Mission Stations - N-S

Mission Stations - N

NAAUWPOORT, also known as NAAUWPOORT JUNCTION, Cape: DGT
NABILEYO, Flagstaff, Cape: No data available
NABIS, Namibia: RM
NAKEEKE, Namibia: see ONAKEEKE, Namibia
NAMAKUNDE, Namibia: RM 1901
NAMKOLOKLO, Mount Frere, Cape: No data available
NANAGA, Coega, Cape: CUSA
NAZARETH, Natal: HM 1879
NAZARETH, Transvaal: HM 1879
NCA, Transkei, Cape: No data available
NCAKARU, Transkei, Cape: No data available
NCAMBEDLANA, Transkei, Cape: No data available
NCAMBELE, Cape: WMS
NCANCELE, Cape: WMS
NCAYWANA, Transkei, Cape: No data available
NCELE, Transkei, Cape: No data available
NCERA, Cape: SAfMS
NCERA, also spelt INCHERA or NCERHA, Alice, Cape: see LOVEDALE MISSION, Alice, Cape
NCERANA, Kentani, Cape: see NGCERHANA, Kentani, Cape
NCISE, Umtata, Cape: see ROSS' MISSION, Umtata, Cape
NCISININDE, Nqamakwe, Cape: UPCM
NCOLORA, Libodi, Cape: see NGCOLORHA, Libodi, Cape
NCORA, also spelt NCORHA, Cofimvaba, Cape: No data available
NCUMBE, Transkei, Cape: No data available
NDAKANA, Nqamakwe, Cape: No data available
NDAKAZI, Transkei, Cape: No data available
NDAKENI, Mount Ayliff, Cape: No data available
NDALENI, Natal: WMS 1848
NDARALAS, district of Kokstad, Cape: SPG 1900
NDLANKOMO, Transkei, Cape: No data available
NDLOKU, Transkei, Cape: No data available
NDLOVU, Bizana, Cape: No data available
NDUKAZI, Transkei, Cape: No data available
NDUKU, Transkei, Cape: No data available
NDUNGES, Bizana, Cape: No data available
NENGA, Mqanduli, Cape: No data available
NENGUBU, Zimbabwe: WMMS 1894; WMMSW 1920
NEU BARMEN, Namibia: see OTYIKANGO, Namibia
NEUENKIRCHEN, Natal: HM 1891
NEU GEORGENHOLTZ, Transvaal: see GEORGENHOLTZ, Transvaal
NEU HALLE, also spelt NEW HALLE, Transvaal: Bn 1873
NEW AMALFI, Mount Currie, Cape: No data available
NEWCASTLE, Natal: SPG; DNa; SAfMS; Bn
NEW COMET, also known as EAST RAND, Transvaal: SACIM 1898
NEW GERMANY, Natal: Bn 1835-1846
NEW HALLE, Transvaal: see NEU HALLE, Transvaal
NEW HANOVER, also spelt NEU HANOVER, Natal: HM 1862
NEW HAVEN, Swaziland: SAM pre 1923; NFEH 1923
NEW HERMANNSBURG, Natal: HM
NEWLANDS, Cape: CBDM
NEWLANDS, East London, Cape: see ST LUKES, East London, Cape
NEW LATTAKOO, Cape: see KURUMAN, Cape
NEW MORLEY, Mqanduli, Cape: see MORLEY, Mqanduli, Cape
NEW PRIMROSE, Transvaal: SACIM
NEW RUSH, also known as ST CYPRIAN, Kimberley, Cape: SPG 1873
NEWSPAPER, Natal: ABCFM
NEW TINA, Matatiele, Cape: UPCM
NEWTONDALE, Peddie, Cape: WMS 1840. The mission was destroyed as the result of hostilities during 1846. It resumed its activities in 1848.
NEW UMTALI, Zimbabwe: see UMTALI, Zimbabwe
NEW UNIFIED, Transvaal: SACIM
NGABENI, Flagstaff, Cape: No data available
NGABENI, Umzimkulu, Cape: No data available
NGAI, Butterworth, Cape: No data available
NGCERANA, also spelt NGCERHANA, Kentani, Cape: No data available
NGCIZELE, Transkei, Cape: No data available
NGCOKOTO, Transkei, Cape: No data available
NGCOLOKENI, Transkei, Cape: No data available
NGCOLORHA, also spelt NGCOLORA, Libodi, Cape: No data available
NGELE, Transkei, Cape: No data available
NGEZELE, Transkei, Cape: No data available
NGINANI, Natal: ABCFM 1835-1850
NGONYAMA, Tsomo, Cape: No data available
NGONYAMENI, Mount Ayliff, Cape: No data available
NGQAMAKWE, Cape: see NQAMAKWE, Cape
NGQANDULA, Flagstaff, Cape: No data available
NGQANGA, Engcobo, Cape: No data available
NGQAYIQUMBI, Ngqeleni, Cape: No data available
NGQENYA, Glen Grey, Cape: No data available
NGQIKA'S LAND, Location unknown, Cape: LMS 1799
NGQONGWENI, Ngqeleni, Cape: No data available
NGQUNGA, Umtata, Cape: No data available
NGQUTYANA, Transkei, Cape: No data available
NGQWARE, Mqanduli, Cape: No data available
NGUDHLA, Transkei, Cape: No data available
NGUNZA, Butterworth, Cape: No data available
NGUTURA, Engcobo, Cape: No data available
NGWANE, Butterworth, Cape: No data available
NGWARHA, Transkei, Cape: No data available
NGWEMNYAMA, Transkei, Cape: No data available
NGWENYAZANA, Mount Ayliff, Cape: No data available
NGWIBI, Natal: SKM 1920
NGXALO, Transkei, Cape: No data available
NGXOKI, so spelt NGXOGI, Engcobo, Cape: No data available
NHLABANE, Transkei, Cape: No data available
NIEUWOUDTVILLE, Cape: DRCSA 1907
NISBETHBAD, so spelt NISBETT BATH, Namibia: LMS; RM; WMMS. It was visited by James Backhouse in January 1840 who reported as follows:

