Liberation history Timeline 1930-1939


During this period, organisations such as the CPSA and NIC were characterised by factionalism, which resulted in conflict. There were also efforts to rally different parties together to fight increasing segregation imposed by the white minority government. The All Africa Convention (AAC) was a case in point. Anti-Indian legislation continued to be passed, leading to further discrimination of Indians, who responded with calls for passive resistance. Other organisations such as NCAW and the NEUF were formed during this period. Significantly, the ICU declined and ceased to be the dominant force in the South African political landscape.

James Shabu, Secretary of the African Laundry Workers’ Union, is arrested by police for servicing striking members. 
The Bantu Youth League, a Christian youth body focusing on welfare, is founded in Natal by Sibusisiwe Makhanya after her return from the United States of America.
Africans are moved out of the south of Fietas, Johannesburg (between 17th and 24th Streets) to Orlando (the first township of Soweto), and Coloured and Tamil people move in.
Restrictions against the urbanisation of Black women are introduced. The official government reasons for this are to decrease prostitution and illegal brewing in urban areas.
T.D. Mweli Skota, the African National Congress (ANC) secretary-general suggests a pan-African congress to be convened to protest against General J.B.M Hertzog’s efforts to influence the British African policy. However, his suggestion does not materialise.
T.W. Thibedi is expelled from the Communist Party of South Africa (CPSA) on the grounds that he had mismanaged union funds.
Amina Cachalia, political activist and founder of the Women’s Progressive Union, is born in Vereeniging, Transvaal.
Paul Joseph, political activist and defendant in the Treason Trial, is born.
Joseph Sallie Poonyane Molefi, defendant in the Treason Trial and member of the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) executive committee in the 1960s, is born in Winburg, Orange Free State.
Sam Kahn joins the CPSA and later becomes a leader in the party.
Josie Palmer a leading figure in Potchefstroom in the 1928 campaign against residential permits visits the USSR and participates in the Seventh Congress of the Comnitern.
The Industrial and Commercial Union (ICU) splits into a number of separate regional organisations of declining strength and influence. Clements Kadalie keeps a section alive in East London until 1950.
The South African Trades and Labour Council (SATLC) is formed and becomes the largest body of trade unions in South Africa.
January, T.D. Mweli Skota, secretary-general of the ANC, presents his report. Skota lamented the state of the ANC and pointed out that “all Provincial Congresses failed hopelessly not only by violating the Constitution, but also in disregarding the resolutions arrived at in the Convention.”
4 and 6 January, The second Non-European Conference takes place in Cape Town where a range of issues such as the tabled Riotous Assemblies Amendment Bill, tax and education for all non European children were discussed.  To read extracts on the proceedings and resolutions click here.
3 February, Following problems over Indian trading rights and ownership of property in the municipal areas of Springs, Krugersdorp, and in Norwood and Braamfontein in Johannesburg, the Minister of the Interior, Dr D.F. Malan, appoints a Select Committee to look into the questions of Indian trading rights and ownership of property in the Transvaal.
April, At the ANC’s Annual Conference, Pixley ka Isaka Seme is elected president and replaces J.T Gumede.
The Transvaal African Congress (TAC) hosts anti-pass meetings in the Western Native Township.
May, Anti-Indian Legislation is passed such as:
The Industrial Conciliation Act, 1930
Wage Amendment Act, 1930
Women's Enfranchisement Act, 1930
The ANC (WP) organises a mass march in Worcester against the Riotous Assemblies Bill. Over 400 Black workers attended the march.
3 May, A report on the proceedings of the Annual Conference of the ANC is published in Umteteli wa Bantu.
13 May, The Select Committee, appointed in January 1930 to look into the questions of Indian trading rights and ownership of property in the Transvaal, publishes its report.
Asiatics are in the future to be prevented from acquiring property in any form outside the areas set aside for them.
Sections 130 and 131 of the Gold Law are to be strictly enforced after 1 May 1930, even in townships like Springs which fell outside Gold Law.
Trading licenses are to be issued only to Asiatics who are the lawful owners of the premises that they occupy.
Immediately following the recommendations of the Select Committee, the Minister of the Interior, Dr D.F. Malan, introduces the Transvaal Asiatic Land Tenure (Amendment) Bill. The Bill contains three main provisions concerning the ownership of fixed property by Asiatics in the Transvaal; the occupation of stands in prohibited areas and their residence thereon; and the method of granting trading licences to Asiatics. It thus has as its aim to close every loophole in existing laws and regulations. The Bill sparks widespread protest and is regarded by Indians as a betrayal of the Cape Town Agreement.
19 May, White women over the age of 21 are given the right to vote. This increases the White share of the electorate from 90.7% to 95.5% and the weight of the Black vote is decreased from 3.1% to 1.4%.
21 May, The Riotous Assemblies (Amendment) Act No 19 is passed and it authorises the Governor-General to prohibit the publication or other dissemination of any ‘documentary information calculated to engender feelings of hostility between the European inhabitants of the Union on the one hand and any other section of the inhabitants of the Union on the other hand’ (Dugard 1978: 177).
31 May, The ANC agrees to observe this day as a day of “humiliation, prayer and protest against the policy of domination and economic strangulation of the Bantu race and inaugurated by Europeans with the consummation of Union in 1910” (Walshe, 1970: 181).
June, Clements Kadalie is banned from the Rand.
A Non-European Convention is held in Kimberley to protest against the pass laws and the Hertzog Bills. It is attended by more than 100 delegates representing the ANC, the African People’s Organisation (APO), the South African Indian Congress (SAIC), the Native Voters Association, the Bantu Union and religious and welfare societies from all over Southern Africa. Dr. Abdullah Abdurahman is elected to the chair.
27 June-3 July, At the Conference of European and Bantu Christian Student Associations at Fort Hare, Dr. Alfred Bitini (A.B.) Xuma says in a speech he hopes that a possibility exists for inter-racial cooperation. Charlotte Maxeke also gives a speech entitled “Social Conditions Among Bantu Women and Girls
July, Moses Mphahlele, Transvaal African Congress general secretary, advertises a dance in honour of The Mendi tragedy which featured The Dark Musician of Northern Transvaal and Nkosi Sikelel’ iAfrika.
9 August, The Government of India sends a telegram to the South African Government in protest against the proposed Transvaal Asiatic Land Tenure (Amendment) Bill.
September, General J.B.M Hertzog, at the Imperial Conference in London, asks for a South African voice in British Imperial policy in Africa.
