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Monday, April 23, 1984
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On 23 April 1984 the discovery of a virus that may cause Acquired Immune deficiency Syndrome (Aids) the disease that destroys blood cells, leaving its victims open series to other diseases., is hailed as a "monumental breakthrough" in medical research. The development was announced in Washington by the United States of America Health Secretary, Margaret Heckler who suggested that the vaccine might be ready in two years time.

This article was produced by South African History Online on 16-Apr-2014

This Day in History Extra Dates
  • Saturday, April 23, 2005
    Gregoire Boonzaier (96), one of South Africa's foremost artists, dies at his home in Onrus River near Hermanus in the Western Cape after a long illness. He was well known for his landscapes, portraits, figures and still life paintings and contributed to the struggle for freedom during the apartheid era with his art works.
  • Saturday, April 23, 2011
    US President George W Bush takes steps to restore normal trade and investment ties with Libya as a reward to Muammar Gaddafi for eliminating Libya's biological, chemical and nuclear weapons programs.
    References:

  • Friday, April 23, 1999
    Makhaya Ntini, bowler of the SA cricket team, is found guilty of raping a student and is replaced in the SA World Cup team by Alan Dawson. (His appeal against this conviction succeeds in November).
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau

  • Friday, April 23, 1999
    An earthquake, registering 4,8 on the Richter Scale hits Welkom, trapping 969 miners sixteen hours underground. All but two are brought to the surface safely.
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau
    •  https://www.news24.com

  • Thursday, April 23, 1998
    James Earl Ray, who confessed to assassinating the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr in 1968 and later insisted he was framed, dies at a Nashville hospital at age 70.
    References:

  • Thursday, April 23, 1998
    The worst ever recorded floods occur in Mossel Bay and surroundings as 238 mm of rain falls within 24 hours.
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau

  • Wednesday, April 23, 1997
    UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan says conditions are appalling for the estimated 100 000 Rwandan refugees that are being denied aid by rebels in Zaire.
    References:

  • Wednesday, April 23, 1997
    AWB (Afrikaner Resistance Movement) leader Eugene TerreBlanche is convicted of attempted murder and assault in the Magistrates Court in Potchefstroom.
    References:
    • Kalley, J.A.; Schoeman, E. & Andor, L.E. (eds)(1999). Southern African Political History: a chronology of key political events from independence to mid-1997, Westport: Greenwood.

  • Sunday, April 23, 1995
    Tens of thousands of people, most wounded or sick, flee along muddy roads from the refugee camp at Gikongoro where at least 2 000 people were killed by Rwandan soldiers or trampled in stampedes.
    References:

  • Saturday, April 23, 1994
    The government, the ANC and the Freedom Front sign an agreement establishing a framework for a separate state for Whites ('Accord on Afrikaner self-determination'). The AWB rejects the agreement.
    References:
    • Kalley, J.A.; Schoeman, E. & Andor, L.E. (eds)(1999). Southern African Political History: a chronology of key political events from independence to mid-1997, Westport: Greenwood.

  • Saturday, April 23, 1994
    Two ANC activists are killed as they try to put up election posters. 
    References:

  • Friday, April 23, 1993
    Calvin Thusago, a reporter for SABC is stabbed to death by a mob of youths as they travel back from Sharpeville to film the desecration of Black graves. Dudley Saunders, SABC cameraman is also stabbed but survives. Members of the ANC Youth League turn over suspects in the killing to police the following day.
    References:

  • Thursday, April 23, 1992
    The South African government submits its proposal for an interim constitution for South Africa to CODESA.
    References:
    • Kalley, J.A.; Schoeman, E. & Andor, L.E. (eds)(1999). Southern African Political History: a chronology of key political events from independence to mid-1997, Westport: Greenwood.

  • Thursday, April 23, 1992
    President F.W. de Klerk proposes holding a multiracial election.
    References:

  • Tuesday, April 23, 1991
    Minister of National Education Louis Pienaar announces that the government will abolish restrictions on the number of Black students who may be accepted by White universities.
    References:

  • Monday, April 23, 1990
    Exiled Pan-Africanist Congress member Sam Chand and his family of four are shot dead in Botswana before a powerful explosion destroys their home.
    References:
    • Coleman, M. (ed)(1998). A Crime Against Humanity: analysing the repression of the apartheid state, Johannesburg: Human Rights Committee, p. 252.
    •  https://www.news24.com

  • Saturday, April 23, 1988
    Coal miners and industrial and government representatives from seventeen countries, attending an international labour organisation meeting in Geneva, call for a total boycott of South African coal.
    References:

  • Saturday, April 23, 1988
    A pickup truck rigged with explosives rips through a crowded vegetable market in Tripoli, Libya, killing fifty-four people and wounding 125.
    References:

  • Thursday, April 23, 1987
    The Natal Supreme Court declares the ban on campaigns for the release of detainees invalid. (2004). Today in History, Pretoria News, 23 April.

