.
1983
27 May - 29 May, Swazi police discover a hidden arms cache in the Mlilwane game park and three men, said to comprise an ANC military training group in the same park, are arrested as part of a renewed crackdown on ANC activities.
1983
30 May, The Appeal Court hands down a landmark decision in the case Rikhoto v. East Rand Administration Board (ERAB) granting him the right to permanent urban status. This ruling may affect about 150,000 black contract workers in urban areas, who can now apply to have their families living with them.
1983
1 June, An inquest into the death of Ernest Dipale, who had died in custody in Johannesburg Security Police headquarters in August 1982, finds no-one criminally liable for his death.
1983
3 June, Foreign Minister, ‘Pik’ Botha, meets Lesotho’s Minister of Foreign Affairs. They agree on the need to curb cross-border guerrilla activity and to place their relations on a more amicable footing.
1983
3 June, Prisons Amendment Act No 8: Prohibited any publications about prisons and prisoners without the permission of the Commissioner of Prisons. Commenced: 3 June 1983.
1983
6 June - 7 June, Black trade unionist, Oscar Mbetha, is one of ten people found guilty by the Cape Supreme Court on charges of terrorism andlor murder. On 28 June he is sentenced to five years’ imprisonment and on 1 August 1983 is elected as one of the three Presidents of the United Democratic Front.
1983
7 June, Dr. Piet Koornhof declares that, pending the implementation of the Orderly Movement and Settlement of Black Persons Bill, interim steps will have to be taken to prevent too many migrant workers from qualifying for permanent residence.
1983
9 June, three ANC members, convicted of attacking police stations, were hanged.
1983
9 June, Three black ANC guerrillas are executed in Pretoria, appeals for clemency 6 Aug. 198 having been turned down, and an appeal for a stay of execution having failed. International outrage follows
1983
9 June, Simon Mogoerane, Jerry Mosololi and Thabo Motaung -three combatants of Umkhonto - executed.
1983
10 June - 11 June, International Conference of Trade Unions on Sanctions and other Actions against the Apartheid Regime in South Africa, Palais des Nations, Geneva, organised by the Workers' Group of the ILO Governing Body and the UN Special Committee against Apartheid, in cooperation with the United Nations Council for Namibia, the OAU and the Organisation of African Trade Union Unity.
1983
10 June - 11 June, International Conference of Trade Unions on Sanctions and other Actions against the Apartheid Regime in South Africa, Palais des Nations, Geneva, organised by the Workers' Group of the ILO Governing Body and the Special Committee, in co-operation with the United Nations Council for Namibia, the OAU and the Organisation of African Trade Union Unity.
1983
11 June - 12 June, The National Forum representing 170 black organizations, holds its first Conference at Hammanskraal near Pretoria. Delegates from political, religious, student and trade union movements unanimously adopt a manifesto identifying racial capitalism as the real enemy and pledging to establish a Socialist republic. AZAPO predominates: absent are movements subscribing to the Freedom Charter adopted by the ANC and its allies.
1983
14 June, United Democratic front (UDF) is formed in Cape Town.
1983
14 June, Two former members of the Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging (AWI3) are sentenced to fifteen years imprisonment after being found guilty of terrorism.
1983
16 June, The seventh anniversary of the Soweto uprisings is again commemorated by absenteeism from work and popular disturbances.
1983
17 June, National Security Intelligence and National Security Council Amendment Act No 8: Granted further powers to the intelligence mechanisms. Commenced: 17 June 1983
1983
23 June, Laurence Eagleburger, the United States Under-Secretary of State for Political Affairs, defends his government’s policy of constructive engagement’ with South Africa designed to support those who are committed to change away from apartheid.
1983
28 June, Two bomb blasts cause extensive damage to the Department of Internal Affairs office and the police headquarters at Roodepoort, near Johannesburg. The ANC is held to be responsible.
1983
30 June, South Africa:Signs multilateral agreement establishing the Development Bank of Southern Africa.
1983 - 1986
July - March, The boycott of buses in Mdantsane, Ciskei ' was started in July, 1983 and was called off in March, 1986.
1983
1 July, Under the 1982 internal Security Act all existing banning orders are automatically revoked a year later, and, as a consequence, more than fifty banning orders are lifted. Fresh banning orders are issued in several cases, including that of Winnie Mandela.
1983
4 July, Professor Carel Boshoff resigns as chairman of the Broederbond. He is critical of the government’s constitutional proposals which, he says, may stimulate rather than appease racial conflict.
1983
5 July, The South African Bureau of Racial Affairs (SABRA) issues a statement by Professor Boshoff (Dr. Hendrik Verwoerd’s son-in-law) arguing that every race group should have its own geographical sphere in which it can exercise authority - and this applies to Coloureds and Indians also.
1983
13 July, The Transvaal Attorney General announces that AWB leader Eugene Terreblanche and three associates, will face terrorism charges, having been accused of attempting or planning to overthrow the South African government by violent means.
1983
23 July, The last six mercenaries from the attempted Seychelles coup are pardoned, freed and arrive in Johannesburg. The Minister of Law and Order indicates that South African authorities have no further interest in the case.
1983
28 July, South Africa and Lesotho exchange prisoners across the Caledon River, heralding a new rapprochement and a lifting of strict border control measures.
1983
August, The United Democratic Front (UDF) was launched with 575 affiliate organisations.
1983
August, More than two-thirds of white voters supported the new constitution in a referendum.
1983
5 August, Arms and Ammunition Amendment Act No 17: Removed several clauses in the old Act (Arms and Ammunition Act 75 of 1969) adopted from South Africa. Commenced: 5 August 1983
1983
5 August, Explosives Amendment Act No 18: Amended the Explosives Act 26 of 1956 [SA] to include, under ‘explosive’, petrol bombs and other apparatus which could cause an explosion. Commenced: 5 August 1983
1983
6 August, A bomb explodes at a synagogue in central Johannesburg four hours before State President Viljoen is due to attend a ceremony there.
1983
8 August - 31 August, Debates on the Constitution Bill continue and reconnnendations of the select committee empowered to suggest amendments to the Bill, but not to propose changes to the principle are discussed.
1983
15 August, The Lesotho Foreign Ministry appeals for international help to stop South Africa applying an economic squeeze designed to force Lesotho to expel up to 3,000 political refugees
1983
19 August, Publications Act No 15: Provided for state censorship of the media. Commenced: 19 August 1983
1983
20 August, The United Democratic Front (UDF) is formally launched at a meeting in Mitchell’s Plain, near Cape Town, attended by delegates from 320 community groups, trade unions, women’s groups and student organizations. It is opposed to the government’s constitutional proposals and pledges itself to a single non-racial and unfragmented South Africa.
1983
24 August, It is announced that the referendum will be held on 2 November 1983, with the whites being asked whether they are in favour of the Constitution, 1983, as approved by Parliament.
1983
30 August, The government withdraws its plan to place a quota limit on the admission of black students to white universities, but remains committed to universities that retain their community-directed character.
1983
September - October, Opposition to the Constitution and calls to the white electorate to reject the new dispensation are voiced by a variety of groups including the Southern African Catholic Bishops’ Conference, the South African Council of Churches and the leader of six black ‘homelands’.
1983
September, Tricameral Constitution passes in South Africa's Parliament.
1983
September, In September the Republic of South African Constitution Act was passed. The Act made provision for a State President with wide-ranging executive powers and a tricameral parliament.
1983
1 September, The Southern African Development Bank, financed primarily by South Africa, is formally established with headquarters in Midrand, near Johannesburg.
1983
5 September, The trial begins in the Cape Town Supreme Court of Commodore Dieter Gerhardt on charges of spying for the Soviet Union. The Judge President grants an application by the state that the proceedings be held in camera.
1983
8 September, The Lesotho government announces that an undisclosed number of South African refugees have decided voluntarily to withdraw from Lesotho. On 10 September it airlifts the first batch of twenty-two ANC members to Mozambique and Tanzania. Another 200 will follow later.
1983
9 September, Parliament approves the new Constitution by 119 votes to thirty-five, after a marathon session lasting 127 sitting days.
1983
9 September, South African Parliament approved a new racist constitution which set up chambers for Coloured people and Indians and excluded Africans.
1983
10 September, Balthazar Johannes Vorster, Prime Minister of South Africa and leader of the National Party from 1966 to 1978 and State President in 1978-79, dies aged sixty-seven.
1983
11 September - 12 September, The Lesotho Foreign Ministry protests to South Africa, following further clashes with guerrillas in the Leribe district, and an eight-hour attack against Maryland Roman Catholic mission near the border.
1983
16 September, Signs agreement with Swaziland regarding financial and technical assistance.
1983
16 September - 18 September, Latin American Regional Conference for Action against Apartheid, Caracas, organised by the Special Committee against Apartheid in cooperation with the Government of Venezuela.
1983
16 September - 18 September, Latin American Regional Conference for Action against Apartheid, Caracas, organised by the Special Committee against Apartheid in co-operation with the Government of Venezuela.
1983
19 September, Fietas, Johannesburg: Dr. Yusuf Dadoo dies in exile.
1983
22 September, The Republic of South Africa Constitution Bill is enacted.
1983
29 September, A commission of inquiry into malpractices in South African prisons is ordered by the Minister of Justice, following disturbances and deaths at the Barberton prison farm complex in the Eastern Transvaal.
1983
October, Inkatha attacked students, men and women suspected of ANC sympathies, at University of Zululand, Ngoya. Four were killed and 113 injured.
1983
5 October, The leaders of six black - homelands reject the new Constitution. Their statement is also signed by a number of black business and church leaders.
1983
17 October, South African forces raid offices of the ANC in Maputo. The raid is internationally condemned.
1983
17 October, South African commandos attacked a house belonging to the ANC in Maputo.
1983
21 October, Aliens and Travellers Control Amendment Act No 16: Regulated the control of travellers during states of emergency. Commenced: 21 October 1983
1983
26 October, The Special Committee against Apartheid published the first Register of Entertainers, Actors and Others who have Performed in South Africa.
1983
26 October, Publication of the first Register of Entertainers, Actors and Others who have Performed in South Africa, published by the Special Committee against Apartheid.
1983
November, The constitutional referendum showed that the majority of whites were in favour of P W Botha's ideas for evolutionary reform.
1983
2 November, The white referendum is held on the constitutional proposals. The results, announced on 3 November 1983 show that 1,360,223 people (65.95%) have voted in favour, 691,577 (33.53%) against, with 10,669 (0.52%) spoilt papers, on a 76.02% turn out.
1983
15 November, Fanie Botha, a senior Member of the Cabinet, announces his resignation as Minister of Manpower, following allegations that he has refused to hand over diamond leases promised in a secret deal with Brigadier Johann Blaauw.
The United Nations General Assembly adopts a resolution declaring that the constitutional proposals are contrary to the principles of the UN Charter and further entrench apartheid, and that the results of the referendum on 2 November 1983, endorsed by an exclusively white electorate, are of no validity whatsoever.
1983
17 November, Following the resignation of F. Botha, new ministerial appointments are made.
1983
22 November, Opening of the Art Contre Against Apartheid exhibit at the Fondation Nationale des Arts Graphiques et Plastique, Paris, sponsored by the Committee of Artists of the World against Apartheid, in cooperation with the Special Committee against Apartheid.
1983
22 November, Opening of the Art Contre Against Apartheid exhibit at the Fondation Nationale des Arts Graphiques et Plastique, Paris, sponsored by the Committee of Artists of the World against Apartheid, in co-operation with the Special Committee against Apartheid.
1983
24 November, A former theology student, Carl Niehaus, is sentenced to fifteen years in prison for high treason in the Rand Supreme Court, his fiancée, Johanna Lourens, to four years.
1983
3 December, Elections to the country’s twenty-nine new black local authorities, over the previous ten days, are met with demonstrations and calls for a boycott. The last round of voting finishes in Johannesburg, in Soweto, Dobsonville and Deep meadow. Elections in Soweto, with a turnout of eleven percent give E. Tshabalalas Sofasonke Party control of the new authority.
1983
5 December, A bomb explosion, shattering the Johannesburg office of the Department of Foreign Affairs, is the forty-second attack by ANC saboteurs in 1983.
1983
5 December, The General Assembly adopted a new programme of action against apartheid.
1983
5 December, A new programme of action against apartheid adopted by the General.
1983
14 December, South African invasion of Angola begins on pretext of attacking SWAPO bases.
1983
23 December, South Africa and Mozamhican delegations hold talks in Mbabane, concerning peaceful co-existence.
1983
29 December, Commodore Dieter Gerhardt, the former commanding officer of the Simonstown naval base, and his wife Ruth Gerhardt, are sentenced to life imprisonment and ten years’ imprisonment respectively, being found guilty of high treason on charges of spying for the Soviet Union.
1984
Sisulu awarded honourary degree from University of York in Canada.
1984
P.W. Botha and Samora Machel sign the Nkomati Accord.
1984
Bishop Tutu is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
1984
Troops and police had moved into the townships at the end of 1984 engaged in running battles with youths - armed with stones and petrol bombs - in an effort to re-establish control.
1984
Fietas, Johannesburg: A ‘white’ resident of Pageview lodges a complaint about the ‘azaan’, the Islamic call to prayer, which is supposed to be read aloud from the mosque to call the faithful to perform their prayers at the mosque. A compromise is reached where the public address system of the mosque is turned down to a volume that cannot be considered a public disturbance.
1984
Fietas, Johannesburg: The last remaining trader in Pageview, Baba Saheb, leaves Pageview and his family’s butcher shop to move to Lenasia. He was locked out of his shop following an eviction order, which he had ignored. The matter had been taken to court and the Department of Community Development was ordered to open the shop, but left with few options Mr. Saheb and his family moved.
1984
Fietas, Johannesburg: The Department of Community Development demolishes the wrong house. In Pageview many of the houses are attached to each other and in this case, instead of demolishing the correct house, the Department destroyed the neighbouring house, owned by Mr. Ahmed Cassim.
1984
KaNgwane proclaimed a self-governing territory.
1984
Public Service Act No 111: Provided for the organisation and administration of the public service, and laid down terms of office and conditions of employment and discharge for members of the public service. Assent gained: 12 July 1984; commencement date not found Repealed by s 43 of Proc 103 of 1994.
1984
Industrial Conciliation Act No 8:
Prohibited unions with head offices outside the homeland from organising within the homeland. COSATU continued despite these restrictions. Commenced: 1 July 1983
1984
Diplomatic Privileges Act No 4: Regulated the recognition of diplomats and privileges afforded in reciprocity. Commenced: 22 February 1985
1984
Gazankulu: Application of Laws to Added Areas Amendment Act No 7: Commenced: 25 October 1985
1984
Commission of Inquiry into South African Council of Churches Mandate: To inquire into and report on –
a)the inception, development, objects and activities of the South African Council of Churches, including the way it functions and is managed;
b) the way in which the South African Council of Churches and individuals connected with it solicit or obtain money and assets (at present or in the past), the purpose for which these funds are used and the organisations and individuals from or through whom they are solicited or received.
c)any other matter pertaining to the South African Council of Churches, its present and past office bearers or officers and other persons connected with it, on which the Commission is of the opinion that a report should be made in the public interest.
Chair: ELOFF, C.F.
Ref: RP 74/1983
1984
Commission of Inquiry into Township Establishment and Related Matters Mandate: To inquire into, report on and make recommendations regarding –
a)methods and proposals for the accelerated provision of affordable new housing by giving particular attention to simplifying and expediting township establishment by, for instance, removing or streamlining any impeding legislation and regulations;
b)ways of transferring land to competent institutions, or any other measures in cases where township establishment does not proceed as desired;
c) ways to facilitate efficient use of land, for example by relaxing some of the restrictions on the subdivision or the placing of more than one housing unit on an erf or holding; and
d) any other methods which may promote the provision of sufficient residential erven and reduce their cost.
Date of Report: 29 March 1983
Chair: VENTER, A.A.
Ref:RP 20, 21 and 54/1984
First report: RP 20/1984.
Second report: RP 21/1984.
Third report: RP 54/1984.
1984
The elections in the (Coloured) House of Representatives had a poll of 18,1% of eligible voters, the percentage poll in the (Indian) House of Delegates was 16,2% of eligible voters, this was a result of the campaigning against the election by black political organisations.