8 September, The Location Advisory Boards’ Congress of South Africa hands a memorandum entitled “Urban Native Legislation” to the Minister of Native Affairs.
24 September, A.W.G Champion is banned under the Riotous Assemblies (Amendment) Act. He is exiled from the whole of Natal and Zululand. Champion finds employment in Johannesburg until his ban is lifted.
5-6 October, An emergency conference of the SAIC is held in Johannesburg in order to formulate opposition to the Transvaal Asiatic Land Tenure (Amendment) Bill. Sir Kurma Reddi, the Indian Agent in South Africa, addresses the Conference. The Conference calls upon the South African Government to withdraw the Bill and presses for another round-table conference to be held between the South African and Indian Governments. Should the South African Government fail to accept such a conference, it is asked that India shall withdraw its Agent as protest against Bill.
28 October, Representatives of India, Sir Muhammad Shafi and G.S. Bajpai hold informal talks with Prime Minister, General J.B.M. Hertzog.
November, There is a split in the ANC in the Cape and the Independent ANC (I-ANC) is formed, backed by the CPSA. However, the I-ANC soon collapses.
The CPSA holds a pass-burning demonstration in Johannesburg. However, this is not supported by the ICU or the ANC.
12 November, Molly Blackburn, future Black Sash leader and political activist, is born.
30 November, An issue of the South African Worker carries an article by Moses Kotane in the form of a letter entitled “African Workers Criticise the Proposed Riotous Assemblies Act Amendment”
December, The inaugural conference of the I-ANC is held in Cape Town.
At the ninth conference of the CPSA, Douglas Wolton announces that he has been ordered by the Comintern to “purge the party of rightist deviations” and produces a list of candidates for confirmation into the new leadership of the Party.  
16 December, The CPSA holds country-wide anti-pass rallies. In Durban the rally is attended by approximately 1000 people and 3000 passes are burnt. There is a clash between Africans and the city police where Johannes Nkosi and several others are seriously injured.
19 December, Johannes Nkosi dies of a haemorrhage of the cerebrum and abdominal cavity after an emergency operation for a fractured skull and stab wounds.
20 December, Ikaka Labasebenzi (Shield of the Workers) an organisation that aims to provide legal defence mainly for Communists who faced prosecution under the Riotous Assemblies Act is formed. Moses Kotane serves as Ikaka’s president for some years. Gana Makabeni also served as chairman of the organisation before he was expelled.
Women and the Bantu Women’s League are allowed to become affiliate members of the ANC.  
The women's section of the CPSA is established as a result of issues such as beer-brewing and food prices. Josie Palmer served as the secretary of the women section.
Fifteen-year old Sarah Rubin, later Carneson, whose parents were founder members of the CPSA, joins the Young Communist League.
Anti-Indian Legislation:
The Asiatic Immigration Amendment Act is passed. This means that Indians have to prove the legitimacy of their domicile in the country
The ANC begins to experience problems with organising their structures.
T.D Mweli Skota publishes African Yearly Registered: An Illustrated National Biographical Dictionary (Who’s Who) of Black Folks in Africa.
The Bantu Press Ltd. is formed which publishes, amongst others, the Bantu World. This results in the closure of Abantu-Batho.
The ANC sends a delegation to the Native Economic Commission (NEC)
J.B. Marks is banned from teaching due to his political activities.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom passes the Statute of Westminster which removes the last traces of Britain’s legal authority over its dominions, including South Africa. 
January, The Third Non-European Conference is held in Bloemfontein, where condemnation of the Native Bills and the Coloured Persons' Rights Bill are affirmed. Delegates vote to send a deputation to Europe. To read extracts of proceedings and resolutions click here.
Moses Kotane becomes the compositor of the CPSA’s paper Umsebenzi.
Alfred Nzulu and, a few months later, Moses Kotane, leave South Africa to study at the Lenin School in Moscow. 
28 January, The Government of India formally requests the South African Government to postpone the Transvaal Asiatic Land Tenure Bill, pending negotiations between the two Governments concerning a second round-table conference.
19 April, Hendrik Jacobus (Kobie) Coetsee, National Party politician and negotiator during the transition, is born in Ladybrand, Orange Free State.
1 May, The CPSA organizes a May Day rally of African and White workers in Witwatersrand.
6 May, The Minister of the Interior, Dr D.F. Malan, announces the postponement of the second reading of the Bill and a tentative date is set for the Second Round-table Conference in December.
27 June, The ANC publishes a statement in Umteteli wa Bantu calling for passive resistance.      
July, Abantu-Batho (The People) an ANC newspaper ceases publication.
4 September, A copy of the CPSA’s Political Bureau is published with names of members to be expelled. On the list are S.P. Bunting, C.B Tyler, Solly Sachs, James La Guma and William H. Andrews
7 October, Desmond Tutu, future Archbishop of Cape Town and Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) Chairperson, is born in Klerksdorp, North West Province.
31 December Dorothy Nomzansi Nyembe, future founder of the ANC Women’s League in Cato Manor, is born near Dundee in northern Natal.
Pixley ka Isaka Seme outlines his reform scheme, desperately seeking to improve the financial matters of the congress. He revives the Upper House and puts it in complete control of the ANC’s monetary affairs.
The Supreme Court removes Pixley ka Isaka Seme's name from the Roll of attorneys.
Dr. Yusuf Dadoo attends the SAIC meeting where the Transvaal Asiatic Land Tenure Act is discussed. He is convinced that the SAIC can only advance in their struggle if they cooperate with national organisations representing African and Coloured people.
The South African African Football Association (SAAFA) is formed and launches the Bakers Cup national tournament.
The Communist League of Africa (CLA), the first Trotskyist group, is formed in the Witwatersrand by veteran trade unionist T. W. Thibedi, who had been recently expelled from the CPSA.
The Joint Council branches in Zoutpansberg and Kimberley oppose the Native Service Contract Bill.
Hilda Bernstein becomes a member of the Labour Party’s League of Youth.
Sheena Duncan, future Black Sash leader, is born in Johannesburg.
Florence Mkhize, political activist, member of the ANC and Federation of South African Women (FEDSAW)  is born in Natal.
Sam Kahn, earns an LL.B degree from the University of Cape Town. Kahn became a lawyer and leader in the Communist Party of South Africa (CPSA).
Bram Fischer begins his studies at Oxford as a Rhodes Scholar.