"The Wesleyan Missionary Station of Nisbett Bath, is represented in the accompanying cut. It derives its name from a gentleman, formerly resident in India, who contributed liberally toward the re-establishment of the Mission at this place, which had long been abandoned, and from a warm and copious spring which rises among some granite rocks, a few hundred yards from the residence of the Missionary. The settlement consisted, at this time, of the dwellings of the Missionary and Catechist, a chapel, and a few mat-huts. It is situated upon a plain, so elevated, that the peaks of mountains, such as appear lofty at the side of the Orange River, only emerge here, a few hundred feet above the surface of the plain; the rivers run dry in a few hours after rain, and the barometer only rises to about twenty-six inches. The dwelling of the Missionary was a small house, made tolerably comfortable; a portion of its clay walls were erected by some devoted men named Albricht, who laboured in Great Namaqualand many years since, under the auspices of the London Missionary Society. The rooms were, however, much too small for so hot a climate, and the building needed a verandah to protect it from the scorching sun. It is instructive to observe how cheerfully Missionaries and their families put up with inconveniences".

NIVEN'S, Keiskammahoek, Cape: see UNIONDALE, Keiskammahoek, Cape
NKAMELA, Transkei, Cape: No data available
NKANDA, Tsolo, Cape: No data available
NKANGA, also spelt NKANKA, Libodi, Cape: SAGM 1895
NKATINZANE, Transvaal: MSR
NKOLONGE, Glen Grey, Cape: No data available
NKOLOWENI, Mount Frere, Cape: MorG
NKOTYANA, Transkei, Cape: No data available
NKOZO, Flagstaff, Cape: No data available
NKUNDLA, Flagstaff, Cape: No data available
NKWENKWANA, Engcobo, Cape: No data available
NKWEZI, Harding, Natal: No data available
NLABAMHLOPE, Natal: No data available
NODWENGU, Natal: see MPANDE'S KRAAL, Natal
NOFELITI, King William's Town, Cape: see PETERSBERG, King William's Town, Cape
NOGAYA, Libodi, Cape: No data available
NOMAHASHA, Swaziland: No data available
NOMAHEYA, Nqamakwe, Cape: No data available
NOMANDLE, Transkei, Cape: No data available
NOMAHALE, Tsolo, Cape: No data available
NONCAMBA, Ngqeleni, Cape: No data available
NONDWENI, Natal: SPG 1894
NONGINCTI, Transkei, Cape: No data available
NONGOMA, Natal: ZMD 1892; SPG 1894; SAfMS;
NONKONYANA, Flagstaff, Cape: No data available
NOORDHOEK, Cape: DRCSA 1920
NORAP, Cape: WMMS
NORTHRAND, Transvaal: IHM 1920
NOSCHINGA, Kentani, Cape: No data available
NOUAMITWA, Transvaal: see NWAMITWA, Transvaal
NOZEBE, Tsolo, Cape: No data available
NQABARA, Willowvale, Cape: No data available
NQADU, Willowvale, Cape: See MALAN, Willowvale, Cape
NQAKAMATYE, Transkei, Cape: No data available
NQAMAGE, Transkei, Cape: No data available