50 members of community councils resigned after pressure from students, youth and civic organisations. There were 30 petrol bomb attacks against community councillors. 99-year leasehold rights for African people were extended to the Western Cape. There were 58 incidents of sabotage. 469 strikes occurred involving 181 942 workers. 300 families in Mogopa in Western Transvaal were forcibly removed from their ancestrial homes.
50,13% of pupils in the Department of Education and Training passed their matriculation examinations.
The ban on all outdoor meetings was renewed for another year.
530 people were detained in terms of security legislation. Another 1127 people were detained under other laws.
Sergeant Jan Harm van As was sentenced to 10 years imprisonment for the death in detention of Paris Malatji. This was the first conviction for a death in detention.
Some political prisoners released were Heman Andimba Toivo ja Toivo, David Kitson and Dorothy Nyembe.
1984
The National Policy for General Education Affairs Act is passed. This brings education structures into line with the new constitution of 1983. A 'general affairs' education department is set up to oversee finance, teachers' salaries and registration, and curricula. 'Own affairs' Departments of Education and Culture are set up for whites, coloureds and Indians. African education remains under the DET. Education in the ten 'homelands' fall under their own departments.
1984
Sister Bernard Ncube elected President of FEDTRAW (Federation of Transvaal Women)
Mamphela Rampele enters South African Development Research Unit of UCT as research fellow. Appointed senior research officer in Dept of Social Anthropology, obtains PHD.
1984
January, Sisulu is throughly examined by a specialist physician, Dr. Dawid Le Roux. Sisulu is declared healthy except for the normal infirmities of old age and that his left eye is very weak. Offer of conditional release rejected.
1984
1 January, Lebowa: Royal Allowance Act No 3: Commenced: 1 January 1984
1984
4 January, The (Coloured) Labour Party opts for an election for the eighty representatives to the Coloured House of Representatives, without first holding a referendum.
1984
8 January, South African security forces begin withdrawal from southern Angola.
1984
16 January, A second series of meetings is held between South Africa and Mozambique in Pretoria and in Maputo. Four working groups discuss security matters and economic relations.
1984
26 January, The South African Indian Council (SAIC) calls for a referendum in the Indian community on the acceptability of the Constitution.
1984
February, Herman Toivo Ja Toivo released from prison in Namibia.
1984
14 February, Elections for the Coloured and Indian Parliament under the new Constitution are announced by the government. They are to be held on 22 August 1984; with nomination day likely to be 16 July 1984.
1984
15 February, By-elections are held for two seats in the House of Assembly. The Northern Transvaal seat is won by the CP, the Natal seat is retained by the PFP. Both results are disappointments for the National Party.
The judicial Commission of Inquiry into the Activities of the South African Council of Churches (SACC) accuses it of pursuing strategies of resistance to government policies and of identifying with the liberation struggle. However, it stops short of recommending a total ban on foreign funding, as requested by the Commissioner of Police.
1984
20 February, At the end of the third meeting between Mozambique and South Africa, in Maputo, a joint statement is released announcing that the two countries have agreed on the central principles concerning security arrangements between them; and that they intend to enter into a formal agreement in this regard.
1984
27 February, The recommendations of the Strydom Committee on the Group Areas Act and related laws - that central business districts in major centres be opened to all race groups - welcomed by city councils, the Association of Chambers of Commerce and other organisations.
1984
10 March - 11 March, The ANC mounts a sabotage attack on a petrol depot in which five storage tanks are damaged.
1984
14 March, The nuclear power station at Koeberg becomes operational.
1984
16 March, President Samora Machel of Mozambique and Prime Minister Botha, sign the Nkomati Accord, a non-aggression and good-neighbourliness pact, on the border between the two countries.
1984
16 March, Agreement on Non-aggression and Good Neighbourliness signed by South Africa and Mozambique (Nkomati Accord).
1984
16 March, On 16 March Mocambique and South Africa signed the Nkomati peace accord.
1984
17 March, A Defence Force spokesman confirms in Cape Town that South Africa is to stop supplying the United States and Britain with intelligence reports on the movements of Soviet warships around the Cape by the end of the year.
1984
23 March, Dorothy Nyembe is released and participates in activities of Natal Organization of Women (NOW).
1984
24 March, The harbour of Richards Bay is to be extended at a cost of approximately $75 million.
1984
26 March, The Mozambique-South Africa Joint Security Commission meets for the first time in Maputo, as further raids are carried out against ANC houses and offices by the Mozambican authorities.
1984
31 March, It is disclosed that South Africa and Swaziland signed a non-aggression pact in February 1982. The two countries now also agree to exchange trade representatives and to establish trade missions in their respective countries.
1984
April, Walter Sisulu writes a letter to Lindiwe about Matanzima's release plans.
1984
1 April, South Africa recalls its ambassador to Britain for urgent consultations, after four South Africans and a Briton are charged in Coventry with illegally exporting military equipment to South Africa.
1984
1 April, Black Communities Development Act No 4:
Introduced freehold ownership (Budlender 1989: 5). The Act stated that only a ‘competent person’ could lease or rent property. A person was ‘competent’ if she/he had section 12 rights in terms of the 1945 Natives (Urban Areas)Consolidation Act. (For further information see RRS 1984: 161-3.)
This Act provided for purposeful development of black communities outside the national states and amended and consolidated certain laws which applied to such communities.
Commenced: 1 April 1984, except s 55: to be proclaimed; ss 56 & 57: 1 November 1985. Repealed by s 72 of the Abolition of Racially Based Land Measures Act No 108 of 1991, with the exception of chapters VI and VIA.
1984
5 April, The Hoexter Commission presents its fifth and final report to Parliament recommending major reforms in the judicial system and containing incisive attacks on the administration of the apartheid system.
1984
11 April, General Magnus Malan tables a wide-ranging Defence White Paper focussing on strengthened border defences to counter sabotage attacks by organizations seen as proxies for the Soviet Union.
1984
24 April, Carnegie Report on Poverty in South Africa reveals the doubling of blacks living below the poverty line (1960-1980).
1984
2 May, South Africa, Mozambique and Portugal sign a new agreement in Cape Town on the supply of electric power to South Africa from the Cahora Bassa Hydro-electric Dam in north-west Mozambique.
1984
5 May, Over 7,000 people attend a rally in Pretoria to mark the foundation on 4 May 1984 of the Afrikaner Volkswag (People’s Guard), a cultural organization led by Professor Care] Boshoff. The new Conservative group is expected to challenge the influence of the Broederbond.
1984
10 May, South Africa:Signs amendment to the Convention on Civil Aviation.
1984
10 May - 12 May, Talks take place in Cape Town between Swaziland and South Africa concerning trade and regional security. South Africa is to open a consulate in Swaziland. It is reported that more than sixty ANC members are in detention in Swaziland and four have been handed over to the South African authorities.
1984
11 May, South Africa’s longest serving white political prisoner, David Kitson, is released, seven months short of completing his twenty-year sentence for sabotage and barely three weeks before the Prime Minister is due to meet Margaret Thatcher in London.
1984
16 May, South Africa concedes that almost two million black people have been relocated since 1960, but maintains that only 456,860 were moved for ideological reasons. The fact that some forced removals have taken place is admitted by the Minister for Cooperation and Development, Dr. Piet Koornhof.
1984
18 May, Saboteurs blow up two railway lines south of Johannesburg.
1984
23 May, The Minister of Law and Order states that a total of fourteen armed attacks and explosions have occurred between January and May 1984.
Signs treaty with Italy for the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income.
1984
25 May, Signs multilateral treaty to amend the International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage.
1984
29 May - 12 June, Prime Minister Botha visits eight countries in Europe - Portugal, Great Britain, West Germany, Belgium, France, Austria, italy and Switzerland - and has an audience with Pope John Paul II on 11 June 1984. He is accompanied on his tour by the Minister of Foreign Affairs, ‘Pik’ Botha. The tour is seen in South Africa as a diplomatic breakthrough signaling the end of South Africa’s isolation
1984
30 May, Group Areas Amendment Act No 101: Amended the 1966 Act in order to give effect to the policy of declaring certain central business districts as free trade areas (RRS 1986: 11). Free trade areas were not permitted in black townships since these were established in terms of the 1945 Natives (Urban Areas) Consolidation Act and other laws and not in terms of the 1966 Group Areas Act. Commenced: 30 May 1985. Repealed by s 48 of the Abolition of Racially Based Land Measures Act No 108 of 1991.
1984
June - September, Further ANC sabotage attacks occur in Durban, Roodepoort and Johannesburg, involving bomb explosions, causing deaths and injuries.
1984
16 June, Sporadic clashes with police take place during the annual commemoration of 16 June 1976. The day is marked by pronouncements by the ANC, the PAC and the United Nations Secretary-General, all calling for an end to repression.
1984
18 June, Chief Gatsha Buthelezi is summoned to Cape Town by Dr. Piet Koornhof and informed that the Rumpff Commission of Inquiry into the implications of the possible transfer of KaNgwane and lngwavuma, KwaZulu to Swaziland has been disbanded.
1984
18 June - 21 June, North American Regional Conference for Action against Apartheid, United Nations Headquarters, New York, organised by the Special Committee against Apartheid.
1984
18 June - 21 June, North American Regional Conference for Action against Apartheid, United Nations Headquarters, New York, organised by the Special Committee against Apartheid.
1984
18 June, Aliens and Immigration Laws Amendment Act No 49:
Amended the 1937 Aliens Act, the 1939 Aliens Registration Act and the 1972 Admission of Persons to the Republic Regulation Act, used against squatters (RRS 1984: 345-6). Several critics warned that the ‘amendment act would lead to a massive clamp-down on Africans present in white-designated areas but officially regarded as citizens of the “independent” homelands’ (RRS 1984: 345). It is not clear from the Race Relations Survey whether this did in fact occur. What is more than clear is that those South Africans eligible to carry passes, if found not carrying one, were arrested and prosecuted for a wide range of influx control related offences (e.g. being in a prescribed area for longer than 72 hours without permission or having taken up employment without the necessary permission being granted).
Commenced: 18 June 1984. Repealed by s 60 of the Aliens Control Act No 96 of 1991.
1984
19 June, The Foreign Minister gives an assurance that the government will not go ahead with plans for the cession of land to Swaziland, unless it has the majority support of the people concerned.
1984
21 June, Proclamation No 8: Concerning a state of emergency. Commenced: 21 June 1984
1984
21 June, Government Notice No 66: Restricted the movement of certain persons at institutions of learning. Commenced: 21 June 1984
1984
26 June, The nineteenth quintuennial congress of the Universal Postal Union in Hamburg, expels South Africa on account of its apartheid policy.
1984
28 June, Exiled South African Jenny Schoon, and her daughter Katryn, are killed by a parcel bomb in Lubango, Angola, probably intended for her husband Marius Schoon, named in security trials as an agent of the ANC.
Owen Horwood announces his resignation from the post of Minister of Finance. He is replaced by Barend du Plessis, hitherto Minister of Education and Training.
The NP loses the provincial by-election in Potgietersrus to a right-wing coalition led by the CP, but retains Rosettenville, Johannesburg, with an increased majority in a three-cornered fight with the CP and NRP.
1984
29 June, Exiled South Africa anti-apartheid campaigner Jeanette Schoon and her six-year-old daughter were killed by a parcel bomb in Angola, her father said.
1984
1 July, Citizenship Act No 38: Specified who were citizens, who could become citizens and who could lose their citizenship. Commenced: 1 July 1985
1984
9 July, Signs Protocol amending the International Convention for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas.
1984
12 July, A car bomb explosion in Durban kills five and injures twenty-six.
1984
13 July, The last all-white Parliament ends its last session in Cape Town.
1984
16 July, Supreme Court Act No 2: Provided for the separation of the Ciskei judiciary from South Africa. Commenced: 16 July 1984
1984
27 July, Republic of Ciskei Constitution Amendment Act No 10: Removed the post of Vice-President. Commenced: 27 July 1984
1984
30 July, Campaigning for the new tricameral Parliament begins.
1984
30 July, South Africa has held up supplies of British weapons to Lesotho and the UK has complained several times about the delays, officials said today. South Africa has decided to close its Consulate in Wellington instead of waiting for New Zealand's new Government to carry out its pledge to shut down, New Zealand's Prime Minister David Lange said.
1984
August, Elections for Coloured and Indian Chambers of Parliament.
1984
August, Boycotts and demonstrations in schools affected about 7% of the school population. In August demonstrations affected 800 000 school children
1984
7 August - 9 August, Conference of Arab Solidarity with the Struggle for Liberation in Southern Africa, organised by the Special Committee against Apartheid, in cooperation with the League of Arab States.
1984
7 August - 9 August, Conference of Arab Solidarity with the Struggle for Liberation in Southern Africa, organised by the Special Committee against Apartheid, in co-operation with the League of Arab States.
1984
8 August, The government is to grant self-government to KaNgwane. This is seen as confirmation that it has finally abandoned its land deal with Swaziland, of which KaNgwane was to have been a part.
1984
14 August, Lesotho rejects South Africa’s proposal for a draft security treaty.
1984
16 August, An explosion, believed to have been caused by a bomb, ripped through police offices near Johannesburg today, a police spokesman said.
1984
17 August, The Security Council rejected and declared null and void the new racist constitution of South Africa. It urged governments and organisations not to accord recognition to the “elections“ under that constitution. (Resolution 554)
1984
22 August, Elections to the House of Representatives among the Coloured community show overwhelming support for the Labour Party. Official results record only a 30.9 per cent turn out and protests and boycotts are followed by 152 arrests.
1984
28 August, Elections to the House of Delegates among the Indian community are marked by a low poll, protests, boycotts and active opposition by the UDF. Results show eighteen seats for the National Peoples Party (NPP), seventeen for Solidarity, one for the Progressive Independent Party (PIP), four for independents.
1984
30 August, Prime Minister Botha declares that the government does not see the low turnout at the poils as invalidating the revised constitution.
1984
31 August, KaNgwane proclaimed a self-governing territory.
1984
31 August, South Africa declared the black homeland of Kangwane on the Swaziland border a self-governing territory. The Swazi Council of Chiefs of South Africa, which backs a controversial plan to incorporate Kangwane into Swaziland, warned of possible bloodshed in the territory if it is granted independence.
1984
September, Mr P.W. Botha was elected the first executive state president in September.
1984 - 1986
September - 24 January, From September 1984 to 24 January 1986, 955 people were killed in political violence incidents, 3 658 injured. 25 members of the security forces were killed and 834 injured. There were 3 400 incidents of violence in the Western Cape.
1984
2 September - 3 September, The revised Constitution comes into effect.
1984
3 September, As South Africa's new Constitution was inaugurated at least 26 people died in riots and police counterattacks in black townships, according to press and news agency reports. Reuter reported that the military has been brought in to guard Government buildings in Sharpeville and other black townships.
1984
3 September, 175 people were killed in political violence incidents. On September 3 violence erupted in the Vaal Triangle, within a few days 31 people were killed.
1984
5 September, P.W. Botha is unanimously elected to the post of Executive President by an Electoral College composed of the majority parties in each house - fifty NP members of the white House of Assembly, twenty-five Labour Party members of the Coloured House of Representatives, and thirteen National People’s Party members of the Indian House of Delegates.
1984
10 September, Fresh detention orders were issued for seven opponents of the South African Government freed by a court on Friday. The seven, including Archie Gumede, President of the two million strong anti-apartheid United Democratic Front, had been held without charge since just before the controversial elections to a new Parliament in August.
1984
11 September, Following unrest and rioting in the townships, the Minister of Law and Order prohibits all meetings of more than two persons, discussing politics or which is in protest against or in support or in memorium of anything, until 30 September 1984. The ban extends to certain areas in all four provinces, but is most comprehensive in the Transvaal.
1984
12 September, South African riot police used tear gas and whips in Soweto as unrest continued and a sweeping ban on meetings critical of the Government came into effect. Opposition leaders criticised the ban, saying that the Government appeared to be overreacting to the unrest, in which about 40 people have died in the past fortnight.
1984
13 September, Six political refugees, including the President of the United Democratic Front (UDF) seek refuge in the British consulate in Durban, and ask the British government to intervene on their behalf.
