Document 2 - Against the C.A.D. for Full Democratic Rights 
PURPOSE OF THIS PAMPHLET
In this pamphlet the "Anti-C.A.D. Committee" is going to tell you the TRUTH about Government's latest moves against the Coloured People, a section of the non-European oppressed of South Africa.
We tell you this so that you may be WARNED of the new danger threatening the non-European people, and so that you will PROTEST AND FIGHT against it in your trade unions, in your Civic Associations, your Vigilance Societies, Churches, and in any political, social, benefit or sporting organisations to which you belong.
We know for a fact that you, like all honest non-Europeans, are striving for the full rights of a citizen in the land of your birth; and we know that you will reject the C.A.D. as soon as you know what it means; but that is not enough, FOR WE MUST ALL REJECT IT AND PROTEST AGAINST IT PUBLICLY IN OUR THOUSANDS AND TENS OF THOUSANDS, BECAUSE IT IS DEFINITELY A BRAKE ON OUR ADVANCEMENT TOWARDS FULL CITIZENSHIP.
WHAT IS THE C.A.D.?
According to a statement made by the Minister of the Interior on January 28th, the Government intends to create a special section within the Department of the Interior "to deal exclusively with matters affecting the Coloured people", because "There was a special Government Department to deal with matters affecting the Natives and a Commission for Asiatic Affairs. There was, however, no such provision for the Coloured people." - ("Cape Times", 29/1/43.)
But this is not all, for: "In addition a standing Commission - to be known as the Cape Coloured Permanent Commission - would be appointed to form a link between the Government and the Coloured community. Members of the Commission would consist of representatives of the Coloured people throughout the Union. The CommisÂsion would co-operate with the special Coloured section of this Department. It would meet at various centres as the need arose, and put forward suggestions and recommenÂdations on matters affecting the Coloured population." - "Cape Times", 28/1/43.)
HOW ARE THE C.A.D. AND THE C.C.P.C. SUPPOSED TO BENEFIT US?
In this same statement the Minister said:
”¢ "It was an experiment which he hoped would prove successful in bridging a gap which had existed and been widening over a period of time", and
”¢ "He looked forward to this experiment as opening a new page in the history of the Coloured people, and trusted that it would help them to reconcile the interests of the Europeans and Coloured people in a very much better manner than in the past."
According to a sub-leader in the "Cape Argus", 30/1/43, "A Permanent Commission will receive and co-ordinate all the requests, complaints and suggestions affecting the welfare of the Cape Coloured, and a Government official, well versed in the mysteries of departmental activity, will see that all these are carried to the correct quarter."
DID WE EVER ASK FOR THIS
We have never at any time asked for a special Coloured Affairs Department, nor yet a Permanent Commission. Similarly, the Africans have never asked for a Native Affairs Department, nor a Native Affairs Commission, nor a Native Representative Council, nor a separate Native Voters' Roll - but have had all these thrust upon them.
We have always insisted on our right to be full citizens of South Africa, and have always fought against any political move or legislation which wanted to treat us as "special" creatures who need "special" political, economic, educational and social institutions. For example:
(i) In 1909 the non-Europeans of the Union protested strongly against the Colour Bars in
the Act Union whereby only Europeans could be elected to Parliament, and non-Europeans, except in the Cape and to a limited extent in Natal, were from all political rights; and deputations even went to England to protest there
(ii) In 1992 a petition signed by fifty thousand Coloured people of the Union was handed to General Smuts, the Prime Minister, for submission to the Union Parliament the petition asked for the removal of the "special" political treatment given the "non-European sections of the population" by the South Africa Act, 1909.
(iii) The Coloured people rejected and utterly defeated the Coloured Persons' Rights Bill of 1926, whereby a special "Board" was to be set up (an earlier form of the C.A.D.), one of whose functions was to draw up a separate voters' roll, and whereby Coloured persons outside of the Cape Province were to have one European representative in Parliament.
(iv) In 1936, all non-Europeans rejected the three Native Bills which were to segregate African still further, to push him out of the towns, to put him on a separate roll and to give him a dummy Native Representative Council and a few in representatives in Parliament. The African people, united as never before in history, rejected this "special" treatment, and they would have won the day if their leaders had not been so weak-kneed and compromising.
