Magade Madapu, Vincent Mbamama Hlamandana and William Tyabashe, from Tsolo District, [Eastern Province, now Eastern Cape] were issued with banishment orders on 16 June 1960.  They were all banished to Driefontein Native Trust Farm, Vryburg District, Northern Cape [now North West Province].

Their banishment order noted that since 1957 there had been occasions of arson and violence in several locations in the Tsolo district, and that this culminated in the burning down of approximately 193 huts, one death and several injuries between 30 April and 3 May 1960. Investigations into these events reportedly showed that these actions were undertaken by a group that called itself the “Makulu Team.”

The “Makulu Team” opposed the Bantu Affairs Department (BAD) and its rehabilitation measures, propagated the removal of all white magistrates and all chiefs, and called for the appointment of [Chief] Albert Luthuli to reign over South Africa. The “Makulu Team,” allegedly instilled fear in everyone through their actions of terror and had great influence on the local population.

The names of the key leaders Madapu, Hlamandanaand Tyabashe were obtained through particularly secretive ways, and their banishment was critical to restore peace to the area. The “Makhulu Team” broke up in 1962 due to the arrest of members, banishments and the state of emergency.

Magade Madapu was allowed to return to Tsolo on a temporary permit.  His banishment order was withdrawn on 18 June 1962.

• Contribution by Professor S. Badat on Banishment, Rhodes University, 2012.  From the book, Forgotten People - Political Banishment under Apartheid by Professor S. Badat

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