4 January, A delegation of the Government of India arrives in South Africa for the second round-table conference with representatives of the South African Government. The South African delegation is led by the Minister of the Interior, Dr D.F. Malan, and includes the Minister of Land, Oswald Pirow, the Minister of Native Affairs, E.G. Jansen, and Patrick Duncan and G.H. Nicholls as representatives of the opposition South African Party.
12 January-4 February, The Second Round-table Conference between the Governments of India and South Africa opens in Cape Town. During the conference the South African Minister of the Interior, Dr D.F. Malan, indicates the failure of Cape Town Agreement with regards to the repatriation of Indians and introduces the Colonisation (Emigration) Scheme. In terms of this scheme, a Committee will be appointed to investigate possible outlets or areas abroad, to which South African Indians can be relocated. Malan also produces a signed document by South African Indian leaders, including Advocate Albert Christopher, P.R. Pather and Manilal Gandhi, in which cooperation in a colonising scheme is offered. This issue would later lead to a split in the South African Indian community with the formation of the Colonial Born and Indian Settlers Association. The conference ends without any decisions or agreements being made.
March, The Bantu World, a European-sponsored African newspaper starts of publication.
A Report by the Carnegie Commission is issued on the ‘Poor White Problem’
The Native Service Contract Act is passed and increases penalties for law breakers and tightens restrictions on movement by African labourers outside the reserves.
5 April, The Report on the Second Round-table Conference between the Governments of India and South Africa is released. Indian leaders in South Africa express their disappointment with the results of the Conference and its emphasis on the Scheme of Assisted Emigration.
18 April, The Minister of the Interior, Dr D.F. Malan, requests the SAIC to nominate a representative of the South African Indian community to the Colonisation Enquiry Committee.
25 April, Frene Noshir Ginwala, future member of the ANC and speaker of the National Assembly of South Africa, is born.
May, Pixely ka Isaka Seme publishes a pamphlet entitled “The African National Congress – Is it Dead?” as a response to attacks on his leadership.
June, An attempt to apply curfew regulations to African women in the Transvaal sparks discussions of passive resistance against passes.
The Transvaal Asiatic Land Tenure (Amendment) Act, Act No. 35 of 1932 becomes law.
19 June, Sol Plaatje dies of pneumonia while on a trip to Johannesburg.
July, Professor D.D.T Jabavu publishes a pamphlet entitled “Native Disabilities in South Africa
2 July, A Special Emergency Convention of the ANC is held in Kimberley after Pixley ka Isaka Seme is accused of ‘culpable inertia’. To read the report of the meeting click here.
3 August, Sir Kunwar Maharaj Singh arrives in South Africa as the successor to Sir Kurma Reddi as Agent for the Government of India in South Africa. The Indian Government places the Agent at the disposal of the proposed Colonisation Enquiry Committee.
The SAIC convenes a conference in Johannesburg. The Conference adopts a resolution in which it agrees to co-operate with the Indian and South African Governments to find good opportunities for Indians in other countries in terms of the proposed Assisted Emigration Scheme.
14 August, The Transvaal Indian Congress (TIC) holds a mass meeting, attended by 1000 people, to respond to the Transvaal Asiatic Land Tenure Amendment Act. After an emotional appeal by Thambi Naidoo, the meeting resolves to appoint a committee to organize resistance to the Act.
27 August, The twelfth annual conference of the SAIC is held in Johannesburg. The SAIC President, Sorabjee Rustomjee, supports the TIC decision to resist the Transvaal Asiatic Land Tenure Act.
4 October, The Feetham Commission, led by Mr Justice Feetham, is appointed to enquire into the occupation of proclaimed land in the Transvaal by Coloured persons and to compile a register of persons in legal/ illegal occupation. The Agent-General of India, Kunwar Sir Maharaj Singh, appeals to the Commission on behalf of South African Indians. The Commission is boycotted by the TIC and SAIC.
November, A mass-based anti-protest meeting is held at the Cape Town City Hall by the ANC (WP) which is attended by approximately 1,755 people.
Pixley ka Isaka Seme uses the votes of women to ensure his re-election as president of the ANC.
Albert Luthuli becomes President of the African Teachers' Association.
The South African Bantu Football Association (SABFA) and the South African Coloured Football Association (SACFA) are formed.
The National Council of African Women (NCAW) is established in Kimberley. It is an amalgamation of a number of small welfare groups, including the Bantu Women’s League (BWL). Charlotte Maxeke, who had headed the BWL, becomes the NCAW’s first president.
Dennis Goldberg, executive committee member of the Congress of Democrats and defendant in the Rivonia Trial, is born in Cape Town.
Farid Ahmed Adams, future member of the South African Indian Congress (SAIC) and South African Communist Party political activist, is born in India.  
Alfred Nzulu dies of pneumonia in Moscow at the age of 28.
January, Moses Kotane arrives back in South Africa and is shocked to find that due to Douglas Wolton’s “purges”, the CPSA had dwindled. Kotane is given a false name (K. Motsoakai) and is ordered to live in hiding in Sophiatown.
At the CPSA’s 4th Plenum, attended by delegates from all over the country, Kotane is elected to the Political Bereau and as the general secretary and political editor of Umsebenzi.
March, General J.B.M. Hertzog, of the South African Party, invites General Jan Smuts, of the National Party, to form a coalition government for the up-coming national elections.
17 May, National elections take place in which the Hertzog and Smuts coalition wins. As a result a coalition government is formed with General J.B.M Hertzog as Prime Minister and General Jan Smuts as Deputy Prime Minister.
Douglas G Wolton leader of the CPSA is arrested and sentenced to three months imprisonment for his involvement in a tram-and-bus strike in Cape Town.
16 June, The new Minister of the Interior in the Coalition Government, J.H. Hofmeyr, appoints the Indian Colonisation Enquiry Committee and announces the Committee's terms of reference and composition. This is later known as the Young Commission after its Chairman, James Young, its other members are G. Heaton Nicholls, P.K. Kincaid and a nominee of the South African Indian Congress (SAIC).
July, The fifth National European-Bantu Conference takes place. To read extracts of the proceedings and resolutions click here.
9 July, The Executive of the SAIC meets in Durban and appoints S.R. Naidoo as the SAIC's nominee to the Young Committee. Albert Christopher, Manilal Gandhi and P.R. Pather, arguing for non-cooperation with the Committee, strongly condemn the appointment.