(v) In 1939, the widespread and insistent protests and the mighty Parade demonstration the Segregation Ordinance again showed that WE ARE ALWAYS AGAINST ANY FORM OF "SPECIAL" OR SEGREGATED TREATMENT.
WHY WE OPPOSE THE C.A.D. AND THE COMMISSION
We oppose and unconditionally reject the C.A.D. and the Commission because:
(i) We are the men and women with the same needs and desires as any other men or women of this country; but these proposals are based upon the despotic idea that we are not fit to be governed by the ordinary law or to take part in the ordinary live and administrative institutions of the country, SO WE ARE INTENDED TO OCCUPY PERMANENTLY A PLACE OF INFERIORITY, OUT-SIDE OF THE ORDINARY CIVIC SYSTEM OF THE COUNTRY. THEY say that we are inferior and that we have a lower standard of living. But WE know that it is they who keep our wages down, who herd us into slums and reserves, it is they who give us inferior educational opportunities, who keep us out of the professions, the libraries, the art galleries and theatres. Our needs and our aspirations are the as theirs, but they have denied us the opportunity of satisfying these, and now wish to continue this permanently.
(ii) The Native Affairs Department carries out the Government policy of keeping the an in a permanent position of servility, and the Native Affairs Commission the scouting to find out whether to go "Full speed ahead" or "Half speed ahead THE COLOURED AFFAIRS DEPARTMENT AND THE CAPE COLOURED PERMANENT COMMISSION WILL DO THE SAME FOR THE COLOURED PEOPLE. THIS IS WHAT FORMING “A LINK BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT AND THE COLOURED COMMUNITY” MEANS.
(iii) The fact that willing tools are to be found amongst the Coloured people to serve on the Commission does not alter its sinister nature and purpose in any way. Every nation has its Judases, and certainly a few Coloured "leaders" will be found to betray their people. But we will know them for what they are, and we already know the only proper name for them - Judases. Their betrayal only makes us fight the harder.
(iv) WE CAN NEVER HAVE ANY TRUST IN AN OFFICIALLY APPOINTED COMMISSION WHICH WILL MEET AT VARIOUS CENTRES "AS THE NEED ARISES" AND "PUT FORWARD SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENÂDATIONS ON MATTERS
AFFECTING THE COLOURED POPULATION". WE DO NOT TRUST IT, WE DO NOT NEED IT, AND WE DO NOT WANT IT.
(v) This Permanent "experiment" can never "bridge the gap" which has existed and has "been widening over a period of time" because the gap was created against our wishes and despite our protests at the Act of Union, when all non-Europeans were deprived of direct representation and when all non-Europeans outside of the Cape and (with limitations) Natal could not even vote. THE GAP HAS BEEN WIDÂENED ECONOMICALLY by the Colour Bar Act, the Apprenticeship Act, the Civilised Labour Policy, the Industrial Conciliation Act, and the latest amendment to the Factories Act; THE GAP HAS BEEN WIDENED POLITICALLY by the Women's Enfranchisement Act of 1930 (which gave only European women the right to elect and to be elected to the Houses of Parliament), by the Franchise Laws Amendment Act of 1931 (which gave every White male person over 21 years of age the franchise), by the Native Bills of 1936 (which cast out the African by taking away the Cape Native Franchise, by placing him on a separate voters' roll, by giving him three M.P.s and four senators who, on account of their insignificant voting power - three in a House of 153 - could never achieve anything worth while, and by giving him a Native Representative Council, undemocratically elected, Government controlled and able only to advise - its advice has always been very feeble, but, still, it has never been taken).
(vi) We say that starting with the South Africa Act can only bridge the gap and all the gap-widening laws like those mentioned above, amending some, e.g.. South Africa Act, Apprenticeship Act, Women's Enfranchisement Act, Franchise Laws Amendment Act, Industrial Conciliation Act, Factories Act, and abolishing others, e.g.. Colour Bar Act, Civilised Labour Policy, and the three Native Acts of 1936, i.e., the Representation of Natives Act, Urban Areas Act and the Native Land and Trust Act. THE GAP CAN NEVER BE BRIDGED OR IN ANY WAY NARÂROWED BY A WRETCHED C.A.D. AND PERMANENT COMMISSION. IT CAN ONLY BE WIDENED. WE WANT THE REPEAL OF ALL THESE REPRESSIVE MEASURES, NOT THE CREATION OF FRESH ONES LIKE THE C.A.D. AND THE C.C.P.C.