NQAMAKWE, more correctly spelt NGQAMAKHWE, Cape: ECS; SPG
NQANCULE, Nqamakwe, Cape: No data available
NQANTOSI, Stutterheim, Cape: No data available
NQUADA also spelt NQADU, Willowvale, Cape: see MALAN, Willowvale, Cape
NQUANGU, Transkei, Cape: No data available
NQUASHU NQAMBENI, Libodi, Cape: see NGWASHU NQAMBENI, Cape
NQUBA, Ngqeleni, Cape: SAfMS 1830; WMS 1830. This is the local name for the site occupied by OLD BUNTINGVILLE up to 1864. See BUNTINGVILLE and OLD BUNTINGVILLE.
NQWASHU NQAMBENI, Libodi, Cape: No data available
NSELENI, Transkei, Cape: No data available
NSIKENI, Umzimkulu, Cape: No data available
NTABAMHLOPE, Natal: SAGM 1901
NTABENI, Transkei, Cape: No data available
NTANBALA'S, Transkei, Cape: No data available
NTEMBANI, Stutterheim, Cape: No data available
NTEMBENI, King William's Town, Cape: Begun by Rev Ludwig Liefeldt in about 1864. No other data available.
NTHLAZA, also spelt NTLAZA, Ngqeleni, Cape: No data available
NTIBANI, Transkei, Cape: No data available
NTLAHLANE, Transkei, Cape: No data available
NTLAMVUKAZI, Bizana, Cape: No data available
NTLAZA, Ngqeleni, Cape: see NTHLAZA, Ngqeleni, Cape
NTLENZI, Flagstaff, Cape: No data available
NTLOZELA, Bizana, Cape: No data available
NTOBENI, Transkei, Cape: No data available
NTOLA, Matatiele, Cape: No data available
NTONTELA, Mount Ayliff, Cape: No data available
NTOONSI, Transkei, Cape: No data available
NTSAME, Transkei, Cape: No data available
NTSELENI, Engcobo, Cape: No data available
NTSHIGO, Tsolo, Cape: No data available
NTSHILINI, Ngqeleni, Cape: No data available
NTSILA, Transkei, Cape: No data available
NTSIMBAKAZI, Willowvale, Cape: No data available
NTSIMBINI, Port St John, Cape: No data available
NTSITO, Tsomo, Cape: No data available
NUSINI, Transkei, Cape: No data available
NWAMITWA, also spelt NOUAMITWA, Transvaal: MSR 1875-1923
NWAPULANE, also spelt NOUAPOULANE, Mocambique: MSR 1875-1923
NXAMAGELE, Engcobo, Cape: No data available
NXHERA, Alice, Cape: see LOVEDALE MISSION, Alice, Cape
NXOTWE, Qumbu, Cape: No data available
NXUKHWEBE, Fort Beaufort, Cape: This is the local name for HEALDTOWN, Fort Beaufort, Cape.
NYAKUZILA, Transkei, Cape: No data available
NYANDENI, also known as FILIPI, Harding, Natal: No data available
NYANDENI, Transkei, Cape: No data available
NYANGA, Engcobo, Cape: This is the local name for ALL SAINTS, Engcobo, Cape.
NYANGANA, Namibia: Rc 1910
NYASINI, Mount Ayliff, Cape: No data available
NYAWENI, Transkei, Cape: No data available
NYESSA, Botswana: P
NYIDLANA, Nqamakwe, Cape: No data available
NYMYIBA, Transkei, Cape: This spelling is probably incorrect. No data available
NYULULA, Nqamakwe, Cape: No data available
NZAMBA, Bizana, Cape: see MZAMBA, Bizana, Cape
NZONGIZINI, Mount Ayliff, Cape: No data available