  • Wednesday, April 23, 1986
    Nine people are killed in a clash between police and residents after a rent stay-away called by the Alexandra boycott committee.
    References:
    • Coleman, M. (ed)(1998). A Crime Against Humanity: analysing the repression of the apartheid state, Johannesburg: Human Rights Committee, p. 263.

  • Wednesday, April 23, 1986
    The White-led South African government commits itself to scrapping dozens of laws restricting movements of Blacks.
    References:

  • Monday, April 23, 1984
    The discovery of a virus that may cause Aids, the fatal disease sweeping through the world and Africa, is hailed as a "monumental breakthrough" in medical research.
    References:

  • Sunday, April 23, 1978
    Dr Abraham J. van der Merwe (81), chairman of the Van Riebeeck fÁªte committee in 1952, dies.
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau

  • Saturday, April 23, 1977
    Zimbabwe African National Union leader Robert Mugabe announces that Rhodesia's guerrilla groups, Zanu and Zapu (the Zimbabwe African People's Union), are to be merged under one command after the political affiliation of the two groups in the Patriotic Front.
  • Saturday, April 23, 1977
    UN officials and various missionaries are expelled from Ethiopia.
  • Friday, April 23, 1976
    Rhodesia's first Black cabinet ministers are sworn into office. (2004). Today in History, Pretoria News, 23 April.

  • Tuesday, April 23, 1968
    The Methodist Church and the Evangelical United Brethren Church merge to form the United Methodist Church.
    References:

  • Monday, April 23, 1956
    Aboubakar Jakoet, accountant and director, finance, Pick 'n Pay Retail division since 1995, is born.
    References:
    • Hayes, S. (ed)(2000).  Who's Who of Southern Africa 2001..., Graighall: Jonathan Ball.

  • Friday, April 23, 1954
    A group of academics founds the 'Afrikaans-Duitse Kultuurunie' (Afrikaans-Deutsche Kultur-Gemeinschaft) in Pretoria.
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau

  • Monday, April 23, 1928
    Shirley Temple Black, American child actress who became ambassador in Ghana, is born.
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau

  • Thursday, April 23, 1925
    Rebel leader Abdel Krim's troops enter French Morocco.
  • Wednesday, April 23, 1919
    Johannes Stephanus (Jan) Marais, founder of Trust Bank, is born in Fraserburg, OFS.
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau

  • Wednesday, April 23, 1919
    The Director of Education in the Transvaal, Dr John Adamson, opens the Potchefstroom Teachers' College with 131 students.
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau

  • Thursday, April 23, 1914
    Afrikaans receives first official recognition when C.J. Langenhoven addresses the English caucus of the Cape Provincial Council. 
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau

  • Sunday, April 23, 1911
    French, Algerian, and Senegalese troops are to be sent to help put down the tribesmen revolt in Morocco. However, Germany has protested that France will be breaking the terms of the 1906 Algerias accords on Moroccan independence.
  • Thursday, April 23, 1908
    Bram Fischer, son of a Judge President of the Orange Free State, grandson of a Prime Minister of the Orange River Colony, lawyer and champion against apartheid, is born in the Orange Free State.
    References:
    • Dictionary of SA Biography, v.5, p. 263; Joyce: SA Family Encyclopaedia

  • Sunday, April 23, 1905
    An Algerian Office is created within the French Ministry of the Interior.
  • Thursday, April 23, 1903
    Muhammed Abdalah Hassan (the 'Mad Mullah') suffers heavy losses in further encounters with British forces.
  • Wednesday, April 23, 1902
    Anglo-Boer War 2: During a meeting held in the Vryheid district to elect delegates for the peace conference, Commandant-General Botha orders Gen. M.W. Meyer to burn Zulu kraals in the district in reprisal for the looting of Boer cattle by the expedition under Gen. Bruce Hamilton, King Dinizulu and Chief Sikhobobo.
    References:
    • Cloete, P.G. (2000). The Anglo-Boer War: a chronology, Pretoria: Lapa.