1984
13 September, Six South African dissidents hunted by police in a big security clampdown today entered the British Consulate in Durban, British officials said. Police had been trying to rearrest the six, leaders of the United Democratic Front and the natal Indian Congress, following their release from detention last Friday on the orders of a judge. Major military manoeuvres were conducted by the South African Defence Force in its biggest exercise since World War II, which, the Times contends in a separate article, will surely be interpreted by the neighbouring States as a show of hostile preparedness. The exercise seemed to illustrate the successes and the failures of South Africa's efforts to circumvent the international arms embargo imposed in 1977, the paper adds, noting that Western military specialists were impressed by the manoeuvres.
1984
14 September, The inauguration of the new President, P.W. Botha, takes place. Under the revised Constitution, the post of President combines the ceremonial duties of Head of State with the executive functions of Prime Minister. Mr. Botha is also chairman of the Cabinet, Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and controls the National Intelligence Service which includes the Secretariat of the State Security Council.
Margaret Thatcher, the British Prime Minister, gives an assurance that the six refugees will not be required to leave the consulate against their will, but also states that Britain will not become involved in negotiations between the fugitives and the South African government.
1984
15 September, Members of a new Cabinet responsible for general affairs of government and three Ministers’ Councils are appointed and sworn in on 17 September 1984.
The leader of the Labour Party, the Reverend H.J. (Allan) Hendrikse and A. Rajbansi of the NPP are appointed to the Cabinet as Chairmen of the Ministers’ Councils, but neither is given a ministerial portfolio.
1984
17 September, Over the weekend, South Africa's new President, Pieter W. Botha, announced the appointment of a Cabinet which, for the first time in South Africa's history, includes non-whites. The two non-white Cabinet members, the Reverend Allan Hendrickse, leader of the Labour Party, and Amichand Rajbansi, whose National People's Party is drawn from the Indian community, were sworn into office in Cape Town, along with the other members of the new 19-man Cabinet for General Affairs, which is otherwise all-white.
1984
18 September, South Africa's black gold miners today called off their first legal strike, which lasted just one day but, according to mine owners, saw 250 workers injured during police action against pickets.
1984
19 September, Riot police firing birdshot, tear gas and rubber bullets clashed with 8,000 striking gold miners, killing seven and injuring 89, police said today.
1984
24 September, Minister of Foreign Affairs, ‘Pik’ Botha, announces that in retaliation for the British government’s refusal to give up the six men, the government will not return to Britain four South Africans due to face charges of having contravened British customs and excise regulations, and believed to be employed by ARMSCOR.
1984
25 September, South Africa and the UK faced what could be their worst diplomatic crisis for several years because of tension over six dissidents hiding from police in the British Consulate in Durban. Pretoria said last night that in retaliation for London's refusal to evict the fugitives it would not send four South African back to Britain to stand trial on charges of illegal export of arms.
1984
26 September, Five of the political detainees are released and on the same day the banning order on Dr. Beyers Naudé is lifted.
Schools re-open, but 93,000 pupils continue to boycott classes.
1984
28 September, South Africa was told by IAEA to open all nuclear plants to international inspection or face sanctions by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The resolution was passed by 57 votes to 10, with 23 abstentions. The US and other Western nations opposed it. The resolution was tabled by Morocco on behalf of African States.
1984
2 October, The death toll in rioting and clashes with police has risen to over sixty.
1984
2 October, The Government took into custody the leader of South Africa's most prominent anti-apartheid group and held him under security law. The arrest came as four blacks were killed in a day of unrest in black townships - raising to at least 61 the number of people killed in the past month in ethnic violence - and 130,000 black students boycotted classes.
1984
3 October, A cease-fire agreement between the Mozambique Government and the insurgent National Resistance Movement (MNR) was announced in Pretoria by South African Foreign Minister Roelof Botha, who acted as the intermediary.
1984
5 October, L. le Grange states that the South African Defence Force units will be deployed increasingly in a supportive role to the police in maintaining an effective protective force against radical elements. On 6-9 October they are deployed in Soweto.
1984
6 October, Three of the six protesters leave the British Consulate in protest against South Africa’s action in linking their sit-in with the Coventry case. They are immediately arrested and detained by security police.
1984
8 October, South Africa:Signs treaty relating to certificates of airworthiness for imported aircraft with the United States.
1984
8 October, The Mozambique Government, its right-wing guerrilla opponents and South African officials met in Pretoria to thrash out details of a cease-fire plan to end civil conflict in Mozambique.
1984
9 October, The three anti-apartheid protesters in the British Consulate in Durban, declare they will not leave the building voluntarily. The British government will have to evict them.
1984
11 October, Anti-apartheid leader Allan Boesak said that the United Democratic Front (UDF) would campaign against South African Army conscription. Mr. Boesak returned from a tour on which he met European and US Government officials.
1984
16 October, The Norwegian Nobel Committee announced that it had decided to award the 1984 Nobel Peace Prize to Bishop Desmond Tutu. The Committee said Bishop Tutu, General Secretary of the South African Council of Churches (SACC), had been a unifying leader figure in the campaign to resolve the problem of apartheid in South Africa. “The Committee wishes to attract attention to the non-violent struggle for liberation to which Desmond Tutu belongs, a struggle in which black and white South Africans unite to bring the country out of conflict“, a spokesman added.
1984
17 October, The United Nations Security Council, by fourteen Votes to none, with the United States abstaining, passes a resolution reiterating its condemnation of the South African regime’s policy of apartheid and condemning its continued defiance of United Nations resolutions, the continued massacres of the oppressed people and the arbitrary detention and arrest of their leaders.
1984
18 October, Member of UK Parliament Donald Anderson, one of the Labour Party's spokesmen on foreign affairs, told a news conference after a five-day visit to South Africa that he believed South Africa's system of legalised racial segregation could not last. Mr. Anderson urged Britain to use economic leverage for change before the white-ruled country exploded into racial violence.
1984
22 October, The Minister of Law and Order rejects conditions set on 18 October 1984 by the three remaining fugitives in the British Consulate in Durban for their voluntary exit. They ask the government to waive detention-without-trial orders or to provide them with passports to enable them to plead their case before the United Nations Anti-Apartheid Committee.
1984
23 October, A combined force of about 7,000 South African Defence Force troops and police seal off the townships of Sebokeng, Sharpeville and Boipatong and carry out house-to-house searches, arresting 358 people, some of whom are immediately charged in special courts. Its purpose is to eliminate criminal and intimidatory forces from the townships.
The government forfeits 400,000 Pounds Sterling bail when the ‘Coventry four’ fail to appear to answer arms smuggling charges, prevented from doing so by the South African government. Warrants are issued for their arrest.
1984
23 October, 700 police and army personnel were used in the Vaal Triangle.
1984
24 October, The United Nations Security Council endorses a lengthy resolution condemning South Africa’s apartheid regime, demanding the immediate cessation of massacres and the prompt and unconditional release of all political prisoners and detainees.
1984
26 October, Violence erupted in the black South African township of Sebokeng, 48 hours after 7,000 police and troops swamped the area and made hundreds of arrests in an attempt to stamp out unrest. Police today reported overnight violence in townships throughout the country, with crowds of up to 2,000 stoning police who retaliated with teargas, rubber bullets and birdshot.
1984
30 October, South African Foreign Minister Pik Botha left for Cape Verde where he is due to hold talks tomorrow with US negotiator Chester Crocker on the future of Namibia.
1984
31 October, Internal Security Amendment Act No 22: Prohibited any meeting of more than twenty persons to be held without the permission of the Minister of Law and Order. Commenced: 31 August 1984
1984
1 November, Sweden is to tighten the rules limiting investment by Swedish companies in South Africa and make it illegal to sell vehicles and electronics to the South African police and military, the Government announced today. A two-day work boycott in Transvaal Province was called for next Monday and Tuesday in protest at a range of grievances by blacks, the United Democratic Front (UDF) said today. It said that unlessdemands ranging from a rollback of rent increases in black townships to education reforms were met South Africa would face increasing violence.
1984
2 November, South Africa:Amends air services agreement with Great Britain.
1984
2 November, Two South Africans of Indian descent, including the grand-daughter of Mahatma Gandhi, were told they could not travel to New Delhi to attend the funeral of Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. Officials of the Natal Indian Congress (NIC) said FaroukMeer and Ela Ramgobin, both opponents of South Africa's apartheid, were denied passports.
1984
5 November, South African Foreign Minister Pik Botha held talks with Foreign Minsiter Yitzhak Shamir during a private visit that, according to Reuter, has caused embarrassment and anger in Israel. Senior officials said privately that Israel, which wants to improve ties with black Africa, had tried unsuccessfully to persuade Mr. Botha not to ask for official meeting during his stay. Prime Minister Shimon Peres would not see the visiting Minister. The visit is officially described as private but Mr. Botha was met at the airport by Mr. Shamir last night.
1984
5 November - 6 November, A two-day general strike by black workers in the country's industrial heartland was called by anti-apartheid groups in protest of living conditions for blacks under the apartheid system.
1984
5 November - 6 November, There were a number of stayaways from work called in 1984. The major stayaway occurred on 5 and 6 November when 500 000 workers and 400 000 students stayed away.
1984
7 November, Five more people died in overnight violence in South African townships bringing the death toll during a two-day strike by black workers to 21, police and transport officials said.
1984
8 November, Security police today raided the offices of the United Democratic Front.
1984
9 November, Following pressure from township residents, resignations have occurred among black municipal councillors.
1984
9 November, South African police detained at least eight people after a two-day black workers' strike.
1984
14 November, South Africa:Signs international telecommunications treaty.
In a continued attempt to forestall further unrest, the authorities arrest several leading trade union activists belonging to organizations affiliated to the UDF.
1984
16 November, Police arrested 2,300 people in the black township of Sebokeng in what was believed to be the biggest raid against blacks living in work hostels, authorities said today.
1984
17 November - 18 November, The opposition PFP opens its membership to all races, despite the Prohibition of Political Interference Act which forbids mixed political parties. The Party leadership also votes to oppose military conscription now that the South African Army is being used regularly to suppress mounting black unrest. The decision draws strong opposition within the Party.
1984
18 November, The Progressive Federal Party (FPP) decided to ignore a 1968 Act banning multi-racial membership in a single political grouping and open its ranks to anyone regardless of colour.
1984
21 November, Demonstrations begin outside the South African Embassy in Washington, D.C. and continue on an almost daily basis as anti-apartheid protesters demand a stronger anti-South Africa policy from the United States government.
1984
21 November, U.S. Congressman Walter Fauntroy and two other civil rights activists were arrested for sit-in at South African embassy in Washington. Transafrica established a “Free South Africa“ movement to press for the release of 18 black strike leaders.
1984
21 November, The South African Institute of Race Relations urged the lifting of a 24-year-old ban on the African National Congress (ANC).
1984
23 November, South Africa:Signs multilateral agreement regulating the appointment of a Southern African tourism coordinator.
1984
26 November, Cyril Ramaphosa, a lawyer and General Secretary of National Union of Mineworkers, was arrested in Lebowa, on charge of organising or planning to take part in a meeting in Namakgale. The local magistrate had banned meetings in the town.
1984
27 November, 250 persons demonstrated outside the South African embassy in Washington in protest against apartheid and President Reagan's policy of constructive engagement. Charles Hayes, Black Congressman and Reverend Joseph Lowery, Baptist Minister were arrested for staging a sit-in at the embassy.
1984
29 November, The NP retains three House of Assembly seats in by-elections, with reduced majorities, losing ground to right-wing parties opposed to the new Constitution.
1984
4 December, Bishop Desmond Tutu, addressing a United States House of Representatives subcommittee, describes the policy of constructive engagement as immoral and evil and hostile to the conditions of blacks in South Africa.
1984
4 December, Anti-apartheid demonstrations continued in front of the South African Embassy in Washington and spread to other US cities where South Africa has Consulates.
1984
5 December, Government Notice No 149: Authorised the arrest and conviction of people found loitering within a municipal area. Commenced: 5 December 1984
1984
10 December, American President Reagan, in a speech made on International Human Rights Day, calls on the Pretoria government to engage in effective dialogue with the black population and to broaden the changes taking place, so as to address the aspirations of all South Africans.
1984
10 December, Three leaders of the anti-apartheid United Democratic Front(UDF) and two officials of the Azanian People's Organisation (AZAPO) were freed from jail, the UDF and AZAPO said. South Africa announced the withdrawal of detention orders against 14 leading opponents of its racial discrimination policies but immediately charged six of them with treason. The six, including three men detained without trial after spendingseveral weeks in the sanctuary of the British Consulate in Durban, led opposition to a new Constitution. Nobel Peace Prize awarded to Bishop Desmond Tutu in Oslo.
1984
12 December, The three anti-apartheid activists still in the British Consulate in Durban, leave the building. A. Gumede and one other are immediately arrested and charged with treason.
1984
12 December, Norway is to reprimanded three oil companies for selling Norwegian crude to South Africa, an Oil Ministry spokesman said today. He said the reprimands would be part of a tough new Government policy on trade with South Africa. (REUTER-Oslo). Two of the three anti-apartheid activists who ended a three-month sit-in at the British Consulate in Durban today were promptly arrested by police. A spokesman at police headquarters in Pretoria said they would appear in court tomorrow on charges of high treason, which can carry the death penalty. (REUTER, AFP, EFE )
1984
13 December, During the proceedings of the thirty-ninth regular session of the United Nations General Assembly, a series of seven resolutions on the theme of apartheid are adopted.
The United Nations Security Council reaffirms the mandatory arms embargo, and, for the first time requests that all states refrain from importing arms, ammunition and military vehicles produced in South Africa.
1984
13 December, Two anti-apartheid activists arrested yesterday after they ended a three-month sit-in at the British Consulate appeared in court today charged with high treason. Their case was linked to that of six other opponents of the Government who worked for organisations affiliated to the United Democratic Front (UDF). All eight face charges of treason, which can carry the death penalty, and alternative charges of contravening the Internal Security Act. All the men charged with treason opposed a new constitution introduced this year.
1984
27 December, Swaziland and South Africa agree to exchange trade representatives who will have the same rights and privileges as diplomatic personnel.
1984
28 December, It is announced that Colonel Hoare, the leader of the attempted Seychelles coup, will shortly be eligible for release from prison under a recent amnesty.
1985
Worker organisation and power also take a major step forward with the formation of the Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU).
1985
In 1985, the ANC called on township residents to make townships ungovernable
1985
Another raid on Lesotho is followed by a coup. Jonathan Leabua’s administration falls.
1985
Fietas, Johannesburg: Lenasia stages a mass community buss boycott in protest to the poor public transport facilities
1985
South Africa repealed Mixed Marriages Act of 1949 and Immorality Act of 1957.
1985
Explosives Amendment Act No 30: Widened the definition of explosives. Commenced: 7 February 1986
1985
National Security Second Amendment Act No 33:
Empowered the Attorney-General to prohibit the release on bail of people in seventy different cases (RRS 1985: 264-5). Commenced: 23 August 1986.
1985
Maintenance of Law and Order Act No 13: Provided for state declaration of states of emergency and suppression of uprising. Repealed a number of South African Acts but not the 1953 Public Safety Act [SA]. This was not repealed until the 1995 State of Emergency Act [SA] was passed. Commenced: 1 April 1986
1985
Gazankulu: Police Amendment Act No 5: Commenced: 1 January 1984
1985
KwaZulu: Wage and Basic Conditions of Employment Act No 9: Commenced: 10 April 1987
1985
KwaZulu: Tribal, Community and Regional Authorities Amendment Act No 20: Commenced: 22 August 1986
1985
KwaZulu Education Amendment Act No 17:
Empowered the Minister of Education and Culture to close schools and to suspend or transfer teachers. Commenced: 1986
1985
Lebowa: Police Act No 6: Commenced: 24 August 1979
1985
QwaQwa: Welfare Act No 10: (Commencement date not found)
1985
Commission Appointed to Inquire into the Incident which occurred on 21 March 1985 at Uitenhage Mandate: To investigate the circumstances surrounding the incident on the date mentioned, in which people were killed and injured, and to submit an urgent report.
Date of Report: 4 June 1985
Chair: KANNEMEYER, D.D.V.