Mission Stations - O

OKAHANDYA, also spelt OKAHANDJA, Namibia: RM 1870
OKAMBAYE, Namibia: RM 1870
OKATANA, Namibia: Rc 1933
OKOMBAHE, Namibia: RM 1870; Rc 1906
OKOZONDYE, Namibia: RM
OLD BEGHA, Peddie, Cape: see BEKA, Peddie, Cape
OLD BUNTING, Ngqeleni, Cape: see BUNTINGVILLE, Ngqeleni, Cape
OLD LOVEDALE, Alice, Cape: see INCHERA, Alice, Cape
OLD MORLEY, Mqanduli, Cape: WMS 1830. Originally sited at AMADOLA in 1828, the station was burnt down and relocated to OLD MORLEY in 1830. It was subsequently moved to NEW MORLEY in 1863. See MORLEY, Mqanduli, Cape.
OLD SOMERVILLE, Tsolo, Cape: see SOMERVILLE, Tsolo, Cape
OLD STAD, Mafeking, Cape: SPG 1893
OLD TSOLO, Tsolo, Cape: see SOMERVILLE, Tsolo, Cape
OLD UMTALI, Zimbabwe: MEFB 1898; MEMS Trade School 1899
OLIVET, Natal: SACIM
OLIYVENHOUT'S DRIFT, believed to be in the Cape: DRCSA
OLUKONDA, Namibia: FMS 1871
OLVERTON, also known as WATERBERG, Transvaal: WMS
OMANDONGO, Walvis Bay, Namibia: FMS 1870
OMARURU, Namibia: RM 1870; Rc 1906
OMATEMBA, Namibia: MM 1907
OMBALANTU, Namibia: Rc 1926
OMBURO, Namibia: RM
OMULONGA, Namibia: FMS 1873
ONAJENA, also spelt ONAYENA, Namibia: FMS 1902
ONAKEEKE, also spelt NAKEEKE, Namibia: FMS
ONDANGUA, Namibia: FMS 1890
ONTANANGA, Namibia: FMS 1900
ONYIPA, also spelt ONIIPA, Namibia: FMS 1872
O'OKIEP, also spelt OOKIEP, Cape: SAfMS 1876
OORLAMSKRAAL, Cape: LMS
OSBORN, also known as OSBORNE, TSHUNGWANA, Mount Frere, Cape: WMS; SAfMS
OSCARSBERG, also spelt OSCARBERG, Natal: SKM 1878
OSHIGAMBO, Namibia: FMS 1913
OSTRICH SPRING, Bathurst, Cape: This was probably an outstation located near a farm community and not a mission in the true sense of the word.
OTJIWARONGO, Namibia: Rc 1935
OTTING, Natal: Rc
OTYIKANGO, also known as NEW BARMEN, Namibia: RM
OTYIMBINGUE, also spelt OTJIMBINGUE, Namibia: RM 1849
OTYIZEVA, Namibia: RM
OTYO, also spelt OUTJO, Namibia: RM 1905
OTYOSAZU, Namibia: RM
OUDENBOSCH, Cape: Bn
OUDTSHOORN, Cape: CUSA 1852; SAfMS 1892; DRC 1899; LMS
OXKRAAL, Queenstown, Cape: LMS

Mission Stations - P

PAARDEKUIL, OFS: Bn
PAARL, Cape: DRCSA 1820; LMS c1835
PABALONG, also spelt PABALLONG, Mount Fletcher, Cape: P 1876
PACALTSDORP, Georgetown, previously known as HOOGE KRAAL, Cape: LMS 1813; CUSA 1814. It was visited by John Campbell in 1813 and 1819 who reported as follows:

"In no part of the colony did I observe a greater alteration or improvement that at the (Khoikhoi) town of Hooge Kraal, now called Pacaltsdorp, which stands at the distance of three miles from George Town.
"Dikkop, their captain, (as mentioned in my former Journal, with about sixty of his people,) paid me a visit on my arrival at George Town, on the road to Bethelsdorp, in March, 1813, when he requested a Missionary to be sent to him and to his people. Upon visiting his kraal I found only a few miserable huts, neither gardens nor corn-fields, and the lands remaining in an uncultivated state. No one person could read, and nearly the whole population were dressed in dirty, tattered sheep-skins, and their bodies filthy in the extreme. They knew nothing about God, the Saviour, the Bible, or any thing valuable.
"Soon after this visit, Mr. Pacalt, a pious, disinterested, and active Missionary from the London Society, commenced a mission to this people, and continued with them till his death, which happened only a few months before my return to that country.
"On revisiting this kraal in 1819, in company with Dr Philip, I found the settlement surrounded by a wall, six feet in height, five feet thick at the bottom, and tapering to the top, the whole length being 6,767 feet. Enclosures for securing their cattle in the night-time were surrounded by walls of the same construction, and measured 938 feet. Their gardens were defended by walls of a similar kind, measuring 3,396 feet. The whole quantity of this kind of fence measuring 11,101 feet.
"Their gardens contained peach, apricot, and fig trees, potatoes, pumkins, water-melons, cabbages, beans, peas, Indian corn, etc. Almost the whole of the men and women were on the Sabbath dressed like Europeans. About two hundred generally attended worship; thirty-nine persons were members of the Christian Church; seventy children regularly attended the school, which was taught by a young (Khoikhoi), who had been himself instructed at the same school; six boys and seven girls were learning to write and cipher. At the commencement of the mission, only Dikkop, the chief, possessed a waggon; now the (Khoikhoi) have five waggons, one hundred and fifty oxen, a hundred cows, fifty-three calves, and a considerable number of sheep.