  • Monday, April 23, 1900
    Abraham Jacobus Kotzé de Klerk, missionary of the Dutch Reformed Church in Ceylon, is born in Garies, Namaqualand.
    References:
    • Swart: Afrikaanse Kultuuralmanak

  • Saturday, April 23, 1881
    Claude Pagdett Carter, SA cricket player in ten test matches, is born in Durban.
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau

  • Friday, April 23, 1880
    Eugenie, Empress of the French and wife of Emperor Napoleon III, arrives in Durban to visit the grave of her son, the Prince Imperial, who was killed in Zululand during the Zulu War the previous year.
    References:

  • Wednesday, April 23, 1873
    Ashanti War breaks out in Africa.
    References:

  • Tuesday, April 23, 1861
    Lord Allenby, commander of the Egyptian forces who freed Jerusalem in 1917 from the Turks, is born.
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau

  • Tuesday, April 23, 1850
    A mass meeting is held in Cape Town to petition Queen Victoria to grant the Cape responsible government.
    References:

  • Sunday, April 23, 1843
    Hendrik Cloete, formerly of Cape Town, is appointed Her Majesty's Commissioner of Natal.
    References:

  • Sunday, April 23, 1837
    Piet Retief orders Erasmus Smit to ordain himself  (Smit) as minister of the Voortrekkers, but meets with violent opposition because they consider him as being too old and sickly at the age of fifty-nine.
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau

  • Tuesday, April 23, 1811
    George is proclaimed a separate district and the town is called George Town. ;
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau
    •  https://www.sahistory.org.za/

  • Saturday, April 23, 1803
    Jonkheer Gerard Beelaerts van Blokland arrives from the Netherlands in Simonstown as solicitor-general.
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau
    •  Potgieter, D.J. et al. (eds)(1970). Standard Encyclopaedia of Southern Africa, Cape Town: NASOU, v. 2,  p. 239.

  • Saturday, April 23, 1729
    Pieter Gysbert van Noodt  (48) dies of a sudden heart attack at the same time as four deserted soldiers, who had resisted arrest, are being hung by his order.  This gave rise to various legends, but the trial and conviction had taken place in accordance with the rules of the Court of Justice.
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau
    •  Potgieter, D.J. et al. (eds)(1970). Standard Encyclopaedia of Southern Africa, Cape Town: NASOU, v. 8, p. 221.

  • Saturday, April 23, 1707
    Willem Adriaan van der Stel, governor at the Cape, is recalled to the Netherlands.
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau

  • Saturday, April 23, 2011
    World Book and Copyright Day. By celebrating this Day throughout the world, UNESCO seeks to promote reading, publishing and the protection of intellectual property through copyright.
  • Saturday, April 23, 2005
    Gregoire Boonzaier (96), one of South Africa's foremost artists, dies at his home in Onrus River near Hermanus in the Western Cape after a long illness. He was well known for his landscapes, portraits, figures and still life paintings and contributed to the struggle for freedom during the apartheid era with his art works.
  • Friday, April 23, 1999
    Makhaya Ntini, bowler of the SA cricket team, is found guilty of raping a student and is replaced in the SA World Cup team by Alan Dawson. (His appeal against this conviction succeeds in November).
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau

  • Saturday, April 23, 2011
    US President George W Bush takes steps to restore normal trade and investment ties with Libya as a reward to Muammar Gaddafi for eliminating Libya's biological, chemical and nuclear weapons programs.
    References:

  • Friday, April 23, 1999
    An earthquake, registering 4,8 on the Richter Scale hits Welkom, trapping 969 miners sixteen hours underground. All but two are brought to the surface safely.
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau
    •  https://www.news24.com

  • Thursday, April 23, 1998
    James Earl Ray, who confessed to assassinating the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr in 1968 and later insisted he was framed, dies at a Nashville hospital at age 70.
    References:

  • Wednesday, April 23, 1997
    UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan says conditions are appalling for the estimated 100 000 Rwandan refugees that are being denied aid by rebels in Zaire.
    References:

  • Wednesday, April 23, 1997
    AWB (Afrikaner Resistance Movement) leader Eugene TerreBlanche is convicted of attempted murder and assault in the Magistrates Court in Potchefstroom.
    References:
    • Kalley, J.A.; Schoeman, E. & Andor, L.E. (eds)(1999). Southern African Political History: a chronology of key political events from independence to mid-1997, Westport: Greenwood.