Ref: RP 74-85; S297/103
1985
Commission of Inquiry into the Violence which occurred on 29 October 1983 at the University of Zululand Mandate: To inquire into and report on the circumstances surrounding the violence at the University of Zululand on 29 October 1983.
Date of Report: February 1985
Chair: MIDDLETON, A.J.
Ref: RP 80/1985
1985
1985 was the 30th anniversary of the Freedom Charter.
In the better half of the year the ANC was visited by businessmen, students, the Progressive Federal Party and clergyman from South Africa.
There were 136 incidents of guerrilla activity. This was 34% more than all the incidents in the last 10 years. Clashes occurred between supporters of the UDF, Azapo and Inkatha throughout the year.
Since September 1984, damage as a result of political violence amounted to R138 million.
1986 marked the centenary of Johannesburg. The Community Support Committee was formed to oppose centenary projects.
Consumer boycotts of white business began early in the year in the Eastern Cape and later spread country-wide.
South African troops attacked South West African Peoples Organisation's targets 250 km inside Angola.
The right-wing Herstigte Nationale Party won its first parliamentary seat in 17 years.
1985
State of Emergency. COSAS is banned. The Soweto Parents Crisis Committee (SPCC) is formed to address the education crisis.
1985
5 January, Senator Edward Kennedy pays an eight-day visit to South Africa.
1985
25 January, Opening parliament, President Botha announces that government intends giving blacks more political rights such as those living outside their designated ‘homelands’ and an informal forum where black leaders can discuss changes. Also giving blacks property rights to those living in urban areas.
1985
30 January, The South African Medical and Postal Council is ordered to hold an inquiry into the conduct of doctors what, treated the Black Consciousness Leader, Steve Biko, who died at the hands of the security police in 1977.
1985
31 January, Foreign Minister ‘Pik’ Botha denies South African support for RENAMO and that South Africa is committed to the Nkomati Accord of 1984.
President P.W. Botha offers a release proposal to jailed ANC leader Nelson Mandela.
In an address to the Foreign Correspondents Association, Minister of Cooperation and Development, Dr. Gerrit Viljoen announces that the forced removal of blacks will be suspended and government is to review this policy.
1985
5 February, Foreign Minister ‘P1k’ Botha accuses Botswana of harbouring ANC guerrillas
1985
10 February, Nelson Mandela, jailed ANC leader, turns down offer of release made to him by President Botha on 31 January.
1985
15 February, President Botha announces that his offer of release to Nelson Mandela still stands and that government is prepared to talk to the ANC if it renounces violence. Four Pan-Africanist Congress security prisoners take up an offer of release and three other ANC prisoners reject this offer in a six-page memorandum submitted to President Botha.
1985
18 February, Top leadership officials of the United Democratic Front (UDF) are arrested. Of the thirteen detained, six are to be charged for high treason
1985
21 February, Government announces ninety-nine year leasehold rights for blacks in three Cape Town townships in order to stop the riots over the policy of forced removal in that region.
1985
9 March, Venda Police Act No 4: Created a police service and granted policing powers of search and seizure. Commenced: 9 March 1985
1985
20 March, Dr. Allan Boesak who is President of the World Alliance of Reformed Churches, is exonerated by his church for having had an extra-marital affair with a white woman and allowed to resume his official duties.
1985
21 March, At least seventeen people are killed in Langa, a black township near Port Elizabeth, during a commemoration of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Sharpevil]e massacre. Government appoints a Commission of Inquiry into this massacre, chaired by Justice D. Kannemeyer.
1985
21 March, Uitenhage massacre: 19 killed when police shot at funeral procession.
1985
21 March, 20 people were shot dead by the police in Uitenhage, Port Elizabeth
1985
25 March, In an important policy shift, South Africa’s Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs, Louis NeI, discloses that his government is seeking ways to cooperate with FRELIMO in Mozambique to eliminate the rebel RENAMO.
1985
April, At its third congress, the United Democratic Front agrees to establish closer links with the trade union movement and to increase its presence in rural areas. Popo Molefe, Patrick Lekota and Moses Chikana, three key UDF officials are arrested under security laws.
1985
April, The government announced in April that it will repeal the Mixed Marraiges Act, the Prohibition of Political Interference Act and the Immorality Act.
1985
1 April, Prisons Act No 3: Provided for prisons and prison protocol. Commenced: 1 April 1985
1985
4 April, South Africa:Signs treaty with Taiwan relating to co-operation in mineral and energy affairs.
1985
15 April, South Africa’s Foreign Minister announces that South African troop withdrawal from Angola is to be completed within a week.
1985
19 April, President Botha outlines proposals to improve the lot of blacks. Amongst these are property rights and political representation for urban blacks and future dual citizenship rights to ‘homeland’ blacks.
1985
24 April, Foreign Minister ‘Pik’ Botha announces in Parliament that South Africa and Mozambique are to establish joint operational centres on their borders to fully implement the Nkomati Accord.
1985
30 April, The Rand Daily Mail, a leading anti-apartheid newspaper, ceases publication.
1985
May, Sipho Mutsi of the Congress of South African Students dies during police custody and Andries Raditsela, an executive member of the Federation of South African Trade Unions dies hours after charges under the Internal Security Act are withdrawn against him.
The ruling National Party wins a parliamentary seat in Newton Park and provincial council seats in the Orange Free State and Eastern Cape.
1985
May, In May trade unionist Andries Raditsela died a few hours after being released from detention.
1985
7 May - 10 May, International Conference on Women and Children under Apartheid, Arusha, organised by the Special Committee against Apartheid in cooperation with OAU and the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania.
1985
7 May - 10 May, International Conference on Women and Children under Apartheid, Arusha, organised by the Special Committee against Apartheid in co-operation with OAU and the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania.
1985
16 May - 18 May, International Conference on Sports Boycott against South Africa, UNESCO House, Paris, organised by the Special Committee against Apartheid in cooperation with the Supreme Council on Sports in Africa and the South African Non-Racial Olympic Committee.
1985
16 May - 18 May, International Conference on Sports Boycott against South Africa, UNESCO House, Paris, organised by the Special Committee against Apartheid in co-operation with the Supreme Council on Sports in Africa and the South African Non-Racial Olympic Committee.
1985
25 May, The Prohibition of Political Interference Act which bans racially mixed political parties, is to be repealed. June 1985 The Kannemeyer Commission of Inquiry into the Langa shootings of 21 March 1985, blames the police for the events leading to the shooting.
1985
June, Kabwe Conference of ANC. “Marxist Workers' Tendency, formed in 1979, expelled from ANC.
1985
June, South African troops attacked Botswana: 8 South Africans and 4 others were killed.
1985
June, The African National Congress had its first consultative conference since 1969 in Zambia.
In June a raid on Gaborone, Botswana by the SADF resulted in the death of 15 people.
At least 11 political activists were either killed by unknown assailants or went missing.
1985
1 June, South Africa:Signs agreement with Swaziland on the issue of notes and coin.
1985
14 June, ANC bases in Gaborone, Botswana, are attacked by South African commanders. At least fifteen people are killed.
1985
16 June - 25 June, Second national consultative conference of ANC in Zambia.
1985
19 June, Immorality and Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Amendment Act No 72:
Repealed s 16 of the 1957 Sexual Offences Act. Commenced: 19 June 1985
1985
25 June, At its conference held in Lusaka, Zambia, the ANC opens its national executive committee to all race groups by appointing five Indian, White and Coloured people to the committee.
1985
30 June, John Nyati Pokela, PAC chairman dies in Harare.
1985
July, A state of emergency is declared over many parts of the country. It lasted for six months.
1985
July, A Dutch subject, Klaas de Jong, is detained under the Internal Security Act for distributing arms and ammunition to the ANC. He seeks refuge in the Dutch Embassy in Pretoria.
1985
July, The value of the rand dropped to below US$ 0.40c. Foreign exchange dealings were suspended for three days in July.
1985
1 July, Minor cabinet changes are made.
1985
2 July, Constitutional Affairs Amendment Act No 104:
Amended the 1968 Prohibition of Political Interference Act to allow non-racial political parties. Separate voters’ rolls remained. However, s 3, which prohibited a political party from receiving foreign financial assistance, was re-enacted with technical amendments. The 1968 Act was also renamed to the ‘Prohibition of Foreign Financing of Political Parties Act’ (RRS 1985: 57).
Commenced: 2 July 1985
Repealed by s 230 of the Constitution of Republic of South Africa Act No 200 of 1993.
1985
5 July, Two white medical doctors are found guilty of misconduct by the Medical Council in the 1977 death of Black Consciousness leader, Steve Biko.
1985
7 July, Government Notice No 76: Provided for emergency regulations for the maintenance of law and order. Commenced: 7 July 1985
1985
10 July, Four British men are jailed for conspiring to smuggle military component into South Africa.
1985
20 July, 20 July midnight: State of emergency declared in terms of Public Safety Act No 3 of 1953, affected 36 magisterial districts.
Regulations (Proc R 121 of 1985) were amended as follows:
Ӣ The power to detain was extended to every member of the police, railways police, prisons and army.
Ӣ Detainees had no right to visitors or a lawyer, nor were they entitled to receive letters or any reading material other than the Bible.
Ӣ No member of the force could be brought to account, by civil suit or criminal charge, for unlawful actions in carrying out emergency laws.
Ӣ It became a crime to disclose the identity of any detainee without prior disclosure by the Minister of Law and Order.
Ӣ The Commissioner of Police was authorised to impose blanket censorship on press coverage of the emergency.
”¢The Minister of Law and Order was empowered to ban organisations, individuals, or publications which were ‘calculated to endanger the security of the State or the maintenance of public order’.
Courts were denied jurisdiction to set aside any order or rule issued under emergency regulations.
1985
21 July, State of Emergency is declared affecting the Eastern Cape. Johannesburg and industrial areas east of Johannesburg.
1985 - 1986
21 July - 7 March, A state of emergency was declared by the state president and it affected 36 magisterial districts. He withdrew the proclamation on 7 March 1986.
During the first six months 575 people were killed in political violence incidents during the state of emergency. More than half were killed by the police.
7 200 people were detained under emergency regulations.
1985
23 July, State of Emergency declared in much of the country.
1985
25 July, Indemnity Act No 31: Indemnified the Ciskei administration against any court proceedings arising from their actions.
Commenced: 25 July 1985
1985
26 July, The Security Council urged Member States to adopt a wide range of economic measures against South Africa. The resolution was, however, not binding on Member States. [resolution 569]
1985
26 July, Defence Amendment Act No 11: Incorporated the Department of Defence into the Ciskei defence legislation.
Commenced: 26 July 1985
1985
August, A march to Pollsmoor prison, where a message of solidarity is to be delivered to Nelson Mandela, is prevented by the government. The message is eventually read out at a press conference by Dorothy Boesak, wife of Dr. Allan Boesak, who had called the march. He was detained to prevent him from leading it.
1985
August, In August clashes between protesters, impis, resident and the police leave 70 dead and 140 injured in urban townships.
The Congress of South African Students was banned in August.
The government freeze foreign loan payments.
The USA imposed limited sanctions against South Africa in August
1985
15 August, President Botha, leader of the National Party, takes a hardline stance at the party’s Natal congress.
1985
16 August, In response to President Botha’s hardline speech at the party’s Natal congress, the president of the ANC, Oliver Tambo, reaffirms in Lusaka, that the armed struggle will be intensified and whites will lose their lives and property.
1985
23 August, National Security Amendment Act No 24: Empowered the Minister of Justice to lift banning orders.
Commenced: 23 August 1985
1985
23 August, Repeal of Laws Act No 22: Further eliminated legislation adopted from South Africa.
Commenced: 23 August 1985
1985
30 August, Government Notice No 109: Gave power to a district commissioner or non-commissioned officer of the Transkeian Police, or a chief having jurisdiction in respect of a place where a meeting is held, to cancel such a meeting and/or impose conditions to be adhered to.
Commenced: 30 August 1985
1985
September, At the National Party Congress in the Orange Free State, President Botha announces the government’s willingness to restore South African citizenship to blacks deprived of it under the policy of separate development.
1985
September, South Africa suspended repayments of its short-term debts.
1985
September, In September the Metal and Allied Workers Union launched a boycott of white shops in Pietermaritzburg to pressurise BTR Samcol into reinstating their workers.
In September Inkatha and the Progressive Federal Party hosted a meeting to form the Convention Alliance. Both organisations later withdrew from the steering committee.
1985
16 September, South Africa and Namibian Security Forces cross into Angola in pursuit of SWAPO forces.
1985
21 September, A Convention Alliance is launched to promote the idea of a national convention to formulate a democratic and multi-racial constitution.
1985
27 September, In anticipation of a national day of prayer on 9 October, the government outlaws gatherings and meetings.
1985
October, Dr. Benjamin Tucker is struck off the roll for disgraceful conduct over the death in detention of Black Consciousness leader Steve Biko in September.
1985
October, The Soweto and Parents Crisis Committee was formed in October.
1985
9 October, General Constand Viljoen, Chief of South Africa’s Armed Forces admits on television that the military, without the government authority, has flaunted the Nkomati Accord by supporting RENAMO.
1985
9 October, General Constand Viljoen, Chief of South Africa’s Armed Forces admits on television that the military, without the government authority, has flaunted the Nkomati Accord by supporting RENAMO.
1985
9 October, General Constand Viljoen, Chief of South Africa’s Armed Forces admits on television that the military, without the government authority, has flaunted the Nkomati Accord by supporting RENAMO.
1985
13 October, The PFP meets the ANC in Lusaka and calls for the release of Nelson Mandela.
1985
13 October, The PFP meets the ANC in Lusaka and calls for the release of Nelson Mandela.
1985
18 October, Benjamin Moloise - worker, poet and member of ANC - executed.
1985
31 October, The ruling National Party loses a string of by-elections to the ultra-right parties with the exception of Port Natal.
1985
November, COSATU formed.
1985
1 November, Government bans television coverage of unrest in black townships in the thirty-eight magisterial districts where the State of Emergency is in force, except with permission from the Commissioner of Police. Curbs on newspaper reports are also imposed.
1985
3 November, South Africa:Signs multilateral treaty on radio regulations.
1985
4 November, In a cabinet reshuffle, Louis le Grange, Minister of Law and Order, is replaced by Adriaan Vlock, Deputy Minister of Defence and Law and Order.
1985
8 November, The National Key Points Act No 26: Aimed at tightening up security following sabotage in Umtata.
Commenced: 8 November 1985
The University of Transkei Amendment Act No 17: Empowered the Transkei Minister of Education to veto, without giving reasons, the appointment of any person to a post at the University.
Commenced: 8 November 1985
1985
21 November, South Africa:Signs multilateral agreement on the control of pollution of water resources in the Southern African region.
1985
28 November, Two strategic oil-from-coal plants based in Secunda are attacked by saboteurs.
1985
30 November, The Congress of South African Trade Unions was formed with a membership of 500 000.
1985
December, A shopping centre in Amanzimtoti, Natal, is bombed.
1985
December, In December Inkatha said its membership was now over a million people.
Twelve UDF treason trialists were acquitted in December.
Six people died in a landmine explosion in the Northern Transvaal in December.
A bomb in a shopping centre in Amanzimtoti near Durban killed five people.
1985
9 December, Twelve of the sixteen UDF members, charged with treason, have these withdrawn.
1985
10 December, The General Assembly adopted and opened for signature the International Convention against Apartheid in Sports.
1985
10 December, General Assembly adopted and opened for signature the International Convention against Apartheid in Sports.
1985
20 December, Internal Security Amendment Act No 39:
Empowered the President to close certain educational institutions in certain circumstances (notably circumstances of unrest etc.), in particular the University of Bophuthatswana.
Commenced: 20 December 1985
1985
20 December, Security Clearance Act No 40: Required security clearance of people as a prerequisite to their employment in certain educational or training institutions and certain parastatal bodies.
Commenced: 20 December 1985
1985
30 December, Winnie Mandela is arrested for contravening a banning order prohibiting her from being in the magisterial district of Johannesburg and Roodepoort.
1985
31 December, Government extended orders, in force since March, prohibiting anti-government groups from holding meetings, for another six months. Initially, they affected 29 organisations in 18 districts. In June they were extended to 64 organisations and 30 districts. Now 10 more groups linked to UDF and AZAPO were added.