23 July, Twenty-two Indian leaders, including Manilal Gandhi, Albert Christopher and P.R. Pather, calls for a mass meeting to protest the decision of the SAIC to cooperate with the Young Commission.
28 July, The Young Commission, charged with investigating possible outlets or areas abroad to which South African Indians can be relocated, begins its work.
August, Albert Christopher, Manilal Gandhi, S.L. Singh and P.R. Pather form the Colonial Born and Settlers Indian Association (CBSIA). Christopher becomes President; Manilal Gandhi, Vice-President; S.L. Singh and A. Haffejee secretaries; and K.K. Pillay and P.G. Naicker (father of Dr. G.M. Naicker) treasurers. The formation of the CBSIA is essentially in protest against the cooperation of the SAIC and the Government of India with the Young Commission.
Douglas Wolton is released from jail and accepts a position to work at the Yorkshire Times in England. Lazar Bach takes over from Wolton at the CPSA Political Bureau.
19-20 August, The SAIC holds an Emergency Conference in Johannesburg. The Conference, opened by the Indian Agent-General, Kunwar Maharaj Singh, sanctions a policy of cooperation with the Young Commission and confirms the nomination of S. R. Naidoo to the Commission. Manilal Gandhi, Albert Christopher and TIC delegates C.K.T. Naidoo, B.L.E. Sigamoney, P.S. Joshi, E. Mall and S.B. Medh oppose the SAIC line.
24 August, A meeting of the CBSIA at the Durban City Hall is attended by Sir Kunwar Maharaj Singh, the Indian Agent in South Africa, and his wife. Lady Maharaj Singh brings the rowdy meeting to order.
September, Members of the CBSIA’s Pietermaritzburg branch, armed with knives, knuckledusters, bicycle chains and iron rods, disrupt a meeting in the Pietermaritzburg City Hall and the police are called in.
23 September, Albert Christopher and P.R. Pather address meetings in Pretoria and Johannesburg. These meetings are disrupted by TIC supporters of S.M. Nana.
December, J.T Gumede chairs a conference in Durban aimed at re-unifying the various ICU splinter groups under the banner of a United ICU. Gumede is elected as president and Clements Kadalie as general secretary.
31 December, The first provincial conference of the CBSIA is held in Durban.
The Status of the Union Act reaffirms the status of South Africa, initially put in place by the Statute of Westminster, as a 'sovereign independent state'.
The Slums Act is passed and“”¦was applied for demolition of various inner but dilapidated suburbs, notably on the Witwatersrand. (Parnell, 1998) The displaced African populations were largely rehoused in segregated mono-racial municipal housing estates on the urban periphery. The Slums Act was widely applied in the major metropolitan centre in order to impose racial segregation in a ‘non-racial’ manner.”  (Christopher, 1994: 36)
George Poonan and HA Naidoo, two young Indian workers, are recruited by Eddie Roux into the CPSA in Durban. They become the first Indian members of CPSA and go on to become some of the most influential members of the Party in Natal and the Natal Indian Congress (NIC).
Eighteen year old Sarah Carneson joins the CPSA and begins teaching at the Party’s night school.
Bram Fischer returns to South African and begins his career as a member of the Johannesburg Bar.
9 January, The SAIC presents a statement to the Young Committee, requesting full citizenship rights for Indians in South Africa.
February, Moses Kotane begins a tour of South Africa visiting CPSA branches.
7 February, The Young Committee, charged with investigating possible outlets or areas abroad to which South African Indians can be relocated, completes its work.
16 February, The British Indian Union of East London dissolves and forms the East London branch of the CBSIA.
26 February, The Young Committee publishes its recommendations on the proposed Indian Assisted Emigration Scheme. The Committee identifies British North Borneo, British New Guinea and British Guiana as suitable for Indian colonisation. However, the Committee's findings are not taken seriously and the Committee expires. Though a few Indians do emigrate, the Scheme of Assisted Emigration continues until it is suspended during WWII.
8 May, Sibusiso Bengu, future secretary-general of Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP), is born in Natal.
26 May, Dullah Omar, lawyer, politician and future Minister of Justice and Minister of Transport, is born in Observatory, Cape Town.
24-27 May & 2 June, A special meeting is called to deal with differences that had fanned factionalism between Moses Kotane and Lazar Bach. However, the meeting is not able to come to a resolution.
12 June, Mossa ‘Mosie’ Molla, member of the TIC, political activist Treason Trialist and the ANC Representative in India, is born in Christiana, Transvaal.
August, Moses Kotane speaks at an anti-fascist conference convened by the South African Trades and Labour Council.
October, The Cape Nationalists, supported by some people from Free State and Transvaal, break away from the National Party and D. F. Malan forms the Gesuiwerde (‘Purified’) Nasionale Party, with 19 members of Parliament.
8 October, Kader Asmal, prominent member of the Anti Apartheid movement future member of Parliament and Minister of Education in the new South Africa, is born in Stanger, Natal.
10 November, Pixley ka Isaka Seme publishes an article in Umteteli wa Bantu entitled “I Appeal to the African Nation” where he appealed for youth to be active in African Congress Clubs.  
28 November, Bertha Gxowa, one of the leaders of the 1956 Women’s Anti-Pass March, is born in Germiston.
5 December, The United Party is officially formed with General J.B.M Hertzog as leader and Prime Minister and General Jan Smuts as deputy leader.
16 December, The CPSA organizes nine separate meetings in the townships to overcome the restrictions of the Urban Areas Act and a car with Party speakers visits each site in turn.
The first group of Indian girls matriculate in South Africa.
The Rural Dealers Licensing Ordinance of Natal is passed and refuses licenses to people whose properties have depreciated in value or whose licenses endangers the comfort and health of neighbours. 
The Transvaal Inter-Race Soccer Board is formed by Africans, Indians, and Coloureds. Subsequently, the Suzman Cup, the first official inter-racial tournament, is established.
Govan Mbeki joins the ANC.
The Bolshevist-Leninist League of South Africa and the Cape Town-based Lenin Club merge to form the Workers' Party of South Africa (WPSA). Founding members of the WPSA include I.B. Tabata, Dora Taylor, Ralph Lee and Isaac Blank (later known as Ted Grant).
Albert Luthuli is elected Chief by the people of Groutville Mission Reserve, and he subsequently leaves Adam's College.
Lionel E. Morrison, secretary of the Cape Town branch of the South African Coloured People’s Organisation (SACPO) and a Treason Trialist, is born.