(vii) This "experiment" can never "reconcile the interests of the Europeans and ColÂoured people in a very much better manner than in the past", because it is a continuation of the policy of the past. THE "INTERESTS" OF THE EUROPEAN AND NON-EUROPEAN CAN ONLY BE RECONCILED WHEN THEY ARE ONE AND THE SAME, I.E. WHEN THE EUROPEANS DISCARD THEIR ATTITUDE OF "TRUSTEESHIP" WITH ITS MASTER AND SERVANT OUTÂLOOK, AND RECOGNISE THE NON-EUROPEAN AS A FULL AND FREE CITIZEN OF SOUTH AFRICA.
(viii) The suggestion that the retardation of the Coloured people is due to ignorance of the “mysteries of departmental activity" is too absurd to justify a serious reply, because we have always known, and we still know, who does the damage to us.
WHAT WE REALLY WANT
We have shown very clearly what we do NOT want, so, let us now say what we non-Europeans are really striving for. WE ARE STRIVING FOR FULL DEMOCRATICAL RIGHTS. When we say this we mean that we struggle for:
(i) FULL AND EQUAL POLITICAL AND CIVIC RIGHTS FOR ALL THE PEOPLE OF THE UNION. This includes:
”¢ The granting of the vote to all adults, irrespective of race, religion or sex.
”¢ The right of all voters to be elected to National Assembly.
”¢ The right of all persons to travel freely and without restriction through any part of country - this implies the abolition of the pass system.
”¢ The right of all persons to reside wherever they wish and to purchase land or other in urban or rural areas - this implies the abolition of the segregation of the Native (which already exists) and of the Coloured and Indian (which is almost complete).
(e) The release of more land for African, Coloured and Indian peasants.
(ii) Full and equal rights for all workers to form trade unions for the purpose of protecting and furthering their interests this implies the abolition of all discrimination industrial legislation based on colour.
(iii) Full equal rights in, and access to, all skilled occupations and professions.
iv) Equal taxation of all persons according to their income ”” this means the abolition oil Tax and other discriminatory taxes.
iv) Equal free and compulsory education for all children up to the age of sixteen, and the abolition of the present discrimination in the subsidies.
(v) Equal rights in, and access to, trade.
(vii) The equal right of all persons to hold office in any governmental, administrative, juridical and educative institution of the country.
WHY EVERYONE MUST OPPOSE THE C.A.D. AND THE C.C.P.C.
Do not fool yourself that the C.A.D. is "not your concern". It is very much your business, whether you are Coloured, African, Indian or White. These proposals are part of process, which aims at keeping the non-European politically voiceless (except for 1st dolls like the N.R.C., the C.C.P.C. and the Indian Commission), and economically segregated and controlled, and then at reducing the relatively high standard of the White worker.
This process affects all of us. It was "completed" for the African by the 1936 Acts; it is being completed for the Indians by the Indian Commission of Natal (which will soon be extended), and for the Coloureds by the C.A.D. and the C.C.P.C. Then it will be the White workers' turn.
So we must all realise that while these proposals are aimed at one section of the European oppressed, they are the direct and vital concern of ALL NON-EUROPEANS,-for an injury to one limb of a body is an injury to the whole body. We must ' ourselves to fall into the trap of being artificially divided into three groups, d African, oppressed Coloured, oppressed Indian - segregated even in suffering.
WHAT WE ARE DOING TO OPPOSE THESE MEASURES
These measures have been sprung upon us in a bad time, for they find us in a very poor state of organisation. We are still prepared, every man and woman amongst us, to resist all existent and proposed attacks upon our rights, but let us be quite frank and realise that from the point of view of organisations, we are at very low ebb. Unfortunately, there exists no militant national organisation of the non-European people taking up and fighting bravely any and every issue concerning the rights of all non-Europeans, African, Coloured, or Indian. If such a national organisation did exist, there could be no need for an "Anti-CA.D. Committee" - in fact, the C.A.D. proposals would never have been made. More unfortunate still, such a militant national organisation cannot be created overnight, and certainly cannot be created just to fight the C.A.D. and side step the fundamental issues that we outlined in the section headed "What We Really Want".