1986
Sisulu visits with Mandela; Mandela ill
1986
By 1986, the ANC, with headquarters in Lusaka, London, and New York, had taken on the key role position of any future black regime. ANC recruits at military camps were influenced by Russian and East German instructors, and the practice of sending ANC students to Russia on scholarships was having a visible effect on the ideological leanings of the younger leaders. Consequently, in its struggle to achieve its aim, the ANC appeared less concerned about ideological arguments, more with change in tactics. Through Radio Freedom it announced a ‘Peoples' War' calling on members to incite local violence to make the country ungovernable. But those who joined in promoting violence faced the ascending role of the South African military.
1986
the Reagan administration found itself caught in the divisive sanctions debate. In an effort to influence the struggle out of revolutionary channels into political discussions, it increased its policy of constructive engagement to include all the main participants in the South African cauldron of politics. At the same time, it continued to express its disapproval of the violent methods used by the ANC and the degree of Soviet involvement in it.
1986
Andrew Zondo, who was responsible for the 1985 Amanzimtoti bomb is hanged.
1986
Restoration of South African Citizenship Act No 73:
Granted South African citizenship to TBVC citizens who were born in South Africa prior to their homeland’s independence or who resided in South Africa permanently. TBVC citizens who remained in South Africa temporarily while seeking employment, working, studying or visiting and whose permanent home was one of the TBVC areas remained ‘aliens’ (RRS 1986: 94-5). Citizenship was restored to about 1 751 400 TBVC citizens, but eight to nine million still remained subject to the provisions of the 1937 Aliens Act. There was, however, according to Budlender (1989: 4), no official attempt to enforce this new migrant labour system.
Commenced: 1 July 1985. Repealed by s 7 of the Restoration and Extension of South African Citizenship Act No 196 of 1993.
Gazankulu: Labour Regulations Repeal Act No 4: Commenced: 6 February 1987
KaNgwane: Labour Relations Repeal Act No 6: Commenced: 25 June 1987
KwaZulu: National Welfare Act No 9: Commenced: 24 July 1987
Alexandra exploded several times, with more than 30 people killed.
The National Education Crisis Committee (NECC) is formed.
The movement for People's Education grows. A further State of Emergency is called.
The Private Schools Act is made into law. This Act officially allows racially mixed private schools.
Brigitte Mabandla becomes legal advisor to ANC Legal and Constitutional Affairs Department.
Zubeida Jaffer detained for editing community and trade papers.
Winnie Mandela returns to her home, becomes active in ANC politics. Her opposition to the Botha regime earns her the title “Mother of the Nation.”
Sister Bernard Ncube is detained,and spends three months in solitary confinement. Sister Ncube’s detentions evoke international condemnation.
1986
January, Soweto pupils return to school in January in response to a call from the Soweto Parents Crisis' Committee
167 people died in political violence in January.
1986
7 January, South Africa’s foreign minister ‘Pik’ Botha warns Botswana to take action against ANC operations in its country.
The ANC in exile in Lusaka, calls on its supporters to take the struggle into white areas.
1986
20 January, Twenty-two black South Africans appear in the Delmas Court for allegedly attempting to overthrow the government.
1986
25 January, Sixty ANC refugees are airlifted out of Lesotho to counter South Africa’s threat of a blockade against that country.
1986
31 January, In his opening speech to Parliament, President Botha outlines government policy on the restoration of South African citizenship to blacks, their involvement in decision-making, freehold property rights and uniform identity documents for all population groups. could become president of South Africa.
1986
February, In February the leader of the Progressive Federal Party resigned from Parliament because he said Parliament is incapable of bringing about the desired reforms.
1986
7 February, Dr. Frederick van Zyl Slabbert, leader of the opposition PFP, resigns from parliamentary politics.
1986
25 February, South Africa and Botswana agree to take steps preventing ANC operatives from using Botswana as a transit base into South Africa.
1986
March, COSATU held discussions with ANC and SACTU in Lusaka.
1986
March, At the National Education Crisis Committee meeting in March it is resolved that the boycott of schools should end.
1986
7 March, The State of Emergency imposed on 21 July 1985 lifted.
The South African Congress of Trade Unions (SACTU), the Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) and the ANC issue a joint statement in Lusaka, reiterating their commitment to overthrow white supremacy in South Africa.
1986
7 March, State of emergency lifted (RRS 1985: 455).
1986
7 March, The state of emergency is lifted on 7 March.
1986
8 March, Moses Mabhida, General Secretary of the South African Communist Party, dies in Maputo.
1986
12 March, The Eminent Persons Group meets imprisoned ANC leader, Nelson Mandela.
1986
13 March, South Africa:Signs multilateral Wheat Trade Convention.
1986
14 March, On 14 March, 14 people have been killed since the lifting of the state of emergency.
Since September 1984 to March 1986, 1 416 people have died. March had the highest monthly figure of 171.
1986
26 March, South Africa and Lesotho issue a joint statement that their respective territories are not to be used for acts of terrorism against each other.
1986
April, South African Communist Party leader Moses Mabhida, is buried in Maputo, Mozambique in April.
Representatives of 34 organisations attend the Kwazulu-Natal Indaba to discuss regional representation in April. The UDF and National Forum Committee refuse to attend.
A journalist Mr. Lucky Kutumela, died in detention in Lebowa in April. A week later Peter Nchabeleng died in the same police station.
In April there is a complete stay-away of black workers in White River and Nelspruit. The boycott of white shops in Port Elizabeth is re-imposed.
1986
14 April, Bishop Desmond Tutu is appointed head of the Anglican Church of South Africa.
1986
17 April, Internal Security Amendment Act No 5: Granted further control over illegal gatherings. Commenced: 17 April 1986
1986
17 April, Special Offences Act No 6: Made it an offence to possess a tyre or similar object, or any inflammable liquid, in circumstances in which it could be inferred that such things could be used to commit an offence. Commenced: 17 April 1986
1986
18 April, South Africa:Signs bilateral monetary agreement with Lesotho.
Signs trilateral agreement amending monetary agreement between South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland, dated 5 December 1974.
Signs monetary agreement with Swaziland.
1986
1 May, KwaNdebele: Police Act No 11: Commenced: 1 May 1987
1986
19 May, South African commandos air strike alleged guerrilla targets in Zambia, Botswana and Zimbabwe, jeopardizing the Eminent Persons Group (EPG) mission to South Africa.
1986
22 May, The multi-racial National Council, intended to negotiate a constitutional structure for South Africa, is unveiled.
1986
June, a national emergency was declared, that lasted until 1990.
1986
5 June, South Africa:Signs treaty with Botswana, Mozambique and Zimbabwe relative to the establishment of the Limpopo Basin Permanent Technical Committee.
1986
11 June, Security Laws Amendment Act No 13:
Imposed imprisonment for up to ten years for disruption of any educational institution, unlawful strikes, boycotting of consumer goods, civil disobedience, obstruction of public places, or attending a restricted funeral. Commenced: 11 June 1986
1986
12 June, The Eminent Persons Group releases its report on South Africa.
Government declares a new State of Emergency and hundreds of The State drops the case against the remaining four charged with treason in the Pietermaritzburg Supreme Court.
1986
12 June, State of Emergency declared again - this time, all over the country.
1986
12 June, Countrywide state of emergency declared in terms of the Public Safety Act No 3 of 1953.
Far-reaching regulations prevent the dissemination or publication of information relating to police conduct or any incidents categorised as ‘unrest’ incidents.
Ӣ Regulation 16 provided that the security forces were indemnified from prosecution or civil liability for unlawful acts committed in good faith.
Ӣ Regulation 16(3) attempted to exclude the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court to set aside regulations issued in terms of the Act.
”¢ Regulation 10 provided for the prohibition of publication or dissemination of ‘subversive’ statements.
Numerous challenges to the regulations resulted in further amendments. Commissioners of Police were authorised to restrict township funerals, impose curfews, prohibit school pupils from being outside their classrooms during school hours and prohibit indoor gatherings by named organisations.
1986
16 June - 20 June, World Conference on Sanctions against Racist South Africa, UNESCO House, Paris, organised by the United Nations in cooperation with OAU and the Movement of Non-aligned Countries.
1986
16 June - 20 June, World Conference on Sanctions against Racist South Africa, UNESCO House, Paris, organised by the United Nations in co-operation with OAU and the Movement of Non-aligned Countries.
1986
24 June, In Britain, Foreign Office Minister Lynda Chalker, meets Oliver Tambo, president of the ANC.
1986
26 June, Public Safety Amendment Act No 67: Allowed for any area to be declared an ‘unrest area’ by the Minister of Law and Order, thus avoiding the negative consequences of declaring a national state of emergency. Denied the Supreme Court the jurisdiction to set aside any regulations in terms of the Act. Commenced: 26 June 1986
Repealed by s 4 of the State of Emergency Act No 86 of 1995.
1986
July, The Transkei, Kangwane and KwaNdebele ‘homelands’ are plagued by violence and Piet Ntuli, Home Affairs Minister for KwaNdebele, is killed in a bomb explosion.
The European Community Mission under the leadership of British Foreign Secretary, Sir Geoffrey Howe, pays a weeklong visit to South Africa to assess the situation.
1986
1 July, Influx control restrictions lifted and passes to be replaced by a uniform identity document for all population groups.
1986
1 July, Abolition of Influx Control Act No 68:
Amended the 1927 Black Administration Act in order to repeal sections relating to the removal of black communities as well as individual black persons (RRS 1986: 339).
Commenced: 1 July 1986. IN FORCE: LOCAL GOVERNMENT.
1986
1 July, Abolition of Influx Control Act No 68:
Amended the 1927 Black Administration Act in order to repeal sections relating to the removal of black communities as well as individual black persons (RRS 1986: 339).
Commenced: 1 July 1986. IN FORCE: LOCAL GOVERNMENT.
1986
1 July, Identification Act No 72: Repealed the 1952 Blacks (Abolition of Passes and Co-ordination of Documents) Act and large portions of the 1950 Population Registration Act (RRS 1986: 338). Identity numbers would no longer reflect a person’s race group in terms of the 1950 Population Registration Act or any other law (RRS 1986: 7).
Commenced: 1 July 1986
IN FORCE (as amended by the Identification Amendment Act No 47 of 1995: CENSUS AND STATISTICS.
1986
1 July, Government Notice No 72: Defined curfew regulations. Commenced: 1 July 1986
1986
7 July, After enduring more than twenty years of government banning, Winnie Mandela is freed of all state-ordered restriction.
1986
31 July, South Africa:Signs treaty with Zimbabwe regarding the amendment of the trade agreement of 30 November 1964.
1986
August, Zephania Mthopeng is elected President of the PAC.
South African intelligence forces raid Swaziland in search of ANC activists.
1986
August, Beginning of violence in Natal between Inkatha and UDF supporters.
1986
1 August, Elite Unit Act No 18: Established an intelligence organisation which could investigate almost anything.
Commenced: 1 August 1986
National Key Points Act No 16: Empowered the Minister of Defence to declare any premises a ‘national key point’. Such premises could not be destroyed.
Commenced: 1 August 1986
1986
12 August, At the Federal Congress of the National Party, President Botha outlines six proposals for discussion with the United States, Britain, France, West Germany and neighbouring African states.
KwaNdebele ‘homeland’ rejects independence.
1986
13 August, At the National Party Federal Congress, Chris Heunis, Minister of Constitutional Development and Planning, outlines plans for the creation of a black electorate to choose leaders to be represented on a National Statutory Council which will play a role in power sharing. Government also consider establishing independent ‘city states’.
1986
26 August, Internal Security Amendment Act No 66:
Created a new section 50(a) of the 1982 Internal Security Act to allow for continued detention for a period of 180 days on the authorisation of a policeman at or above the rank of lieutenant colonel, if he was of the opinion that such detention would contribute to the ‘termination, combating or prevention of public disturbance, disorder, riot or public violence at any place within the Republic’.
Commenced: 26 August 1986. Repealed by s 33 of the Internal Security and Intimidation Amendment Act No 138 of 1991.
1986
1 September, QwaQwa: Labour Regulations Repeal Act No 7:
Commenced: 1 September 1986
1986
5 September, KwaNdebele: Labour Regulations Repeal Act No 3: Commenced: 5 September 1986
1986
8 September, Diplomatic office of ANC in Stockholm bombed.
1986
9 September, Three ANC members are executed, amongst them Andrew Zondo, who bombed a shopping centre in Amanzimtoti, Natal, in December 1985.
1986
9 September, Sipho Xulu, Clarence Payi and Andrew Zondo - members of ANC and Umkhonto - executed.
1986
15 September, Black Communities Development Amendment Act No 74:
Introduced freehold rights in urban black townships and extended the definition of ‘competent person’ such that TBVC citizens could acquire leasehold or ownership (Budlender 1989: 5). The 1984 Black Communities Development Act was amended to allow ‘South African’ citizens and certain other blacks to acquire freehold property rights in black townships (RRS 1986: 343).Commenced: 15 September 1986 Repealed by s 72 of the Abolition of Racially Based Land Measures Act No 108 of 1991.
Both the above Acts introduced freedom of movement for South African citizens (i.e. excluding the TBVC states) (RRS 1986: 343). However, according to the South African Institute of Race Relations, ‘shifting the basis of discrimination from race to foreign nationality would fool nobody’ (RRS 1986: 343). According to the Black Sash, about 7.5 million TBVC citizens who did not have urban residence rights in South Africa remained aliens in ‘South Africa’ (i.e. South Africa excluding the TBVC states) (RRS 1986: 344).
1986
16 September, The European Economic Community (EEC) imposes sanctions against South Africa, coal being the exception.
1986
26 September, Defence Act No 17: Established a Ciskei defence force. Commenced: 26 September 1986
1986
30 September, President Botha retires as leader of the Cape Division of the National Party.
1986
October, Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act adopted by the USA.
1986
4 October, CUSA/ZACTU merger to form NACTU.
1986
19 October, Death of President Samora Machel of Mozambique in plane crash in South Africa.
1986
24 October, South Africa:Signs treaty on Lesotho Highlands Water Project.
Exchange of notes with Lesotho regarding the privileges and immunities accorded to the members of the Joint Permanent Technical Commission
1986
4 November, Oliver Tambo, who arrived in Moscow at head of a delegation of ANC, met Michael Gorbachev, General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee.
1986
27 November, Three of the twenty-two Delmas trialists are freed.
1986
4 December, Defence Amendment Act: Dealt mainly with various ways of combating terrorism. Commenced: 4 December 1986
1987
Sisulu has a discussions with Mandela regarding meetings with government.
1987
Release of Govan Mbeki. Speculation about Walter's release.
1987
1987 saw the highest number of strikes ever, including a strike by over 300,000 mineworkers.
1987
Joe Slovo resigned his post as a chief of staff of Mkhonto, giving rise to speculation that he would concentrate on the labour movement in South Africa. At this time, confusing reports from London and Washington showed a contradictory shift of position at the top. Much international publicity was given to ANC president Oliver Tambo's more conciliatory comments on the occasion of the ANC's 57th anniversary address, when he indicated that the military wing would not deliberately attack civilian targets. On the other hand, Joe Modise, the banned military commander of Mkhonto we Sizwe, told Agence France-Press the ANC was planning to take the war into white households.
1987
The Electoral Amendment Act No 8: Stipulated that no person could be nominated as an election candidate without being a registered member of the Venda National Party.
1987
Gazankulu: Civil Protection Act No 5: Commenced: 25 April 1988
1987
KwaNdebele: Civil Defence Act No 7: Commenced: 12 February 1988
1987
The KwaZulu Act on the Tracing and Detention of Offences:
Empowered the KwaZulu Police and South African Police to detain without warrant, for the purposes of interrogation and for a period of up to ninety days, any person suspected by the police of intending to commit or having committed a crime. Commenced: 1987
1987
QwaQwa: Education Act No 7: Commenced: 1 July 1988
1987
People’s education material is banned from DET schools.
1987
Zubeida Jaffer heads Media Department at University of the Western Cape.
1987
8 January, At the ANC’s seventy-fifth anniversary, its President Oliver Tambo rules out negotiations with the South African government and declares 1987 ‘the year of advance to people’s power’.
1987
9 January, Security police raid English-language newspapers seizing documents related to an advertisement calling for the legalising of the ANC.
