12 April 1980
Following the waning of the influence of the Black Consciousness Movement (BCM), members of the movement formed new groups and some joined other liberation movements such as the African National Congress (ANC). On 12 April 1980, Professor Barney Nyameko Pityana formed the Black Consciousness Movement of Azania (BCMA) in London, UK. The BCMA was an avowedly Marxist group, which used the Azanian People Organisation (AZAPO) as its political voice.