Key terms: The Industrial Revolution in Britain and Southern Africa from 1860

Provided are a list of terms that may seem unfamiliar to the learner in order for them to grasp the subject easily, and they are accompanied by their definitions as provided by Oxford Learner’s Dictionary. 

Industrial revolution: the period in the 18th and 19th centuries in Europe and the US when machines began to be used to do work and industry grew rapidly

Trade: the period in the 18th and 19th centuries in Europe and the US when machines began to be used to do work and industry grew rapidly

Subsistence (society/ farming): the state of having just enough money or food to stay alive

Trade route: the route that people buying and selling goods used to take across land or sea

Consumption: the act of buying and using products

Independent: having their own government

Colonize: to take control of an area or a country that is not your own, especially using force, and send people from your own country to live there

Indigenous: belonging to a particular place rather than coming to it from somewhere else

Alliance: an agreement between countries, political parties, etc. to work together in order to achieve something that they all want

Superior: better in quality than somebody/something else; greater than somebody/something else

Invasion: the act of an army entering another country by force in order to take control of it

Homesteads: a house with the land and buildings around it, especially a farm

Annexed: to take control of a country, region, etc, especially by force

Demand: a very firm request for something; something that somebody needs

Indenture: a type of contract in the past that forced a servant or apprentice to work for their employer for a particular period of time

Immigration: the process of coming to live permanently in a country that is not your own

Petition: a written document signed by a large number of people that asks somebody in a position of authority to do or change something

Source: Oxford Learner’s Dictionaries [online], (2015) Oxford University Press www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com