A bomb explodes in a major departmental store in the centre of Johannesburg.
1987
20 January, The Margo Commission of Inquiry into the death of President Samora Machel has its first hearing in Johannesburg.
1987
28 January, United States Secretary of State, George Shultz, meets ANC leader, Oliver Tambo, in Washington, D.C.
1987
19 February, President Lennox Sebe of the Ciskei escapes an assassination attempt.
1987
March, Joe Slovo resigns as Chief of Staff of Umkhonto we Sizwe, the military wing of the ANC.
1987
16 March, The International Commission of Jurists states in its report that children are being tortured by security forces.
1987
18 March, Israel freezes military contracts and imposes cultural and tourism sanctions on South Africa.
1987
22 March, Archbishop Desmond Tutu meets the ANC in Zambia and fails to convince the organization to abandon the armed struggle.
1987
30 March, The Republic of Venda Constitution Amendment Act No 4: Had the effect of making Venda a one-party administration (s 24(1)). Commenced: 30 March 1987
1987
5 April, Transkei deports white Selous Scout mercenaries.
1987
10 April, Ciskei, Transkei and South Africa sign a security pact forbidding cross-border violence.
1987
16 April, The Security Council called upon South African authorities to revoke the decree of 10 April prohibiting protests against detention without trial.
1987
30 April, South Africa:Signs an agreement with Lesotho in regard to the establishment of trade missions.
1987
May, South African agents attack ANC offices and safe houses in Maputo and Harare.
Major urban areas hit by a wave of pre-election bomb blasts for which the ANC claims responsibility.
1987
6 May, The ruling National Party wins the general election and the rightwing Conservative Party replaces the PFP as the official opposition in the white House of Assembly.
1987
7 May, The COSATU building in Johannesburg is seriously damaged by two bomb blasts.
1987
18 May, Walter Sisulu celebrates 75th birthday.
1987
4 June, President Botha visits Sharpeville.
1987
5 June, Electoral Amendment Act No 7: Provisions of section 16(a) allowed for the refusal of registration to political parties. Parties could be disqualified if their object was deemed to be ‘hostile to the state’. Commenced: 5 June 1987
1987
11 June, The year old State of Emergency renewed.
1987
11 June, State of emergency declared Regulations governed security, media and black education. Initial period of detention extended from fourteen to thirty days.
1987
11 June, State of emergency declared in South Africa .
1987
16 June, Concludes a reciprocal radio agreement with the Republic of Chile.
1987
24 June, Government Notice No 68: Repealed curfew regulations. Commenced: 24 June 1987
1987
30 June, Proclamation No 8: Declared a state of emergency in Transkei. Commenced: 30 June 1987
1987
July, Key African ANC personnel are assassinated in South Africa’s neighbouring states. Amongst them is Cassius Make and Paul Dikeledi, both killed in Swaziland.
1987
1 July, Eight multi-racial Regional Services Councils are established to provide basic services, such as water and electricity.
The Reverend Frank Chikane succeeds the Reverend C.F. Beyers Naudé as head of the South African Council of Churches.
1987
6 July, A new black party, the Federal Independent Democratic Alliance (FIDA) is launched to oppose apartheid and prepares to work with the government.
1987
9 July, The Margo Commission of Inquiry into the death of President Samora Machel releases its findings. The plane carrying him crashes due to pilot error and negligence and was not lured off course by a decoy beacon as alleged by the Soviets and Mozambicans.
1987
9 July - 12 July, Sixty-one white South Africans, mainly from the Afrikaans community, meet the ANC in Dakar, in search of a democratic alternative for South Africa. Eric Mntonga, an IDASA official, who organized this meeting, is found stabbed to death.
1987
10 July, Ratifies the Convention on Assistance in the case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency; also ratifies Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident.
1987
20 July, Signs an agreement with the Federal Islamic Republic of the Comores relating to the basic conditions governing the secondment of officials to, and the recruitment of other personnel by South Africa on behalf of the government of the Republic of the Comores.
1987
26 July, Prominent anti-apartheid activists are arrested. Amongst them is Azhar Cachalia, national treasurer of the United Democratic Front (UDF).
1987
30 July, A bomb explodes outside the headquarters of the South African Defence Force, injuring soldiers and civilians.
1987
31 July - 3 August, International Student Conference in Solidarity with the Struggle of the Students of Southern Africa, London.
1987
31 July - 3 August, International Student Conference in Solidarity with the Struggle of the Students of Southern Africa, London.
1987
14 August, Reverend Allan Hendricks, a cabinet minister, resigns from government.
1987
4 September, KwaNdebele: Public Safety Act No 5: Commenced: 4 September 1987
1987
7 September, An intricate prisoner exchange takes place in Maputo, involving 133 Angolan soldiers, anti-apartheid activists, Klaas de Jonge, a Dutch anthropologist, Pierre Andre Albertini, a French university lecturer and Major Wynand du Toit, a South African officer captured in Angola two years ago.
1987
11 September, A revised National Statutory Council is released providing a forum for blacks to discuss policy and assist in drawing up a new constitution.
1987
13 September, Venda Border Extension Act No 31: Included further territory into Venda. Commenced: 13 September 1979
1987
23 September, Signs treaty with Malawi providing for the training of nurses from Malawi in South Africa.
1987
24 September, Congress of Traditional Leaders of South Africa is launched to articulate the interests of tribal chiefs and act as an extra-parliamentary opposition movement.
1987
27 September, Oliver Tambo, President of the ANC denies that it is in contact with the South African government.
1987
October, Chris Hani is appointed new Chief of Staff and Deputy Commander of Umkhonto we Sizwe.
1987
5 October, President P.W. Botha decides against scrapping the Separate Amenities Act, but agrees that some residential areas can be opened to all races.
1987
6 October, ANC command structure in the Western Cape is arrested.
1987
12 October, Wynand Malan a former National Party M.P. leads the newly formed Afrikaans dominated political party, the National Democratic Movement (NDM) which is to develop contacts with black politicians.
1987
5 November, Govan Mbeki released from Robben Island after twenty-three years in prison.
1987
5 November - 7 November, International Conference against Apartheid Sport, Harare, organised by the Special Committee against Apartheid in cooperation with the Government of Zimbabwe, the Supreme Council for Sport in Africa, the Association of National Olympic Committees of Africa, the Union of African Sports Confederations, SAN-ROC and the Zimbabwe National Olympic Committee.
1987
5 November - 7 November, International Conference against Apartheid Sport, Harare, organised by the Special Committee against Apartheid in co-operation with the Government of Zimbabwe, the Supreme Council for Sport in Africa, the Association of National Olympic Committees of Africa, the Union of African Sports Confederations, SAN-ROC and the Zimbabwe National.
1987
6 November, Intelligence Service and State Security Council Act No 20: Granted further powers to the security mechanisms. Commenced: 6 November 1987
1987
1 December, Signs an agreement with the USA regarding co-operation in the development, building, installation and operation of an integrated real-time global seismic data acquisition system.
1987
24 December, Gazankulu: Social Pensions Amendment Act No 7: Commenced: 24 December 1987
1987
30 December, The Transkei military overthrows the administration of Stella Sigcau of the Transkei.
1987
30 December, Bloodless coup d’etat. Martial law declared (SRR 1987/88: 936).
1987
31 December, Ratifies International Sugar Agreement.
1988
The ANC executive's attitude to racialism, tribalism and sectarianism was made clear in the more specific constitutional guidelines it drafted for a multiparty democracy in South Africa.
1988
Fietas, Johannesburg: 867 people are ‘reclassified’. The classification of non-white South Africans adhered to the following criteria: ‘Coolie’ – people of Indian, Asian and Middle Eastern descent, ‘Kaffir’ – African people, ‘Coloured’ – racially mixed South Africans.
The SPA and other extra-parliamentary groups condemn the Group Areas Amendment Bill. The Bill does not become law.
1988
Gazankulu: Control of Access to Public Premises and Vehicles Act No 5: Commenced: 20 January 1989
1988
Gazankulu: Removal of Restrictions on Economic Activities Act No 15: Commenced: 30 June 1989
1988
KaNgwane: Police Act No 4: Commenced: 27 January 1989.
Control of Access to Public Premises and Vehicles Act No 5: Commenced: 15 February 1989
1988
KaNgwane: Local Authorities Act No 9: Commenced: 17 March 1989
1988
KwaNdebele: Criminal Procedure Amendment Act No 8: Commenced: 5 January 1989
1988
KwaNdebele: Mines and Works Amendment Act No 19: Commenced: 28 July 1989
1988
QwaQwa: Labour Regulations Act No 13: Commenced: 13 June 1989
1988
QwaQwa: Local Authorities Act No 18: Commenced: 2 October 1989
1988
Commission of Inquiry into alleged misappropriation of funds of the Lebowa Government Service Mandate: To inquire into, report on and make recommendations on-
a)the possible misappropriation of funds of the Lebowa Government Service by -
i)the financing of the erection of a house on the farm Majebaskraal and
ii)the granting of a loan to Kgosi L.C. Mothiba;
b) the methods employed and malpractices committed in connection with any irregularities or advantage accorded anyone, or any misappropriation the Commission may find;
c)steps to end such practices, and action to be taken against those involved.
Date of Report: 18 October 1988.
Chair: DEKKER, L.W.
Ref: RP 45-89; S291/141 (Bilingual)
1988
National Education Crisis Committee (NECC) is restricted.
1988
January, Fierce fighting erupts between Angolan and South African forces for control of the strategic town of Cuito Cuanavale in Angola.
1988
6 January, General Bantu Holomisa, who ousted Stella Sigcau in a coup appoints himself as the Transkei’s military and government chief.
1988
12 January, Signs a medical co-operation treaty with the government of the Republic of China, providing advanced training for medical and nursing personnel.
1988
17 January, Percy Qoboza, well-known anti-apartheid journalist and editor of The World newspaper, dies.
1988
31 January, Allan Hendrickse, leader of the Labour Party, replaces Carter Ebrahim as Minister of Education and Culture in the House of Representatives.
1988
February, President P.W. Botha opens Parliament and ignores the country’s domestic crisis in his opening address.
1988
10 February, Bophuthatswana troops, led by Rocky Malebane-Metsing; fail to overthrow President Lucas Mangope.
1988
10 February, South Africa sent troops to Bophuthatswana to reinstate Lucas Mangope who was ousted by local defence force members on charge of corruption.
1988
22 February, Seventeen organisations effectively banned. Two days later, 18 people were served with restriction orders.
1988
24 February, Seventeen anti-apartheid organizations are banned, amongst them the Azanian People’s Organization and COSATU.
1988
24 February, The State President amended the emergency regulations to allow the Minister of Law and Order to restrict the activities of organisations or people. Orders prohibiting organisations from performing any activities whatsoever could be gazetted (RRS 1987/88: 587).
1988
27 February, Members of the Afrikaner Resistance Movement (AWB) march to Pretoria and call for a Volkstaat for the Afrikaner people.
1988
28 February, South African commandos raid Gaborone, in search of ANC members.
1988
29 February, Reverend Desmond Tutu and others are arrested as they present a petition to Parliament.
1988
8 March, Britain and the United States vetoed a draft resolution in the United Nations Security Council, following the banning of organisations in South Africa, for selective mandatory sanctions (based largely on measures adopted by the EEC).
1988
8 March, Britain and the United States vetoed a draft resolution in the United Nations Security Council, following the banning of organisations in South Africa, for selective mandatory sanctions (based largely on measures adopted by the EEC).
1988
11 March, The Cabinet is reshuffled.
1988
13 March, Church services are held countrywide to warn the government to desist from its confrontational road.
1988
15 March, Internal Security Amendment Act No 2: Amended the 1979 Internal Security Act (RRS 1988/89: 58). Commenced: 15 March 1988
1988
17 March, The ‘Sharpeville Six’ are granted stay of til 18 April. 17 Mar. 1988 Dennis Worrall, former Ambassador to Britain, establishes the Dennis Worrall, former Ambassador to Britain, establishes the Independent Party.
1988
29 March, Signs Protocol I, 11 and Ill to the treaty on the Lesotho Highlands members.
Water Project (Royalty Manual).
1988
April, President Patrick Mphephu of Venda dies. Alan Paton, founder member of the Liberal Party, dies.
1988
1 April, National Intelligence Act No 31: Created state security bodies.
Commenced: 1 April 1989
1988
3 April, The International Convention against Apartheid in Sports entered into force.
1988
3 April, The International Convention against Apartheid in Sports entered into force.
1988
7 April, Albie Sachs, an exiled ANC member, is critically injured in a bomb explosion in Maputo. South African agents are blamed.
1988
7 April, A prominent white South African lawyer and ANC member, Albie Sachs, was seriously wounded by a car bomb in Maputo. The ANC and Mozambique blamed South Africa for the attack, with the ANC charging that Mr. Sachs was the latest victim of South African “death squads“. At least six ANC members have been killed in countries outside South Africa so far this year. South Africa has denied responsibility for the attack on Mr. Sachs.
1988
11 April, Signs visa agreement with the government of the Republic of Paraguay.
1988
15 April, Black Communities Development Amendment Act No 42:
Amended the 1984 Black Communities Amendment Act and made further provisions for the development areas and townships. Also regulated the rights of holders of mineral rights and mining titles where townships were established on the surface of the land in which these rights were held. Commenced: 15 April 1988 Repealed by s 72 of the Abolition of Racially Based Land Measures Act No 108 of 1991.
1988
19 April, General Jannie Geldenhuys, Chief of the South African Defence Force (SADF) reveals details of South African military operations, code named Modular and Hooper, directed against SWAPO forces in Angola.
1988
21 April, President P.W. Botha outlines reform plans involving a form of race federation and draft legislation providing for new regional assemblies for blacks living outside the existing ‘homelands’. Black leaders, such as Dr. Nthato Motlana, state that such reforms will not attract legitimate black leaders.
1988
May, Alleged South African spy, Olivia Forsyth, seeks refuge in the British Embassy in Angola and claims that she was imprisoned for twenty-two months by ANC guerrillas.
1988
4 May, Representatives of South Africa, United States, Angola and Cuba, meet in London in search of a solution to the Angolan war and independence for Namibia.
1988
4 May, Angola, Cuba, South Africa and the US held talks on 3-4 May in London on a possible settlement to the conflict in Angola and independence for Namibia. It was the first time that the four countries had met together on the question. After the talks, the parties issued a communiqué stating that they had made progress on the issues, and the US, which had acted as mediator, said that they would meet again “in a matter of weeks“.
1988
6 May, An ILO tripartite conference on action against apartheid, held in Harare, Zimbabwe from 3-6 May, updated a declaration and a plan of action to help end apartheid and bring independence to Namibia that included sanctions and assistance to the front-line and neighbouring States. The conference was attended by representatives of governments, employers and workers appointed by the ILO's governing body, by similar tripartite delegations from the frontline and other southern African states, and by other governments, international organisations such as the UN and the OAU, and national liberation movements.
1988
6 May, An ILO tripartite conference on action against apartheid, held in Harare, Zimbabwe from 3-6 May, updated a declaration and a plan of action to help end apartheid and bring independence to Namibia that included sanctions and assistance to the front-line and neighbouring states. The conference was attended by representatives of governments, employers and workers appointed by the ILO's governing body, by similar tripartite delegations from the front-line and other southern African states, and by other governments, international organisations such as the UN and the OAU, and national liberation movements.
1988
10 May, An International Commission of Jurists report alleges the widespread use of force and torture by security forces on anti-apartheid opponents.
New Nation and South newspapers are banned and twenty-six English- language newspaper editors hand petitions to government, protesting against these curbs on the press.
1988
11 May, Four white guerrillas, known as the Broederstroom Four, are arrested and an arms cache is discovered.
Visa agreement signed with Paraguay on 11 April 1988 enters into force.
1988
24 May, South Africa:Signs treaty of extradition with the Republic of China.
1988
26 May, South Africa and Mozambique agree to revive the Nkomati Accord.
1988
27 May, Anti-apartheid Afrikaners led by Frederik van Zyl Slabbert, IDASA director, meet with the ANC in Frankfurt, to discuss a post-apartheid South Africa.