  • Sunday, April 23, 1995
    Tens of thousands of people, most wounded or sick, flee along muddy roads from the refugee camp at Gikongoro where at least 2 000 people were killed by Rwandan soldiers or trampled in stampedes.
    References:

  • Saturday, April 23, 1994
    Two ANC activists are killed as they try to put up election posters. 
    References:

  • Saturday, April 23, 1994
    The government, the ANC and the Freedom Front sign an agreement establishing a framework for a separate state for Whites ('Accord on Afrikaner self-determination'). The AWB rejects the agreement.
    References:
    • Kalley, J.A.; Schoeman, E. & Andor, L.E. (eds)(1999). Southern African Political History: a chronology of key political events from independence to mid-1997, Westport: Greenwood.

  • Thursday, April 23, 1992
    The South African government submits its proposal for an interim constitution for South Africa to CODESA.
    References:
    • Kalley, J.A.; Schoeman, E. & Andor, L.E. (eds)(1999). Southern African Political History: a chronology of key political events from independence to mid-1997, Westport: Greenwood.

  • Friday, April 23, 1993
    Calvin Thusago, a reporter for SABC is stabbed to death by a mob of youths as they travel back from Sharpeville to film the desecration of Black graves. Dudley Saunders, SABC cameraman is also stabbed but survives. Members of the ANC Youth League turn over suspects in the killing to police the following day.
    References:

  • Thursday, April 23, 1992
    President F.W. de Klerk proposes holding a multiracial election.
    References:

  • Monday, April 23, 1990
    Exiled Pan-Africanist Congress member Sam Chand and his family of four are shot dead in Botswana before a powerful explosion destroys their home.
    References:
    • Coleman, M. (ed)(1998). A Crime Against Humanity: analysing the repression of the apartheid state, Johannesburg: Human Rights Committee, p. 252.
    •  https://www.news24.com

  • Tuesday, April 23, 1991
    Minister of National Education Louis Pienaar announces that the government will abolish restrictions on the number of Black students who may be accepted by White universities.
    References:

  • Saturday, April 23, 1988
    Coal miners and industrial and government representatives from seventeen countries, attending an international labour organisation meeting in Geneva, call for a total boycott of South African coal.
    References:

  • Saturday, April 23, 1988
    A pickup truck rigged with explosives rips through a crowded vegetable market in Tripoli, Libya, killing fifty-four people and wounding 125.
    References:

  • Thursday, April 23, 1987
    The Natal Supreme Court declares the ban on campaigns for the release of detainees invalid. (2004). Today in History, Pretoria News, 23 April.

  • Wednesday, April 23, 1986
    Nine people are killed in a clash between police and residents after a rent stay-away called by the Alexandra boycott committee.
    References:
    • Coleman, M. (ed)(1998). A Crime Against Humanity: analysing the repression of the apartheid state, Johannesburg: Human Rights Committee, p. 263.

  • Wednesday, April 23, 1986
    The White-led South African government commits itself to scrapping dozens of laws restricting movements of Blacks.
    References:

  • Monday, April 23, 1984
    The discovery of a virus that may cause Aids, the fatal disease sweeping through the world and Africa, is hailed as a "monumental breakthrough" in medical research.
    References:

  • Sunday, April 23, 1978
    Dr Abraham J. van der Merwe (81), chairman of the Van Riebeeck fÁªte committee in 1952, dies.
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau

  • Saturday, April 23, 1977
    Zimbabwe African National Union leader Robert Mugabe announces that Rhodesia's guerrilla groups, Zanu and Zapu (the Zimbabwe African People's Union), are to be merged under one command after the political affiliation of the two groups in the Patriotic Front.
  • Friday, April 23, 1976
    Rhodesia's first Black cabinet ministers are sworn into office. (2004). Today in History, Pretoria News, 23 April.