In about 1836 Eugene Casalis visited Pacaltsdorp which he described as follows:

"Their village had received from the Boers the name of Hooge-Kraal, from its position on an eminence. In 1813 the natives were under a petty chief, to whom the Cape Government allowed the exercise of a kind of patriarchal authority. The whites called him Dikkop,'Big Head'. Big or not, it was good enough to make him understand the necessity of improving the moral and material condition of his people, and he accordingly made application to the London Society to plant a missionary amongst them.
"They sent him a man full of zeal, and of a turn of mind essentially practical. He was of German origin named Pacalt. He made no difficulty about sharing the existence of this despised people. To prevent their scattering, he had the kraal surrounded by a high wall, and traced out two streets in the enclosure. The land was divided amongst the heads of families, who gave an engagement to build themselves houses in line, and to each cultivate a garden. In the middle were erected the church, the school, the missionary's house, and other constructions of public utility. At the end of the sacred building, almost on the sea-shore, a tower was built, whence visitors could enjoy a view of the sea. It served also to lodge them for the night. I found from experience, however, that it was almost impossible to get any sleep there, owing to the number of screech owls who chose to mingle their lugubrious cries with the roar of winds and waves.

PALAPWE, Botswana: SPG 1895
PALMERTON, also spelt PALMERSTON, also known as IZALA, Lusikisiki, Cape: WMS 1844; SAfMS 1845. In 1862 the station was relocated to MFUNDISWENI, Flagstaff, Cape.
PALMIET RIVER, Cape: DRCSA
PAMLAVILLE, Matatiele, Cape: No data available
PAMOSHANO, also spelt PAMOSHANA, Zimbabwe: DRCSA 1894
PANHALONGA, also spelt PENHALONGA, Zimbabwe: SPG
PARYS, also spelt PARIJS, OFS: SAfMS 1889
PATALEKOPA, Transvaal: HM
PATAMETSANE, Transvaal: Bn
PATERSON, Tsomo, Cape: see MBULU, Tsomo, Cape
PAULPIETERSBURG, Natal: FBS 1907
PECELENI, Middledrift, Cape: see PERKSDALE, Middledrift, Cape
PECHA, Transkei, Cape: No data available
PEDDIE, also known as ST JAMES, Cape: SAfMS 1837; SPG
PEELTON, also known as BIRT'S MISSION, King William's Town, Cape: LMS 1848; CUSA 1848; moved by the LMS from MXHELO, in 1848, it was destroyed during the 1850-1853 Border conflict and rebuilt in 1853.
PEKA, Lesotho: P 1907
PELANDABA, Herschel, Cape: see FORT HOOK, Herschel, Cape
PELISWANA, Flagstaff, Cape: No data available
PELLA, Cape: LMS 1802-1820; Mor 1871; RM. John Campbell visited it on 13 September 1813 and reported as follows:

"The Namacquas live in low circular huts, like the Corannas, composed of branches of trees bent, and stuck into the ground at both ends, with mats made of rushes thrown over them. They differ from the Corannas in this, that in the inside they dig about a foot, or a foot and a half into the ground, which they lie in to protect them, they say, from the wind. A more barren looking spot can hardly be conceived than Pella, all around being white sand, interspersed with a few bushes; two sides of which space, the N. and E. are bounded by high, rugged, black mountains".

PELLA, Natal: MHLF 1906
PELLA, Transvaal: HM 1868
PENIEL, Swaziland: see ENDINGENI, Swaziland
PENTEL, Transvaal: No data available
PERIE, King William's Town, Cape: see PIRIE, King William's Town, Cape
PERKSDALE, Middledrift, Cape: WMS
PETERSBERG, also known as LIEFELDT, King William's Town, Cape: Bn 1857; CUSA
PETERSBURG, Graaff-Reinet, Cape: Bn 1856; CUSA
PEULENI, also spelt PEWULENI or PHEWULENI, Middledrift, Cape: see PERKSDALE, Middledrift, Cape
PHALANE, Transvaal: HM 1867
PHAMONG, Lesotho: P 1904
PHILIPPOLIS, OFS: LMS 1820-1848; SPG 1865. It was visited by James Backhouse in June 1839 who reported the following:

"It consists of a single street of cottages, a chapel, and a number of mat huts; the latter are scattered on a flat at one side of the village, on which are also, the cattle kraals, and the foundation of a school-house. The place is surrounded by remarkable hills of basalt.
"At the time of our visit, there were sixty mat huts at Philippolis. The chapel which was of stone, was built in Dutch style; it stood at the head of the town, near a stony hillock. The house of the Missionary, which was a very simple, thatched one, and only divided to the height of the walls, was of brick, and had a few trees behind it. The rest of the houses were of mud, and many of them were so neglected, as to be half unroofed. Many of the people living in mat huts, were possessed of oxen and wagons.
"... in the forenoon we called on Adam Kok, who was from home when we arrived: he was a young-looking man, of plain features and middle size; he was dressed in a drab, duffle jacket, bound and buttoned with black, and trousers that were the worse for wear. His dwelling was a small thatched cottage, built of clay, but far superior to the mat-huts of the generality of the people.
"Snow fell last evening, and remained on the ground till mid-day. We were much occupied in writing, which it was difficult to effect from the cold. The houses were badly constructed for warmth, and fuel was scarce. I walked a few times, enveloped in a karross of Coney-fur, among the stony hills, to acquire warmth".

Eugene Casalis also visited Philippolis, probably in the 1840s, and reported as follows:

"We thought we had bid adieu to the colonists, it might be for years; but we were not yet entirely beyond their reach. At a short day's march from the river there was a missionary station called Philippolis, so named in honour of our venerable friend at Cape Town. Some people were living there at the same time whose features and hair recalled our own race and that of the (Khoikhoi). They were, alas, the fruit of illicit relations between our colonists and their native servants.
"We found at Philippolis a work carried on under the direction of a M. Kolbe which was interesting in many respects. There was a large chapel filled on Sundays with attentive hearers, and well-managed schools for boys and girls. Dutch being universally spoken by these people, the teaching was carried on without difficulty. Several had built themselves good houses.

Emil Holub visited the Mission in August 1872 where he reported as follows:

"Two hours later we reached Philippolis. The aspect of this place was most melancholy. The winter drought had parched up all the grass, alike in the valley and on the surrounding hills, leaving the environs everywhere brown and bare. Equally dready-looking were the square flat-roofed houses, about sixty in number, and nearly all quite unenclosed, that constituted the town; whilst the faded foliage of a few trees near some stagnant pools in the channel of a dried-up brook did nothing to enliven the depressing scene. The majority of the houses being unoccupied, scarcely a living being was to be seen, so that the barrenness of the spot was only equalled by its stillness.

PHILIPTON, Seymour, Cape: CUSA 1829; LMS. The mission church was burnt down as the result of hostilities during 1846. James Backhouse visited in January 1839 and reported as follows:

"Philipton, at this period, consisted of a large, plain building used as a chapel and schoolroom, and of humble cottages, occupied by the Missionaries, James Read senior and junior, and of still humbler ones, with a few huts, inhabited by (Khoikhoi), (Mfengu) and other people. A large, temporary shed of boughs and reeds, had been erected for the present occasion, on the green, which was enclosed on three sides by the buildings already described. A (Xhosa) Interpreter residing here, kept an eating-house, and supplied a basin of coffee, and a slice of bread and butter for twopence".

Thomas Baines visited this location in November 1851 when he found Philipton in ruins:

"We passed the ruined village of Philipton, 'the hot bed of sedition', as our veteran commander had but too much reason to call it. Alas, how sadly changed since my last visit! The chapel, in which the later Mr Freeman had then preached, was a roofless and blackened ruin. The house, in which the venerable missionary Read, since also deceased, had so kindly entertained me, as well as the rest of the village, was destroyed, and the only building remaining in its pristine condition was the unfinished chapel, the walls of which had no combustible material about them".