1988
31 May, More than 200 South African religious leaders representing the Christian, Moslem, Jewish and Hindu faiths, decided at the end of a two-day meeting to embark on a new programme of non-violent action to end apartheid, beginning with support for the “national peaceful protest“ called for by COSATU from 6 through 8 June. Protest actions will continue with a campaign to secure the release of political prisoners lasting from 12 June to 18 July, the 70th birthday of Nelson Mandela. They also appointed a national committee to elaborate the rest of the programme, which would be a “standing for truth“ campaign.
1988
8 June, More than one million black South African workers, following a call by South Africa's two biggest trade unions, the Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) and the National Council of Trade Unions (NACTU), held a nation-wide stay-away from 6 through 8 June to protest apartheid, the state of emergency including the February banning of 18 anti-apartheid groups from all political activity, and the pending Labour Relations Amendment Bill that would further restrict trade unions. The stay-away was the most successful in recent years, resulting in employers and trade union leaders agreeing to discuss the labour bill. It also demonstrated that the black trade unions could still mobilise mass protest despite all the restrictions, and showed what they said was their future agenda, to use the threat of blacks withholding their labour and purchasing power to force change on the regime.
1988
10 June, The State of Emergency renewed.
1988
10 June, State of emergency reproclaimed.
1988
11 June, The British Anti-Apartheid Movement (BAAM) held an 11-hour rock concert at Wembley Stadium in London to pay tribute to Nelson Mandela on his 70th birthday on 18 July.
1988
16 June, More than a million South African blacks stayed away from work to mark the 12th anniversary of the Soweto student uprising.
1988
20 June, The South African government presents a promotion of Constitutional Development Bill which proposes an advisory and consultative council, designed to give blacks a voice in government.
1988
21 June, The International Olympic Committee (IOC) for the first time joined with the highest-ranking sports leaders in Africa to issue a declaration denouncing apartheid and urging all international sports organisations to cut their remaining ties to South Africa. By specifically making this request of the international federations that govern Olympic sports, the IOC intensified the pressure it has tried to exert on them.
1988
25 June, Angolan, Cuban, South African and United States officials meet in Cairo, in search of independence for Namibia in tandem with a withdrawal of Cuban troops from Angola.
1988
29 June, Tertiary Education Act No 66: Repealed the 1959 Extension of University Education Act and others. Commenced: 29 June 1988 IN FORCE: EDUCATION.
1988
30 June, Zimbabwe foils a South African commando attempt to rescue five alleged South African agents awaiting trial for bomb attacks against the ANC in Zimbabwe.
1988
July, The ANC compiles a set of constitutional proposals for post-apartheid South Africa.
1988
1 July, The government tables three bills cracking down on illegal residents, but allowing legal recognition of some racially mixed residential areas. Those are the draft Group Areas Amendment Bill, the Free Settlement Areas Bill and the Local Government Affairs in Free Settlement Areas Bill.
1988
7 July, Five prominent anti-apartheid activists from Cape Town were released after being detained for up to two years under the emergency, but three of them were served with restriction orders limiting their movements and activities and barring them from speaking to the press. The five were Trevor Manuel, Ebrahim Rasool, Mountrain Qumbela and Hilda Ndude, all officials of the United Democratic Front (UDF) in the Western Cape region, and Mzonke Jacobs, president of the Cape Youth Congress. Those served with restriction orders were Messieurs. Manuel, Rasool, and Jacobs.
1988
8 July, The government introduces the Extension of Political Participation Bill, empowering the government to divide the country into a number of regions and calls elections to Legislative Council for each region through which Non-Homeland blacks can articulate their political aspirations. The ANC and the Inkatha Freedom Party express their opposition to these reforms.
1988
12 July, The ‘Sharpeville Six’ sentenced to hang on 19 July for the killing of a black local councillor, receive an indefinite stay of execution to pursue a possible appeal. This announcement was made hours after British Premier, Thatcher, made a plea of clemency on behalf of the six to President P.W. Botha.
1988
14 July, At present, South Africa does not attend the general conferences, which refuse to accept its delegation's credentials, but it takes part in the IAEA's technical nuclear work.
1988
18 July, The pro-government Afrikaans newspaper, Die Beeld, in an editorial coinciding with Nelson Mandela’s 70th birthday, urges the government to release him.
1988
18 July, The birthday of Mr. Mandela inspired renewed calls throughout the world for his release.
Angola, Cuba, and South Africa, after talks in New York from 11-13 July under US mediation, announced that they had reached tentative agreement on a document containing principles for a settlement in southwestern Africa.
1988
20 July, A fourteen-point agreement is signed between South Africa, Cuba, Angola and the United States for a peaceful settlement for Namibia and Angola.
1988
August, The Indian and Coloured Houses of Parliament, the Progressive Federal Party and the Independence Movement, refuse to debate the draft Group Areas Amendments Bill, the Free Settlement Areas Bill and the Local Government Areas Bill.
1988
3 August, The Foreign Ministers of eight Commonwealth countries ended a two-day meeting in Toronto by endorsing international efforts to strengthen sanctions against South Africa. They thereby decided to press for an international ban on purchases of South African coal, intensify efforts to extend the general Commonwealth ban on new loans to South Africa to as many countries as possible, request financial institutions in their own countries not to increase trade financing to South Africa, and promote the application of other measures regarding loans to South Africa. They also decided to call on all governments to study the possibility of widening the existing bans on agricultural products from South Africa, forbid technology transfer designed to enable South Africa to circumvent existing sanctions, carry out stricter customs inspection, investigate sanctions violations more thoroughly, and impose heavier penalties on those violating sanctions. They also agreed to take a series of measures to try to counteract South African censorship and propaganda. The eight Commonwealth countries that participated in the meeting were Australia, Canada, Guyana, India, Nigeria, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe, which comprise a committee formed at last October's Commonwealth summit to intensify the campaign against apartheid.
1988
5 August, Cohn Eghin of the PFP decides not to stand for re-election at the Congress, but will remain a party and parliamentary member.
Dr Zach de Beer succeeds Cohn Eghin as leader of the PFP.
1988
7 August, South Africa's second largest labour federation, the National Council of Trade Unions (NACTU), held its annual congress over the 5-7 August weekend in Johannesburg. About 200 delegates attended the meeting, which re-elected James Mndaweni as NACTU president and Piroshaw Camay as general-secretary.
1988
8 August, A joint declaration released on talks held in Geneva by Angola, Cuba, South Africa and the United States announcing a formal cessation of hostilities in the Namibian border conflict.
1988
14 August, Nelson Mandela is admitted to the Tygerberg hospital, suffering from a lung ailment.
1988
18 August, At the National Party Annual Congress in Durban, President P.W. Botha rules out any possibility of a black majority government in South Africa.
1988
19 August, National Security Amendment Act No 5: Provided for the arrest of any person who directly or indirectly rendered any assistance to persons suspected of being ‘terrorists’, or failed to report them (or have them reported) to the police. Commenced: 19 August 1988
1988
31 August, The South African Council of Churches (SACC) headquarters, Khotso House, is devastated by a bomb blast. Responsibility for the blast is claimed by a right-wing group.
1988
12 September, President P.W. Botha visits Mozambique and in talks with President Joaquim Chissano, pledges not to support RENAMO, to defend and rebuild the Cahora Bassa power lines and to increase economic cooperation between the two countries. He also visits Malawi and Zaire.
1988
13 September, Three leading anti-apartheid activists, Mohammed Valhi Moasa, Murphy Moroke, and Vusi Khanyile, escape from detention and seek refuge in the American Consulate in Johannesburg.
1988
26 September, Indian and Coloured members walk out of Parliament in protest against the draft Group Areas Amendment Bill, the Free Settlement of Areas Bill, and the Local Government Affairs in Free Settlement Areas Bill.
1988
October, The government shelves the three Group Areas Amendment Bills that led to the Indian and Coloured Houses walking out of Parliament and refers the Free Settlement Areas Bill to the President’s Council.
1988
12 October, Khanya House, the headquarters of the Southern African Catholic Bishops Conference, is set alight.
Three Zimbabwean intelligence officers are on trial in Harare for attempting to car bomb a house in Bulawayo, occupied by ANC refugees. The bomb exploded prematurely.
1988
15 October, President P.W. Botha meets Ivory Coast’s President Felix Houphouet-Boigny.
1988
16 October, ANC members and South African rugby officials meet in Harare to normalize the sport and get South Africa back into international sport.
1988
19 October, Mohammed Valli Moosa, Murphy Morobe and Vusi Khanyile end their 37-day sit-in at the American Consulate-General in Johannesburg.
1988
19 October, South African anti-apartheid leaders Mohammed Valli Moosa and Murphy Morobe, senior officials of the United Democratic Front (UDF), and Vusi Khanyile, chairman of the National Education Crisis Committee, left the US consulate in Johannesburg in which they had been staying since 13 September after escaping from detention. The three men, who had previously pledged not to leave until other detainees were freed and repressive laws repealed, announced that they had successfully publicized the status of 1,300 persons presently in detention under the emergency, and were responding to the suggestion of Nelson Mandela and others to return to the community and continue their anti-apartheid work. However, they said that they still felt some apprehension in doing so, despite the regime's having given assurances that they would not be re-detained or restricted.
1988
26 October, All race municipal elections are held to elect segregated local authorities.
1988
26 October, The regime held nation-wide multiracial segregated municipal elections, the first time that it held elections on the same day for all racial population groups, even separately. The black majority followed the call of anti-apartheid forces and largely boycotted the elections, with only an estimated 14 per cent of “eligible“ black voters participating, some 435,000 of 3.1 million out of a black population of 28 million.
The UN General Assembly the same day overwhelmingly rejected the elections as a manoeuvre to further entrench white minority rule and apartheid.
1988
26 October, The regime held nation-wide multiracial segregated municipal elections, the first time that it held elections on the same day for all racial population groups, even separately. Although the National Party triumphed over the ultra-right Conservative Party in most of the Country's major cities and in three of its four provinces, the Conservative Party gained possession of a majority of the municipalities in Transvaal Province, the country's most populated area, and made inroads elsewhere. Meanwhile, the black majority followed the call of anti-apartheid forces and largely boycotted the elections, with only an estimated 14 per cent of “eligible“ black voters participating, some 435,000 of 3.1 million out of a black population of 28 million (compared with about 21 per cent the last time municipal elections were held, in 1983).
In addition, the UN General Assembly the same day overwhelmingly rejected the elections as a manoeuvre to further entrench white minority rule and apartheid, that would increase conflict in southern Africa.
1988
November, Justice Michael Corbett appointed South Africa’s new Chief Justice.
1988
November, Harry Gwala and Zephania Mothopeng released.
1988
1 November, The government suspends the anti-apartheid alternative newspaper, The Weekly Mail, until 28 November.
1988
13 November, South Africa's economy has been feeling the impact of some strong economic sanctions and other anti-apartheid measures begun three years ago by many of the country's major trading partners and their business entities. While such sanctions have not yet resulted in a deep recession, they have forced the regime to pay a high price for apartheid, and over the next few years the economy's survival may come at the cost of sluggish growth or even recession, rising inflation, high unemployment and more social unrest.
South Africa's inability to regain access to foreign capital markets is at the heart of the problem. Domestic capital is also increasingly hard to find, as disinvestment and interest payments on the country's debt have spurred capital flight, a net outflow of almost $10 billion since 1985. In addition, the South African Reserve Bank recently announced that the gold component of foreign reserves had plunged by $258 million to $1.2 billion, the lowest level in 15 months. Trade sanctions have worsened this balance-of- payments problem, with the US reporting that US sanctions and those of most of South Africa's major industrialised trading partners have caused the regime's exports to drop by $469 million in the first eight months of 1987 from the same period in 1986. If gold's weakening price is added to this the foreign currency problem is even worse. Meanwhile, 1988 growth is estimated at 2.7 per cent, which may be too low to keep black unemployment from rising above its already high level of about 40 per cent or more.
1988
15 November, Barend Hendrik Strydom, a former right-wing member, massacres six blacks in a Pretoria street. He appears in court on six charges of murder and of attempted murder.
1988
18 November, Three UDF officials, Patrick Lekota, Popo Molefe and Moses Chikane, as well as South African Council of Churches member, Tom Manthatha, are convicted of treason in the Delmas Trial.
The three Zimbabwean intelligence officers standing on a trial for a bomb attack on an ANC house in Bulawayo, are sentenced to death
1988
18 November, United Democratic Front (UDF) officials Patrick Lekota, the organisation's publicity secretary, Popo Molefe, its national secretary, and Moses Chikane, its Transvaal Province secretary, as well as the Reverend Thomas Manthatha, another activist, were convicted of treason with intent to overthrow the regime. Seven other defendants were convicted of terrorism, which like treason, carries a maximum penalty of death, and eight were acquitted. That brought to 11 each the number of convictions and acquittals among the 22 persons accused in the more than three-year-long trial, one of the longest political trials in South Africa history.
1988
23 November, The Sharpeville Six are reprieved by State President, P.W. Botha.
1988
24 November, South African President P. W. Botha on 23 November granted reprieves to the “Sharpeville Six“, the six black South Africans who were condemned to death for being part of a crowd that killed the deputy mayor of Sharpeville township in September 1984.
1988
26 November, Harry Gwala of the ANC and Zephania Mothopeng of the PAC are released from prison.
1988
28 November, The regime on 26 November unconditionally freed two black leaders, Zephania Mothopeng, the president of the Pan-Africanist Congress of Azania (PAC), and Harry Gwala, a trade unionist and ANC member, on medical/humanitarian grounds“.
The International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU), in a report to be published on 30 November in Brussels, stated that the boycott of coal from South Africa imposed by certain countries such as the US and Denmark has been partly responsible for the 10 per cent decrease in the regime's coal exports in 1986.
1988
December, Delmas trialist Patrick Lekota is sentenced to twelve years imprisonment, and Popo Molefe, to ten years. Six others, amongst the eleven convicted, are given suspended sentences for terrorism.
Johnstone Makatini, director of foreign relations for the African National Congress since 1977, dies in Lusaka.
Nelson Mandela is transferred to the Victor Verster Prison.
1988
2 December, Zwelakhe Sisulu, editor of the New Nation newspaper, and six other detainees are released.
1988
7 December, The regime moved ANC leader Nelson Mandela from the private clinic at Cape Town where he had been recovering from tuberculosis since 31 August, to a house on the grounds of a prison farm at Paarl, east of Cape Town.
1988
8 December, Justice Kees van Dijkhorst of the Pretoria Supreme Court sentenced the 11 “Delmas Treason Trialists“ he had convicted on 18 November, giving prison terms from 10 to 12 years for treason to United Democratic Front (UDF) officials Patrick Lekota, the organisation’s publicity secretary, Popo Molefe, its general secretary, and Moses Chikane, its Transvaal Province Secretary.
1988
9 December, The International Olympic Committee asked the federations that govern world-wide sports to bar from the Olympic Games any athlete who competes in South Africa in the future and to also warn athletes against competing in the Games and then going to South Africa for sport events. Among the more than two dozen federations that govern Olympic sports, several, including track and boxing, already bar from international competition those who compete in South Africa, and some others impose lesser sanctions or handle each case on an individual basis. Only tennis and gymnastics retain formal ties to South Africa, sanctioning events and allowing athletes to compete there at will.
1988
20 December, South African President P.W. Botha fired the government's only non-white Cabinet Minister, Amichand Rajbansi, with effect from 1 January 1989. He also removed him from his positions as head of the Indian House of Parliament, as head of the Indian “mini- cabinet“, and as Minister of Housing for Indians.
1988
22 December, Angola, Cuba, and South Africa ended 8 months of negotiations under US mediation for a settlement in south-western Africa by signing a protocol in Brazzaville, the Congo, on 13 December, and a formal treaty at UN headquarters in New York on 22 December. The treaty involved an agreement by the three parties on the overall settlement, including the implementation of the UN plan for the independence of Namibia in the period 1 April 1989 to April 1990, as well as an agreement between Angola and Cuba on the phased withdrawal of the 50,000 Cuban troops from Angola starting from before 1 April 1989 to 1 July 1991. Since the protocol and the treaty called for a UN role to help verify the departure, the UN Security Council met on 20 December and approved a resolution establishing a UN Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM) for a period of 31 months. With the signing of the final accords, the Security Council was now due to meet again to authorise the carrying out of its resolution 435 (78) regarding the independence of Namibia.