February, Sir Syed Reza Ali becomes the new Agent of the Government of India to South Africa.
27 April, Satyandranath (Mac) Maharaj, defendant in the mini-Rivonia Trial and member of the ANC’s executive committee in exile, is born in Newcastle, Natal.
May, The Joint Select Committee of Parliament tables two measures: the Representation of Natives Bill and the Native Trust and the Land Bill.
18 May, The CPSA urges people to fight for the retaining of the Cape Native Franchise.
Rev. Z. R. Mahabane’s national convention statement appears in the Bantu World.
June, The Feetham Commission releases Parts I and  II of its report.
July, Due to a split between Lazar Bach and Moses Kotane, a number of Kotane supporters are suspended or expelled from the Party.
9 August, Moses Kotane leaves for Moscow, travelling via Lourenco Marques (Maputo)
September, Behind the scenes Eddie Roux, Moses Kotane and Josiah Ngedlane are removed from the CPSA’s Political Bureau.
A new directive is received from Moscow to establish a National or Worker’s Front in South Africa. Many of those who were purged by Douglas Wolton return to the CPSA.
6-7 September, News report and resolution of the conference of chiefs and leaders in the Transvaal and Orange Free State which had been convened by government is published.
October, The Feetham Commission releases Part III of its report. The Commission recommends that some 202 acres of land on the Rand be exempted from the Transvaal Asiatic Land Tenure Act for occupation and ownership by Indians.
1 December, The National Liberation League of South Africa (NLL) is founded in Cape Town with the slogan ‘For equality, land and freedom’. Zaibunnissa (Cissie) Gool is elected president and James la Guma general secretary. At the conference a programme and constitution is adopted which pledges to ‘unite all individuals, organisations and other bodies in agreement with the programme of the League to struggle for complete social, political and economic equality of Non-Europeans in South Africa’
15-18 December, Five hundred delegates arrive for a convention of African organisations and register with the local committee at the office of Thomas. M. Mapikela, Chief Headman of all Bloemfontein locations. They meet at Community Hall, Bloemfontein. Under the chairmanship of Professor D.D.T Jabavu, delegates draft comprehensive resolutions on African grievances and resolve to constitute the All African Convention (AAC), an organised body that intends to promote African rights through boycotts. It is decided that the Convention should meet again in June, 1936.
The government sets up a Commission of Inquiry into African education. The Commission points to problems with the system, but virtually nothing is done to improve the system.
Dr. Yusuf Dadoo returns to practice in South Africa after obtaining a medical degree in Edinburgh. He subsequently joins the TIC and is offered a position on the executive of TIC, which he refuses.
Chamberlain Nakasa, brother of Nat Nakasa and compositor and columnist on African affairs in Indian Views Weekly, starts a monthly journal called New Outlook. The editorial board consists of himself, B. Asher, Dr. Goonam, Farooqi Mehtar and I.C. Meer. New Outlook is followed by Call, published by H.A. Naidoo, Cassim Amra, D.A. Seedat, George Ponen, A.K.M. Docrat and others who later become active in the Liberal Study Group.
The Railway and Harbour Workers’ Union is formed in Cape Town with the help of Ray Alexander. The Union manages to survive restrictions.
The AAC’s Executive Committee deputation led by Professor D. D. T Jabavu meets with Prime Minister J.B.M. Hertzog and other government officials in Cape Town to discuss acts tabled in Parliament in 1935. Prime Minister Hertzog refuses to allow postponement in the passing of some of the Bills and having some of the Act looked at again. The AAC deputation reaffirms its opposition to the Bills in the strongest possible manner; as it did in its meeting in December 1935.
Selby Msimang, Secretary General of the AAC expresses his view in a pamphlet entitled The Crisis. He argues that Parliament and White South Africans have disowned Africans of their belongings and flirted with their loyalty.
Max Yergan is elected AAC’s secretary of external affairs, having left South Africa for New York.
The Godfrey South African Challenge Cup is established.
Lionel Davis, , member of the African People's Democratic Union of South Africa (APDUSA) and the National Liberation Front,  artist and ex Robben Island political prisoner, is born in Cape Town.
January, The rank of the representative of the Indian Government in South Africa is raised from "Agent" to "Agent-General".
18 January, Sir Reza Ali, the Indian Agent-General to South Africa, marries a Hindu, Miss Ponnoosammy. This causes a furore and several Hindu officials and Sorabjee Rustomjee resign from the leadership of NIC and the SAIC. The leadership of the NIC passes to A.I. Kajee and other Muslims.
February, The fifteenth annual conference of the SAIC is held in Durban and attended by the Indian Agent-General, Sir Reza Ali.
14 February, The AAC holds a public meeting to clear the air. The meeting decides that they would not accept any compromise in contravention of the mandate from December 1935 Bloemfontein convention.
15 February, Umteteli wa Bantu (‘The Mouthpiece of the African People’) reports that the delegation that went to Cape Town led by Professor D. D. T. Jabavu made a compromise with Prime Minister Hertzog. Jabavu’s acceptance of the separate voters roll threatens to end his political career as he loses respect within the AAC Executive Committee, but he survives as he is elected president in June.
March, Professor D. D. T. Jabavu issues a statement through the South African Institute of Race Relations (SAIRR) denying that the AAC did not accept a compromise Bill.
18 March, Frederick Willem (F.W.) de Klerk, future president of South Africa and Nobel Peace prize winner, is born in Mayfair, Johannesburg.
7 April, The Representation of Natives Bill is passed at the joint sitting of parliament. Eleven members of parliament, including J.H Hofmeyr, vote against the Bill with 169 in support. As part of the Act, African voters are removed from the common roll, while in the Cape qualified Africans are allowed to vote for three white ‘native representatives’. The Act also creates a Native Representative Council (NRC) with six White officials, four nominated and 12 elected Africans.
Professor D. D. T. Jabavu writes to Jan Hofmeyr thanking him for voting against the Bill.
5-8 April, A CPSA Plenum pledges its support for the AAC. The Plenum also resolves to form a Farmer-Labour Party which never materializes.
May, The Native Trust and Land Act, No 18 becomes a law. This Act compliments the Representation of Natives Act of 1936 in that it allows for an extension of land that formed part of the reserves (as set out in the 1913 Land Act) from 7.3% to 13%. It also establishes the South African Native Trust, which became the Bantu Trust and then later the Development Trust. The Act forbade ‘Natives’ from owning and/or purchasing land outside the stipulated reserves.