PHOKWANE, also spelt PHOKOANE, Cape: SPG 1875
PIETERMARITZBURG, Natal: SPG 1854; UFS 1867; HF 1901; SDA 1902; Bn 1920; WMS; Rc
PIETERSBURG, Transvaal: SPG 1894; Bn 1896
PIETPOTGIETERSDRIFT, Transvaal: Bn
PIET RETIEF, Transvaal: SvAM 1900
PIFANE, Tsolo, Cape: No data available
PILGERHUTTEN, OFS: Bn
PILGRIMS REST, Transvaal: FMA 1921; WMMS
PINDWENI, Bizana, Cape: No data available
PINETOWN, Natal: SPG 1859
PIQUETBERG, also spelt PIKETBERG, Cape: DRCSA 1903
PIRIE, also spelt PERIE, King William's Town, Cape: GMS 1830; UFS 1844. Founded in 1830 by Dr John Ross, the station stood at the site where the Rev Vanderkemp had built his house some years earlier. James Backhouse visited it in February 1839 and reported as follows:

"The Mission premises at Pirie consisted of a plain house, of unhewn basalt, and a little mud-walled chapel. There were upwards of forty (Xhosa) kraals within three miles of this place.
"Adjacent to the chapel there was a piece of ground, which was once a (Xhosa) cattle-kraal, and in which there were still to be seen, the traces of the subterranean granaries, which are made in such situations, that they may be easily protected from robbery. The openings at the top are just sufficient to admit a man. When these pits are filled, they are closed by means of a flat stone, which is covered carefully with earth, to exclude dirt and moisture; they are scooped out so as each to hold from six to eight bushels of grain. The grain acquires an unpleasant taste, and will not vegetate after being kept in these places. The number of these granaries in a kraal is sometimes considerable. It is notorious, that, before the war, when commandoes, or patroles came into (Transkei) in search of stolen cattle, they frequently robbed the (Xhosa) of their hoarded grain, to feed themselves and their horses.
"Every pretext for levying fines seems to be laid hold of, in this country; it is even extended to the man whose wife dies, if he do not bury her clothes with her, and burn down the hut in which she died, as well as the huts of his other wives, and retreat alone into the woods for about ten days, and afterwards erect a dwelling in another place. At the Missionary Institutions the people are in some measure protected from these customs: at Pirie a man had been persuaded to leave the hut undisturbed in which his wife died; he, however erected another for himself and his children, at a short distance, and converted the old one into a calf-house. Each wife has a separate hut and a separate garden.
"The common size of a (Xhosa) hut is twelve feet in diameter, and seven feet in height, but those of the Chiefs are much larger. The form of the huts is a depressed hemisphere; they are built by the women, who take about three days for the purpose. Near the hut, a sort of safe is sometimes erected, for the preservation of pumpkins, and in which Indian-corn is also occasionally stored. It is made of sticks interwoven in beehive form, and plastered with cow-dung, and is placed on stakes about four feet high, to protect the contents from damp, and from insects, and other vermin".

PLATBERG, also spelt PLAATBERG, OFS: WMS 1826; Bn. James Backhouse visited it in July 1839 and reported as follows:

"The dwellings of the people at Plaatberg, were chiefly hartebeest houses, of tall reeds, plastered with mud: a few had better cottages; and two or three of their houses were built of brick, in European style. But even in one of these, which had a fireplace and a chimney, the fire, according to the common custom of the coloured natives, was made in the midst of the floor. In consequence of this practice, both the houses and people are far from cleanly. Their furniture consisted of a bedstead, a few boses, some stools generally with seats made of strips of prepared skins, a few iron pots, a kettle, with a few basins, bottles, etc".

In 1848 Platberg was visited by William Shaw. His impressions were published by Samuel Broadbent:

"We left Thaba 'Nchu on the 4th, in the evening, and arrived at Plaat-Berg at noon on the 5th instant. Here Mr Giddy resides, and continues to labour diligently to promote the welfare of the people. This is a settlement of great capabilities of an agricultural kind. The village is greatly improved since I was last here; the people have built themselves very good and substantial houses, after the colonial fashion. A large number of gardens and orchards are will enclosed; and hundreds, if not thousands, of fruit trees give the whole a very interesting rural appearance".

PLEASANT VIEW, Fort Beaufort, Cape: No data available
PNIEL, Cape: Bn 1845
PNIEL, OFS: Bn
PNIEL, Transvaal: see SULPHUR SPRINGS, Transvaal
POLELA, Natal: see IPOLELA, Natal
POLFONTEIN, Transvaal: HM 1877
POLONIA, Transvaal: HM 1833
PONDUMISINI, Ngqeleni, Cape: No data available
POORTJESFONTEIN, OFS: Bn
POPA, Lesotho: P 1905
POPENYAAN, Natal: see GRACE, Natal
PORT ALFRED, Cape: SAfMS 1870; WMMS
PORT ELIZABETH, Cape: SPC 1824; CUSA 1832; Mor 1893; HUR 1900; WMMS; LMS
PORT ELIZABETH LOCATION, Cape: No data available. James Backhouse visited it in December 1838 and reported as follows:

"We visited a place near the town, appropriated by the Government, to the use of such coloured persons as are under the care of the London Missionary Society. (Khoikhoi), (Xhosa), (Mfengu), and persons lately liberated from slavery are located upon it. Several of the (Khoikhoi) are pious, and are members of the Independent Church. The houses are all of rude and temporary structure; those of the (Xhosa) and (Mfengu) are beehive huts, formed of sticks and rough grass".