1988
22 December, Explosive, Public Security and Criminal Procedure Amendment Act No 10: Controlled public activity and possession of contraband. Commenced: 22 December 1988
1988
30 December, Establishment of Military Council Act No 1
Established a Military Council and a Council of Ministers to rule the Transkei until civilian rule was restored. Although the Act was published on 5 January 1988, it was deemed to be in effect from 30 December 1987. Commenced: 30 December 1988
1989
Walter Sisulu moved to Mandela's old cells.
1989
Release of Rivonia prisoners.
1989
F.W. De Klerk replaces Botha as Prime Minister and immediately declares the need for change.
1989
Foreign States Immunity Act No 4: Attempted to create diplomatic relationships. Commenced: 31 March 1989
1989
KaNgwane: Public Service Act No 5: Commenced: 16 March 1990
1989
KwaNdebele: Traditional Hearings of Civil Cases Act No 7: Commenced: 16 March 1990
1989
Commission of Inquiry into Certain Alleged Across-Border Irregularities Mandate: To accept the findings made by the ‘Alexander Commission’ and to attempt to clear up alleged irregularities found but not fully investigated by that commission with regard to the processing and granting of gambling rights and related licences by Transkeian authorities. First report: The Matter of S.G. Palazzolo-De Pontes. Second report: Transkei Gambling Rights. Date of Reports: 1989. Chair: HARMS, The Hon L.T.C. Ref: Anns 11, 12/1989 or S297/145 (E)
1989
Commission of Inquiry into Allegations Concerning the Involvement of any Member of the Ministers’ Council in the House of Delegates or any Member of the House of Delegates in any Irregularities Mandate: As above. Date of Report: 13 March 1989. Chair: JAMES, N. Ref: An 119-89 or S297/136 (E)
1989
COSAS and NECC declare themselves unbanned.
1989
Sister Bernard Ncube part of United Democratic Front (UDF) delegation to meet President George Bush.
Patricia De Lille elected to National Executive Committee of Pan African Movement, wing of PAC.
1989
5 January, The ANC agrees to close its military training base in Angola and in return South Africa must stop aid to the rebel Angolan UNITA movement, the Angolan president, Jose Eduardo dos Santos says in an interview.
1989
12 January, The private research group The Indicator Project of South Africa has stated in a report entitled Political Conflict in South Africa that unrest in the country between September 1984 and June 1988 was the worst in its history, in view of the number of people killed (more than 3,500), injured, and imprisoned (over 55,000), and the socio-economic losses sustained. It also disagreed with the regime's frequent assertion that imposition of emergency rule had helped to reduce the level of unrest, stating that 930 people were killed in political violence between June 1987 and June 1988, compared with 731 in the same period a year earlier. The figures included more than 1,000 killed in Natal Province over the past two years in the conflict between the Zulu-based Inkatha movement and the United Democratic Front. Meanwhile, in a related development, the Johannesburg-based Human Rights Commission listed 113 attacks on anti-apartheid groups and individuals in the four years up to October 1988. So far as is known, there has never been an arrest in any of these cases.
1989
16 January, The Security Council, in response to the 22 December signing by Angola, Cuba and South Africa of a treaty for a settlement in south western Africa, adopted two resolutions on the question. In the first, the Council expressed support for the treaty, called upon all parties concerned, as well as all Member States, to cooperate in its implementation, and requested the Secretary-General to keep the Council informed on the implementation of the resolution. In the second, the Council decided that implementation of the plan contained in its resolution 435 (1978) for the independence of Namibia would begin on 1 April 1989, and requested the Secretary-General to prepare a report that would include possible cost-saving measures for putting it into effect.
1989
16 January, The UN Security Council, in response to the 22 December signing by Angola, Cuba and South Africa of a treaty for a settlement in southwestern Africa, adopted two resolutions on the question. In the first, the Council expressed support for the treaty, called upon all parties concerned, as well as all Member States, to co-operate in its implementation, and requested the Secretary-General to keep the Council informed on the implantation of the resolution. In the second, the Council among other things decided that implementation of the plan contained in its resolution 435 (1978) for the independence of Namibia would begin on 1 April 1989, and requested the Secretary-General to prepare a report that would include possible cost-saving measures for putting it into effect.
1989
19 January, Chris Heunis, Minister of Constitutional Development and Planning, is appointed Acting State President by President P.W. Botha who is recovering from a stroke suffered on 18 January. But he will continue making key decisions.
1989
19 January, The Federal Republic of Germany has informed the Oslo-based World Campaign against Military and Nuclear Collaboration with South Africa that it has cancelled a 1985 license for the export to that country of three multi-sensor platforms which form part of a tracking system for military or other objects. This means that of the original order of three, the two that were not exported cannot now be sent to South Africa, and that there may be a greater chance of the third's being returned.
1989
24 January, The International Cricket Conference (ICC), after meeting in London on 23 and 24 January, decided to suspend as from 1 April all players who have links with South Africa in the future.
1989
25 January, Minister of Manpower and Public Works, Pietie du Plessis, resigns over a financial scandal involving his department and a company in which he holds interest.
1989
2 February, Ailing President P.W. Botha resigns as leader of the ruling white National Party, hut remains President. F.W. de Klerk, the Education Minister, is to take over the post of party leader.
A Free Settlement Board is to come into effect on I March to legalize multi-racial free settlement areas in carefully chosen zones in main cities and towns.
1989
2 February, South African President P. W. Botha, who has been recuperating from a stroke suffered on 18 January, resigned as leader of the National Party. The same day, the Minister of Education and National Party leader of Transvaal Province, Frederik de Klerk, was elected party leader. Mr. Botha stated that he would continue as President but was leaving his party post in the hope of elevating the presidency above partisan politics.
1989
4 February, The National Democratic Movement, the Progressive Federal Party and the Independent Party merge to form the Democratic Party
1989
4 February, South Africa's three liberal opposition parties, the Progressive Federal Party headed by Zach de Beer, the National Democratic Movement led by Wynand Malan, and the Independent Party led by Dennis Worrall, agreed to form a unified multiracial party. The new grouping, to be known as the Democratic Party, will be formally founded on 8 April.
1989
8 February, The Commonwealth committee on southern Africa, after a three- day meeting in Harare, decided to seek ways to strengthen financial sanctions against the regime, since it concluded that this form of sanctions in particular was having an impact on South Africa.
1989
16 February, The United Democratic Front and COSATU distance themselves from Winnie Mandela and her private militia.
1989
16 February, The UN Security Council unanimously approved a resolution regarding the settlement in Namibia. It authorised implementation of its plan for the independence of Namibia contained in resolution 435 (1978), with effect from 1 April.
1989
18 February, Representatives of leading anti-apartheid organisations, including the United Democratic Front (UDF) and the Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU), held a news conference on 16 February at which they announced with regret that the organisations were distancing themselves from Winnie Mandela and were asking their supporters to do the same. They stated that the step was being taken because of allegations that a group connected with Mrs. Mandela, the Mandela United Football Club, was “associated“ with a “reign of terror“ in Soweto that included the abduction and beating of several Soweto youths on 29 December, resulting in the death of one of them.
1989
19 February, A new book, “Uprooting Poverty: The South African Challenge“, by Professor Francis Wilson and Dr. Mamphela Ramphele of the University of Cape Town, was recently published under the auspices of the Carnegie Corporation of New York.
1989
21 February, Fifty political detainees who had gone on hunger strike are released from prison.
1989
10 March, Signs an agreement concerning the status of the United Nations Transition Assistance Group to Namibia.
1989
21 March, The political power struggle continues between President P.W. Botha and F.W. de Klerk and a compromise is reached between the two, according to which P.W. Botha is to announce a date for an October election. He is not expected to stand for re-election for another five-year term.
1989
1 April, South Africa:Signs monetary agreement with Lesotho.
1989
6 April, In a parliamentary speech, President P.W. Botha announces the dissolving of Parliament by the end of May and indicates that he will not stand for re-election as President.
1989
9 April, The Democratic Party is formally launched.
1989
20 April, South Africa:Signs an air service agreement with the Republic of Zaire.
1989
30 April, Helen Suzman announces her retirement from Parliament.
1989
1 May, Dr David Webster, a social anthropologist at the University of the Witwatersrand and a leading anti-apartheid activist, is shot dead outside his home
1989
1 May, David Webster, a prominent anti-apartheid activist, was killed in Johannesburg by an unknown assailant, police said. He was reported to be one of the first white dissidents to be assassinated.
1989
3 May, President P.W. Botha announces that a general election is to be held on the 6th September.
Signs memorandum of understanding amending the Customs Union Agreement of 11 December 1969.
1989
11 May, C. Heunis, Minister of Constitutional Development, announces that he will resign his post on 1 July and not stand for re-election in the September general election. Other Ministers also resign.
1989
June, Desegregation of Residences: In June, the Minister of Constitutional Development and Planning announced that ‘the government had accepted ... that the right to desegregate residences at tertiary institutions should rest with the governing bodies’ (Budlender 1989: 24).
1989
9 June, The three-year old State of Emergency is renewed for another twelve months.
1989
10 June, State of emergency declared, Security regulations broadened to prohibit certain acts, wearing of specific clothes etc. Blanket renewal of restrictions on ex-detainees. Education, prison and media regulations re-imposed.
1989
12 June, Three whites, Damion de Lange, Ian Robertson and Susan Donelly, are convicted for terrorism for being in possession of arms cache in Broederstroom.
1989
15 June, Signs an agreement with the government of the Republic of China relating to cooperation in the field of population development.
1989
19 June, South Africa:Signs an agreement on cultural matters with the Republic of China.
1989
29 June, F.W. de Klerk, Leader of the National Party, explains to the NP Federal Congress in Pretoria the Party’s next five-year plan, giving blacks a say in running the country and at the same time maintaining white superiority.
1989
29 June, The National Party adopted a five-year programme of its objectives, including a political “reform“ plan to give South Africa's black majority a role in national as well as local government. However, so far the government has not been able to persuade any prominent black leaders to negotiate on the “reform“ initiative, and the ANC has said that it will consider nothing less than a one-man, one-vote system.
1989
5 July, Jailed leader of the ANC, Mr Nelson Mandela, meets President P.W. Botha at his official residence.
 
1989
On 8 July, Justice Minister Kobie Coetsee stated that the two parties had not discussed policy matters or engaged in negotiations but had confirmed “their support for peaceful development in South Africa".
 
1989
12 July, Nelson Mandela issues a statement subsequent to his meeting with President Botha on the 5th July, that only dialogue with the outlawed ANC will bring peace to the country.
1989
On 8 July, Justice Minister Kobie Coetsee stated that the two parties had not discussed policy matters or engaged in negotiations but had confirmed “their support for peaceful development in South Africa".
1989
16 July, South Africa's largest labour federation, the Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU), held its annual congress from 12-16 July at which it adopted several resolutions, including calling on its members and supporters to join a campaign of “sustained action“ against apartheid in the week before the country's general elections on 6 September.
1989
19 July, F.W. de Klerk meets President Joaquim Chissano of Mozambique.
1989
26 July, QwaQwa: Police Amendment Act No 8: Commenced: 26 July 1989
1989
26 July, QwaQwa: Criminal Law Amendment Act No 10: Commenced: 26 July 1989
1989
2 August, The Mass Democratic Movement launched a campaign of defiance of apartheid laws in advance of the country's 6 September general elections: more than 200 blacks appeared for treatment at hospitals officially reserved for whites.
1989
6 August, Twenty former South African political detainees, in defiance of the restriction orders the regime imposed on them after their release, launched a new round in the campaign against apartheid laws by delivering political speeches at a large church service outside Cape Town.
1989
6 August, QwaQwa: Land Act No 15: Commenced: 6 August 1989
1989
14 August, President P W Botha resigns as South Africa’s President.
1989
15 August, South African President P. W. Botha resigned on 14 August, in a dispute with National Party leader F. W. de Klerk allegedly over the latter's plan to meet Zambian President Kenneth Kaunda in Zambia on 28 August. On 15 August, Mr. de Klerk was sworn in as Acting President pending the results of the general elections.
1989
18 August, Disclosure of Foreign Funding Act No 26:
Provides for the regulation of foreign donations by or for certain organisations and persons. Commenced: 18 August 1989
Repealed by s 7 of the Abolition of Restrictions on Free Political Activity Act No 206 of 1993.
1989
20 August, “Restricted“ South African anti-apartheid organisations, members of the Mass Democratic Movement, declared themselves henceforth “unrestricted“ and free to join the defiance campaign. Meanwhile, the police had been banning protest meetings, forcibly breaking up demonstrations, and arresting (or re-arresting) anti- apartheid activists, to try to end the campaign.
1989
21 August, The OAU Committee on Southern Africa issues a political declaration in Harare (The Harare Declaration)
1989
21 August, The Assembly of Heads of State of OAU, meeting in Harare, adopted a declaration, suggested by ANC, on South Africa recognising that possibilities existed for a resolution of South Africa's problems by negotiation. (The declaration was subsequently endorsed by a summit meeting of non-aligned countries).
1989
28 August, During a meeting in Livingstone, Zambia, President Kenneth Kaunda supports acting South African President F.W. de Klerk’s moves to reform apartheid.
1989
31 August, Confrontation between the Mass Democratic Movement and the regime continued when about 200 women, including anti-apartheid leaders, marched toward the UK Embassy in Cape Town on 30 August to deliver a petition protesting the condition of political detainees in South African, only to be arrested, and then released, with trials set for October. On 31 August, students held a large rally at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, at which they announced the revival of four “restricted“ student groups, and then had a running battle with police, who broke up the meeting.
The International Olympic Committee (IOC) passed a resolution barring any athlete from the Olympics who competes in South Africa from 31 August. The IOC also approved a resolution restoring tennis to full medal status for the 1992 Olympics, but only on condition that the International Tennis Federation, the world governing body, suspend its competitions in South Africa.
1989
6 September, The National Party wins the general election with an overwhelming majority.
1989
14 September, F.W. de Klerk is elected President of South Africa and is officially installed on 20 September.
1989
16 September, President de Klerk nominates his new cabinet.
1989
20 September, F. W. de Klerk elected President of South Africa, following general election on 6 September.
1989
15 October, Seven jailed senior ANC leaders and Jafta Masemola of the Pan African Congress who was convicted of sabotage in 1963 are released from prison.
1989
29 October, The ANC holds a huge rally to welcome back the seven released leaders.
1989
8 November, State of emergency lifted in Transkei (RRS 1989/90: 522).
1989
28 November, President de Klerk issues a statement that the National Security Management System (NSMS) is to be disbanded.
1989
December, An all-inclusive black political conference is held with the main groups being the Mass Democratic Movement and the Black Consciousness Movement. The Conference adopts the Harare Declaration which sets out pre-conditions for negotiations and outlines a new constitutional future.
The Pan-African Movement (PAM) which is to act as a front for the banned Pan-Africanist Congress, is formed.
Signs an agreement on the establishment and operation of a common works area at the Caledon River for the purpose of the implementation of the Lesotho Highlands Water Project.
1989
13 December, President de Klerk and Nelson Mandela meet to discuss the country’s political future.
1989
14 December, The General Assembly, at its sixteenth Special Session, adopted by consensus the “Declaration on Apartheid and its Destructive Consequences in Southern Africa,“ calling for negotiations to end apartheid and establish a non-racial democracy. It laid down steps needed to create a climate conducive to negotiations, modalities of negotiations and principles for a new constitution. [Resolution A/RES/S-16/1].
1989
14 December, The UN General Assembly, at its sixteenth Special Session, adopted the “Declaration on Apartheid and its Destructive Consequences in Southern Africa,“ calling for negotiations to end apartheid and establish a non-racial democracy. It laid down steps needed to create a climate conducive to negotiations, modalities of negotiations and principles for a new constitution.[Resolution A/RES/S-16/1].
1989
16 December, Five anti-apartheid leaders, imprisoned in 1988 for political activities, are freed from Robben Island. Amongst these five is the General Secretary of the United Democratic Front, Popo Molefe and its Publicity Secretary, Patrick Lekota.

Last updated : 02-Feb-2016

This article was produced by South African History Online on 31-Mar-2011

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