25 May, S.P Bunting dies from a stroke in Johannesburg
28 May, The Minister of the Interior, J.H. Hofmeyr, introduces a Bill to give legal form to the Feetham Commission's recommendations, namely the Asiatic Land Tenure Amendment Act. The Indian Agent-General, Sir Syed Raza Ali, fearing that a second reading will remove elements favourable to Indians, gives evidence in Parliament favouring voluntary segregation in an attempt to prevent second reading. The South African Indian community is outraged at the suggestion of voluntary segregation.
June, The CPSA newspaper Umsebenzi (The Worker) backs Umteteli wa Bantu (‘The mouthpiece of the people’) in saying that the AAC is wasting time on things of less importance. The CPSA sees AAC as a parliament for Africans, and wants action, unity and leadership.
16 June, The Asiatic Land Tenure Amendment Act, No 30 is passed to exempt further areas for Indian occupation with possibility of freehold title.
29 June – 2 July, The AAC reconvenes at Community Hall, Bloemfontein two months after the passing of the Native Bills into law. In addition to the officials present at the conference there are 206 delegates representing 112 organizations. The conference elects an executive which submits a draft constitution. Jabavu is re-elected as president.
28 August, The TIC hosts a banquet to honour a delegation of South African Members of Parliament, led by J.H. Hofmeyr, the Minister of the Interior, to India.
Moses Kotane returns from Moscow. He is co-opted back onto the CPSA’s Political Bureau, but is not put back in charge of the Party newspaper.
September, The CPSA’s political strategy is outlined in a pamphlet Organize a People’s Front in South Africa which calls for one united front against Anglo-Boer imperialism.  
19 September, A South African Parliamentary delegation consisting of eleven Members of Parliament, led by J.H. Hofmeyr, Minister of the Interior, arrives in Bombay, India. The visit, solely for the purpose of courtesy and goodwill and not for negotiations, will last 26 days.
26 September, Winnie Madikizela-Mandela, lifetime opponent of apartheid and future President of the ANC Women’s League, is born in Bizana, Eastern Cape.
22 October, Neville Alexander, political activist and founding member of the National Liberation Front (NLF), is born in Cradock, Easter Cape.
December, Seth Govind Das, member of the Central Legislative Assembly of India, visits South Africa on behalf of the Indian National Congress and advises Indians not to accept any qualified franchise.
The AAC “expresses its utmost condemnation of the savage and the unprovoked and unwanted attack made by Italy upon Abyssinia (later renamed Ethiopia) and declares as its considered opinion that the ruthless action of Italy can only be regarded as large scale violence against fundamental human rights
Industrial Conciliation Act No 36 provides for the registration and regulation of trade unions and employers' organisations, the settlement of disputes between employers and employees, and the regulation of conditions of employment.
Black (Native) Laws Amendment Act No 46 prohibits acquisition of land in urban areas by Blacks from non-Blacks except with the Governor-General's consent (Horrell 1978: 3).  This law also “...severely restricted the mobility of the Black population, and also set a limit on "the size of the African urban population to the bare number needed for 'reasonable labour requirements' "(Simons & Simons 1969: 499).
Very strict regulations are introduced regarding the urbanisation of women as part of influx control.
The twenty-fifth year of the ANC marks the beginning of a transitional period in African politics. The ANC begins slowly to revive while continuing to employ tactics of representation through resolutions, deputations and meetings.
The SAAFAs (South African African Football Association) Bakers Cup is renamed the Moroka-Baloyi Cup. (Limb gives 1938 as the date (Limb, 2010: 383)
Dr. A.B Xuma visits the United States of America where he marries Madie Hall, a social worker in Atlanta, Georgia.
An African General Workers’ Union is formed in Port Elizabeth.
An African Trade Union Co-ordinating Committee is formed with 12 unions. 
ANC representatives Selope Thema and Richard Baloyi give evidence at the Enquiry Collection of Native Taxes.
The CPSA brings out a new publication called The Guardian.
Frederick John Harris, future chairman of the South African Non-Racial Olympic Committee and member of the African Resistance Movement (ARM), is born.
William H. Andrews goes to Moscow to represent the South African Friends of the Soviet Union at the celebration of the 20th anniversary of the Soviet Union.
J.B. Marks is excluded from the CPSA for a technical breach of regulations but is allowed to rejoin the Party a couple of years later.
January, Anti-Indian Legislation:
The Marketing Act, Act No. 26 of 1937 debars Indians from holding seats on regulatory boards. While the Marketing Bill was still under Parliamentary discussion, the South African Indian Congress (SAIC) sent a deputation to the Minister of Agriculture, Deneys Reitz, in protest, but to no avail.
The Immigration Amendment Act: Children born outside of South Africa are deprived of rights enjoyed by South African Indians.
The Native Administration Amendment Act, Act No. 9 of 1937 prohibits Indians and other persons of colour from employing Whites.
February, Moses Kotane moves from Johannesburg to Cape Town and stays with Eddie Roux. Shortly after his arrival, Kotane receives a letter notifying him that he has been suspended from the Political Bureau of the CPSA, but he remains a member. Kotane and Roux co-operated in the publication of ‘The African Defender’, a hang-over from ‘Ikaka Labasebenzi’.
1 February, Aliens Act No 1: Restricts and regulates the entry of certain aliens into the Union and regulated the right of any person to assume a surname.
22 February, JJ Pienaar and JH Grobler of the United Party introduce three Bills:
The Mixed Marriages Bill: This Bill aims to prohibit marriage between Asiatics, Europeans and Africans. It is not passed, but a Mixed Marriages Commission is later appointed.
The Provincial Legislative Powers Extension Bill: This Bill aims to refuse trading licenses to non-Europeans who employ White people.
The Transvaal Asiatic Land Bill: This Bill aims to deny right of owning property to any White woman married to a non-European.
18 September, Ivy Matsepe-Casaburri, ANC political activist and Minister of Communication from 1999, is born in Kroonstad, Orange Free State.
December, The ANC hosts its Jubilee Conference which marks a rejuvenation of the party. 
11 December, Adriaan Johannes Vlok, future National Party Minister of Law and Order and Minister of Correctional Services is born in Sutherland, Cape Province.