  • Saturday, April 23, 1977
    UN officials and various missionaries are expelled from Ethiopia.
  • Tuesday, April 23, 1968
    The Methodist Church and the Evangelical United Brethren Church merge to form the United Methodist Church.
    References:

  • Tuesday, April 23, 1957
    Ignatius Royston Dunnachie (Roy) Campbell (56), SA poet and writer, is killed in a car accident in Portugal, where he lived during the last years of his life. He is considered by many as the greatest English poet of South Africa.
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau
    •  Potgieter, D.J. et al. (eds)(1970). Standard Encyclopaedia of Southern Africa, Cape Town: NASOU, v. 3, p. 9

  • Friday, April 23, 1954
    A group of academics founds the 'Afrikaans-Duitse Kultuurunie' (Afrikaans-Deutsche Kultur-Gemeinschaft) in Pretoria.
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau

  • Monday, April 23, 1956
    Aboubakar Jakoet, accountant and director, finance, Pick 'n Pay Retail division since 1995, is born.
    References:
    • Hayes, S. (ed)(2000).  Who's Who of Southern Africa 2001..., Graighall: Jonathan Ball.

  • Monday, April 23, 1928
    Shirley Temple Black, American child actress who became ambassador in Ghana, is born.
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau

  • Wednesday, April 23, 1919
    Johannes Stephanus (Jan) Marais, founder of Trust Bank, is born in Fraserburg, OFS.
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau

  • Thursday, April 23, 1925
    Rebel leader Abdel Krim's troops enter French Morocco.
  • Wednesday, April 23, 1919
    The Director of Education in the Transvaal, Dr John Adamson, opens the Potchefstroom Teachers' College with 131 students.
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau

  • Thursday, April 23, 1914
    Afrikaans receives first official recognition when C.J. Langenhoven addresses the English caucus of the Cape Provincial Council. 
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau

  • Sunday, April 23, 1911
    French, Algerian, and Senegalese troops are to be sent to help put down the tribesmen revolt in Morocco. However, Germany has protested that France will be breaking the terms of the 1906 Algerias accords on Moroccan independence.
  • Thursday, April 23, 1908
    Bram Fischer, son of a Judge President of the Orange Free State, grandson of a Prime Minister of the Orange River Colony, lawyer and champion against apartheid, is born in the Orange Free State.
    References:
    • Dictionary of SA Biography, v.5, p. 263; Joyce: SA Family Encyclopaedia

  • Sunday, April 23, 1905
    An Algerian Office is created within the French Ministry of the Interior.
  • Thursday, April 23, 1903
    Muhammed Abdalah Hassan (the 'Mad Mullah') suffers heavy losses in further encounters with British forces.
  • Wednesday, April 23, 1902
    Anglo-Boer War 2: During a meeting held in the Vryheid district to elect delegates for the peace conference, Commandant-General Botha orders Gen. M.W. Meyer to burn Zulu kraals in the district in reprisal for the looting of Boer cattle by the expedition under Gen. Bruce Hamilton, King Dinizulu and Chief Sikhobobo.
    References:
    • Cloete, P.G. (2000). The Anglo-Boer War: a chronology, Pretoria: Lapa.

  • Monday, April 23, 1900
    Abraham Jacobus Kotzé de Klerk, missionary of the Dutch Reformed Church in Ceylon, is born in Garies, Namaqualand.
    References:
    • Swart: Afrikaanse Kultuuralmanak

  • Saturday, April 23, 1881
    Claude Pagdett Carter, SA cricket player in ten test matches, is born in Durban.
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau

  • Friday, April 23, 1880
    Eugenie, Empress of the French and wife of Emperor Napoleon III, arrives in Durban to visit the grave of her son, the Prince Imperial, who was killed in Zululand during the Zulu War the previous year.
    References:

  • Wednesday, April 23, 1873
    Ashanti War breaks out in Africa.
    References:

  • Tuesday, April 23, 1850
    Andries Jacobus Bester, Boer commandant of the Bethlehem commando who fought in the Battle of Colesberg during the Anglo-Boer War 2, is born in Bloemfontein.
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau

  • Tuesday, April 23, 1861
    Lord Allenby, commander of the Egyptian forces who freed Jerusalem in 1917 from the Turks, is born.
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau

  • Tuesday, April 23, 1850
    A mass meeting is held in Cape Town to petition Queen Victoria to grant the Cape responsible government.
    References:

  • Sunday, April 23, 1843
    Hendrik Cloete, formerly of Cape Town, is appointed Her Majesty's Commissioner of Natal.
    References:

  • Sunday, April 23, 1837
    Piet Retief orders Erasmus Smit to ordain himself  (Smit) as minister of the Voortrekkers, but meets with violent opposition because they consider him as being too old and sickly at the age of fifty-nine.
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau