- Biko’s imprisonment, death and the aftermath
- Black Consciousness and 16 June – The birth of a new generation
- Conclusion: Black Consciousness Movement
- Defining Black Consciousness
- Defining Black Consciousness
- The Black Consciousness Movement in South Africa
- The Black Face of Apartheid
- The Crackdown on the Black Consciousness Movement in 1973
- The formation of SASO and the Black People’s Convention
- The Ideology of the Black Consciousness Movement
- The Inquest into Biko’s Death and his funeral
Conclusion: Black Consciousness Movement
It can be concluded that the death of Biko left a vacuum similar to the one created by the banning of the ANC and the PAC after Sharpeville. On the positive side, many youths had reached a level of consciousness about the plight of Blacks in apartheid South Africa that could not be ignored. Contrary to expectation in White circles that the death of Biko would signal the end of resistance, the struggle instead escalated as political activism increased.
The role played by Biko and his colleagues in the BCM, as well as in the fight for South Africa’s freedom cannot be under-estimated. Steve Biko’s life reflected the aspirations of many frustrated young Black intellectuals. Therefore, when he died, he became a martyr and symbol of Black Nationalism, and his struggle focused critical world attention on South Africa more than ever before.
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• Cawthra Gavin et al (eds.) (1994), War and Resistance, Southern African Reports: The Struggle for Southern Africa as Documented by Resister Magazine, London: The MacMillan Press Ltd.
• Excerpts from Steve Biko’s address at a Black Theology seminar in Pietermaritzburg, 28 August 1971 cited in SASO Newsletter, September 1971.
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• Steve Biko (1978), “Let’s Talk About the Bantustans,” in I Write What I Like, London: Heinemann, cited in Mufson S, Fighting Years: Black Resistance and the Struggle for a New South Africa, Boston: Beacon Press, 1990.
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