13-15 December, The third AAC conference convenes in Bloemfontein with 130 delegates, representing 39 organisations. The delegates adopt a constitution calling for the affiliation of all African religious, educational, industrial, economic, political, commercial and social organisations within its ranks. A decision is also taken for the AAC to meet every three years. Dr. A. B. Xuma, Vice-President of the AAC, states that “Anyone who will endeavour to wreck the principle of unity that gave birth to the All African Convention will be doing so for personal reasons and will be a traitor to Africa.” (Xuma in Tabata, 1974: 46)

Professor Z. K. Matthews favours the disenfranchising of all Africans in order to promote unity. Despite internal conflict, the AAC proclaims itself the voice of Africans. It devotes itself to act in unity in developing political and economic power.
Cissie Gool represents District Six on the Cape Town City Council. She is the only woman Councillor for many years and the first Coloured woman to sit on the council. She serves on the council until 1951.
Albert Luthuli visits India as one of several delegates to the International Missionary Conference in Tambaram, Madras, India.
Representations made by the NRC result in African teachers in the Orange Free State having their unpaid allowances which date back to 1932 restored.
The CPSA moves its headquarters from Johannesburg to Cape Town.
Sarah Carneson begins working for the National Union of Distributive Workers and also becomes the secretary of the Tobacco Workers’ Union.
Sam Kahn is elected to the Central Executive Committee of the CPSA, a position he holds almost continuously until the party’s dissolution in 1950.
Bram Fischer becomes a member of the CPSA (according to his statement from the dock in 1966).
February, The Indian Agent-General in South Africa, Sir Syed Raza Ali, returns to India.
The Commission on Mixed Marriages, under the chairmanship of Mr Charles de Villiers, is appointed to investigate the issue of mixed marriages.
3 February, The Transvaal Asiatic Land Laws Commission is appointed to report on the evasions of Asiatics of restrictive measures concerning the use, occupation and ownership of land. At a conference called by the TIC, a proposal "to offer cooperation" to the Transvaal Asiatic Land Laws Commission is defeated by 56 votes to 44 due to opposition by Dr. Yusuf Dadoo and others.
March, The CPSA’s journal Umsebenzi/South African Worker ceases publication due to a lack of funds.
April, The National Liberation League convenes a conference in Cape Town. At the conference, African, Coloured and Indian delegates representing 45 organisations decide to form the Non-European United Front (NEUF) “to fight the proposed Stuttaford Bills. These Bills aimed to enforce segregation in public and residential areas and were part of a broader move to eliminate coloured rights” (Drew, 1996: 33).
Cissie Gool is elected President. Subsequently, a branch of the NEUF is formed in the Transvaal with Ebrahim Asvat as president, Dr. Yusuf Dadoo as secretary and includes J.B. Marks and others.
April-May, The NIC is revitalised after former members rejoin the Congress.
1 May, William H. Andrews is readmitted into the CPSA.
18 April, The NIC and the CBSIA meet to hammer out an agreement on reconciliation. 
30 April, The NIC and the CBSIA both hold special meetings to discuss a merger of the two organisations.
May, Sir Benegal Rama Rau, the new Indian Agent-General arrives in South Africa. He would remain in office until April 1941. He immediately begins work to bring the NIC and the CBSIA together in Natal. 
1 May, Swami Bhawani Dayal is elected President of the NIC. He is the first Hindu to be elected as NIC President since the formation of NIC in 1894.
4 May, The Union Government introduces the Asiatic (Transvaal Land and Trading) Bill, which provides for the protection of Indians in exempted areas for two years and the issuing of certificates for trading licences which would be authorised by the Minister of Interior. Asiatics are not allowed to appoint nominees to buy land and obtain trading licences on their behalf. The Bill elicits protests from India, but eventually becomes law as the Asiatics (Transvaal Land and Trading) Act, Act No. 28 of 1939.
June, The Minister of the Interior, Richard Stuttaford, announces the Servitude Scheme after meeting with a deputation from the conference of the Pretoria Ratepayers Associations. He informs the deputation that they would propose to the Government introducing legislation providing that, in cases where 60% or more of the owners of property desired it, servitudes in respect of such properties be registered free of charge to prohibit the sale to, or hire of such properties by, Indians (Muthal Naidoo, ‘Tyranny of Colour’: 232).
4 July, Rev James Calata gives his presidential address at a conference of the Cape African Congress.
15 November, Ronald (Ronnie) Kasrils, political activist, ANC Member of Parliament and Minister of Intelligence in post apartheid South Africa, is born in Yeoville, Johannesburg.
December, The unity of the NIC and the CBSIA is short-lived. A.I. Kajee and Swami Bhawani Dayal officially re-establish the NIC.
9-10 December, The NIC Conference passes resolutions regarding penetration, industrial legislation, education, social welfare and trade. Government attitudes and actions are severely criticised.
29 December, The conference of the CPSA’s Central Committee takes places in Johannesburg. Moses Kotane is elected General Secretary, taking over from E.T Mofutsanyana. Dr. Yusuf Dadoo attends a reception held during the conference and meets Kotane for the first time.
Rev. James Calata tours the union in the hope that dormant ANC branches could be revived.
The Asiatic Land Tenure and Trading Act is passed.
Coloured people start rent boycotts against ‘slumlords' in Pageview. They voluntarily move to the Coronation Township and Albertsville.
Govan Mbeki publishes Transkei in the Making a work of political analysis which is deeply critical of the system of local government in the Transkei.
J.B Marks and Richard Baloyi become leaders of the Transvaal United Front
Yusuf Dadoo joins the City Branch of the CPSA and attends study classes run by Michael Harmel and E.T Mofutsanyana.
Moses Kotane is elected Chairman of the Cape Town Central Branch of the ANC.
4 February, Radical Afrikaners form the pro-Nazi Ossewabrandwag, an organised terror group.
March, Dr Yusuf Dadoo forms the Nationalist Bloc in the TIC.
1 March, The TIC calls a meeting to protest against latest anti-Indian measures including the proposed servitude scheme of the Minister of the Interior, Richard Stuttaford. The meeting is attended by one thousand people - a large number as the total Indian population of Transvaal numbers only about 25,000 at this time.
27 March, The NEUF’s ‘National Day of Protest’ results in a day of meetings and demonstrations across South Africa.
April, Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, an Indian philosopher and statesman, visits South Africa.
8-10 April, The first national conference of the NEUF is held in Cape Town. The Conference is attended by 125 delegates representing 83 organisations, including trade unions, religious, social, sporting and civic bodies. Officers of the Natal branch of the NEUF, formed subsequent to the Conference, include Cassim Amra, D.A. Seedat and Dr. Goonam. To read minutes of the conference, click here.