But, just because we have no fighting national organisation, and just because fighting national organisations do not sprout like mushrooms, we cannot lie down and let the steamroller of oppression flatten us out. We must realise that we are faced by an emergency at a bad time, and we must jump to it and see what can be done to save the situation.
So we have formed the "Anti-C.A.D. Committee". This Committee consists of all organisations which are opposed to the C.A.D. and the Permanent Commission. On this Committee we have political parties, branches of political parties, civic associaÂtions, trade unionists, churches, welfare societies, teachers' organisations, student and past-student societies and sporting bodies. There are Coloureds, Africans, Indians and Whites, men and women, old and young, on the Committee - in fact, all people who are opposed to the C.A.D. and the C.C.P.C.
The Committee has sent a telegram to the Minister of Interior, unconditionally rejecting these proposals, and has called upon all other organisations to do likewise. FURTHERMORE, THE COMMITTEE IS:
(i) Holding meetings of protest as often as possible, and wherever it can. (ii) Calling upon you to get your trade union, civic or vigilance association, church or club to reject these proposals publicly, to hold public meetings of protest, to pass resolutions AGAINST these proposals and FOR full democratic rights, and to make these resolutions known to all the people, to the Press, M.P.C.s, M.P.s, and to the Government itself. For it is only the mass protests of the people that can protect us.
(iii) Calling upon ALL trade unions which have not yet joined and all political, social and religious organisations opposed to these measures, to join the Anti-C.A.D. Committee.
WE CAN STOP THE C.A.D.
WE CAN DEFINITELY STOP THE C.A.D. AND THE C.C.P.C. IF THE PEOPLE PROTEST LOUDLY AND UNCOMPROMISINGLY AND PUBLICLY, IN THEIR TENS OF THOUSANDS. SO YOU MUST DO YOUR SHARE THROUGH WHATÂEVER FORM OP ORGANISATION YOU CAN.
HOW WE CAN BE SAFE FROM ALL SUCH MEASURES
IF OUR PROTESTS ARE STRONG ENOUGH, the C.A.D. will be withdrawn and shelved, even if the "terms of reference" or the names of the Commissioners will have been announced.
BUT WILL ONLY BE WITHDRAWN AND SHELVED FOR THE TIME AND IT WILL BE BROUGHT OUT AGAIN WHEN IT IS FELT THAT THERES A CHANCE OF GETTING IT PAST THE PEOPLE. So, WHAT ARE WE TO DO? We are to fight tooth and nail NOW, but we must realise clearly that we will safe from such legislation and we will never obtain full democratic rights until we have built up a militant national organisation which will take up the struggle of all Europeans, African, Coloured and Indian.
Your task is clear. You must:
(i) Understand clearly the implications of the C.A.D. and the C.C.P.C.
(ii) Explain this to the people.
(iii) Protest individually and organisationally in every way that you can.
(iv) Get your organisations to join forces with the Anti-C.A.D. Committee.
(v) Show the people why it is our most urgent and responsible task to build a national organisation, and YOU MUST WORK TOWARDS THIS END.
Since writing this pamphlet, the "Cape Argus" of the 10th March has announced the establishment of the C.C.P.C.:
“Having heard the opinions expressed by leading members of both communities government therefore decided to establish a C.C.P.C.
Thus, against the wishes of the people, but in consultation with certain leading s" (unnamed, read "Judases"), the C.A.D. and C.C.P.C. are foisted upon us.
Lawrence is anxious to remove the stigma attached to the C.A.D. by telling us Department of Interior will be extended and strengthened, and will act as the channel of communication"; in other words, that part of the Department of Interior action as a Department of Coloured Affairs in actual fact, but not that obnoxious name C. A.D.
WHATEVER WE HAVE SAID IN THIS PAMPHLET, THEREFORE, REMAINS VALID: A MERE WORD JUGGLERY DOES NOT ALTER THE FACT
Issued by the ANTI-C.A.D. Committee; Secretary , Miss H. Ahmed, Constantia Road Wynberg.