May, Moses Kotane is one of three delegates representing the Cape Western Province in a large deputation from the ANC and the Congress of Urban Advisory Boards which interviewed the Minister of Native Affairs around a large number of African grievances.
7 May, A mass meeting of Indians, organised by the Nationalist Bloc of the TIC, is held at Patidar Hall, Johannesburg, under the Chairmanship of E.I. Asvat, and attended by 3,000 people. Dr. Yusuf Dadoo is elected to lead Passive Resistance against what becomes the Asiatic (Transvaal Land and Trading) Act of 1939.
15-17 May, A deputation from the ANC and the Congress of Urban Advisory Board meet the Minister of Native Affairs. To read the report click here.
4 June, The TIC leadership calls another protest meeting and gangs of thugs appear with lethal weapons. They begin beating members of the Nationalist Bloc. Dr. Yusuf Dadoo escapes narrowly and one of his supporters, Dhayabhai Govindji, is disembowelled and dies on 8 June. Nine other persons are injured four seriously and hospitalised. All those injured are supporters of the Nationalist Bloc. The five Indians arrested by the police in connection with this incident are relatives of S. M. Nana and A.I. Kajee. One is an executive member of the TIC. The accused are released on bail, but the Attorney-General withdraws charges against them after the magistrate commits them for trial. The funeral of the victim becomes a major political event, drawing thousands of people. The violence leads to revulsion against the Valod-Nana group in the TIC leadership and Transvaal Indian support swings to Dadoo.
14 June, Assent is gained for the Aliens Registration Act No 26. This Act provides for the registration and control of aliens.
25-27 June, Rev James Calata gives his presidential address at a conference of the Cape African Congress.
9 July, At a meeting of 6,000 Indians, held at the Indian Sports Ground in Johannesburg under the chairmanship of E. I. Asvat, a decision is taken to launch the Passive Resistance Campaign (as decided upon at the earlier meeting of 7 May) on 1 August. A Council of Action for the campaign is set up with Dr. Yusuf Dadoo as Chairman. India declares its support for the intended the campaign of Passive Resistance.
19 July, Mahatma Gandhi sends a telegram to Dr. Yusuf Dadoo suggesting the postponement of the intended Passive Resistance Campaign.
23 July, To show the solidarity of Natal Indians with the intended Passive Resistance Campaign in the Transvaal, a mass meeting is organised mainly by leaders of the CBSIA. However, passive resistance is later postponed following the earlier request of Mahatma Gandhi, who believes that an honourable settlement can be achieved.
29 July, Recruitment of Indians into the South African Defence Force (SADF) begins under Colonel Morris.
19 August, The Mixed Marriages Commission, under the Chairmanship of Charles de Villiers, releases its report and recommends that a law be introduced that would make mixed marriages impossible and illicit miscegenation punishable.
22 August, The Indian Agent-General, Sir Benegal Rama Rau, convenes another meeting of representatives of the NIC and the CBSIA in a fresh attempt to achieve reconciliation between the two factions. 
1 September, Germany invades Poland and the Second World War commences when Britain declares war on Germany on 3 September. The outbreak of war causes an internal split in the United Party as General J.B.M Hertzog wants to remain neutral. He eventually resigns as Prime Minister and rejoins the National Party with D.F. Malan as his deputy.
4 September, General J.C. Smuts becomes Prime Minister of South Africa for the second time.
5 September, Parliament narrowly approves Prime Minister General Jan Smuts’ motion that South Africa should enter the Second World War on the side of Britain and the Allies.
6 September, The Union of South Africa declares war on Germany.
October, In an attempt to obtain the support of Africans for the South African war effort, the Union Government tones down segregationist rhetoric and decides not to proceed with anti-Indian legislation during the Second World War. Following an informal understanding between H.G. Lawrence, the new Minister of the Interior, and Sir Benegal Rama Rau, the Indian Agent-General, the Union Government further indicates that an inquiry will be made to establish the extent of Indian penetration of de facto White areas, and that the cooperation of the Indian community was required to ensure that the status quo is maintained and that no new cases of penetration would take place.
8 October, At a public meeting of 2,000 people in Durban, the Indian philosopher and statesman, Sir Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, reconciles the NIC and CBSIA members to form the Natal Indian Association (NIA). Hajee A.M.M. Lockhat is elected President, and Sorabjee Rustomjee and P.R. Pather secretaries. The name of the new organisation is cleared with Gandhi. The NIA is backed mainly by leaders of the CBSIA and the radicals in the NIC. However, once again this unity proves to be short-lived. A group headed by A.I. Kajee and Swami Bhawani Dayal does not recognise the decision of the NIC to unite with the CBSIA and declines positions in the NIA.
16 October, Charlotte Maxeke dies in Johannesburg at the age of 65.
November, The executive of the newly formed NIA decides to cooperate with the envisaged Lawrence Committee, which, in conjunction with the Durban City Council, shall investigate and regulate the acquisition of property in Durban by Indians.
15-18 December, The ANC holds its annual conference and begins by appealing to the government to repeal all racially discriminatory legislation. To read the resolutions of the conference click here.

• Dugard, J, (1978) Human Rights and the South African Legal Order. Princeton: Princeton University Press
• Walshe, P, (1970) The Rise of African Nationalism in South Africa: The African National Congress, 1912-1952. London: C. Hurst & Company
• Limb, P, (2010) The ANC’s Early Years: Nation, Class and Place in South Africa before 1940. Pretoria: UNISA Press
• Encyclopaedia Britannica, (2011), “South Africa” in Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Available at [Accessed 06 April 2011]
• Christopher, A J, (2001), “Before Apartheid” in The Atlas of Changing South Africa. London: Routledge
•  Bickford-Smith V, van Heyningen, E and Worden N, (1999), “The Emergence of the Modern City: Cape Town, 1919-1945” in Cape Town in the Twentieth Century. Cape Town: David Philip Publishers
•  O’Malley, P, (2005), The Heart of Hope ”“ South Africa’s Transition from Apartheid to Democracy, [online], Available at [Accessed 30 April 2011]
• Tabata, I.B, (1974), “The Formation of the All-African Convention” in The Awakening of a People. Nottingham: Spokesman Books
• Drew, A, (1996) South Africa’s Radical Tradition: 1907-1950. (Cape Town) Buchu Books.

Last updated : 04-May-2012

This article was produced by South African History Online on 30-Mar-2011

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