PORTERVILLE, Cape: DRCSA 1884
PORT NOLLOTH, Cape: SPG
PORTJESDAM, OFS: Bn
PORT SHEPSTONE, NORTH SHEPSTONE and SOUTH SHEPSTONE inclusive, Natal: HF 1899
POSSEL'S, also spelt POSSELT'S, Stutterheim, Cape: see WARTBURG, Stutterheim, Cape
POST RETIEF, Cape: SPG 1849. Thomas Baines visited it in October 1849 and wrote the following account of the Mission and its outpost at Didinia:

"The buildings of this post, unlike that at Zwart Kei, are of solid and substantial stonework, and surrounded by a wall, in some places sixteen feet in height, with loopholes at intervals all round it. It is at present tenanted only by Mr Wilson, and a widow who lives with her son in another suite of rooms, the rest of the apartments being unoccupied. But in case of a war it would form an excellent rallying point for the neighbouring farmers, as well as a place of security for their goods and families; several hundred head of cattle might also be shut within its walls.
"Sunday, 14. Walked over to the church in a kloof of the Didima about four miles from the Post. A stone building has been commenced, but, for want of funds, is not yet completed; so that service is at present held in a small thatched cottage, one end of which is fitted with a reading desk of most primitive construction covered with green baize, and printed papers of the Creed, the Lord's Prayer and the Commandments suspended over it."

POTCHEFSTROOM, Transvaal: SPG 1864; WMS 1867; Bn 1872; DRCSAT 1895
POTOANE, Transvaal: see SALEM, Transvaal
POTSDAM, East London, Cape: No data available
PRETORIA, Transvaal: Bn 1866; SPG 1866; WMMS 1872; DRCSAT 1892; MSR 1897
PRIESKA, Cape: DRCSA 1894
PRINCE ALBERT, Cape: DRCSA 1885
PROSPECT, King William's Town, Cape: May have been another name for the IQHIBIRHA mission at Middledrift.
PUTUMA, Transkei, Cape: No data available

Mission Stations - Q

QALO, Lesotho: P 1889
QANDU, Port St John, Cape: No data available
QANQU, Mount Frere, Cape: No data available
QATAM, Transkei, Cape: see QATANI, Transkei, Cape
QATANI, also spelt QATAM, Transkei, Cape: No data available
QHIBIRHA, also spelt QIBIRA, Middledrift, Cape: see IQHIBIRHA, Middledrift, Cape
QHOBONQABA, also spelt QOBONQABA, Kentani, Cape: see COLUMBA, Kentani, Cape
QHOBONQABA, Adelaide, Cape: see ADELAIDE, Cape
QHORA, also spelt QORA or QHORHA, Kentani, Cape: No data available
QIBIRA, Middledrift, Cape: see IQHIBIRHA, Middledrift, Cape
QITA, Ngqeleni, Cape: No data available
QOBO, Bizana, Cape: No data available
QOBONQABA, Kentani, Cape: see COLUMBA, Kentani, Cape
QOBOQOBO, Kentani, Cape: No data available
QOBOQOBO, Keiskammahoek, Cape: This is the local name for Keiskammahoek.
QOKOLWANA, Umtata, Cape: No data available
QOKOLWENI, Mqanduli, Cape: This is the local name for WESLEYVILLE, Mqanduli, Cape
QOLOMBANA, Tsolo, Cape: No data available
QOLORHA, also spelt QOLORA, Kentani, Cape: UPCM
QOMBOLO, Kentani, Cape: No data available
QOPPA, Transkei, Cape: No data available
QORHA, Kentani, Cape: see QHORA, Kentani, Cape
QOTA, Transkei, Cape: No data available
QUEEN'S MERCY, Matatiele, Cape: No data available
QUEENSTOWN, Cape: WMS 1853; CUSA pre-1884; NBC 1896; SAfMS; LMS
QUELLWASSER
, near Goedehoop, Transvaal: MHLF 1902
QUEQUE, Transkei, Cape: No data available
QUMBU, Cape: WMS; SPG
QUNU LOCATION, Umtata, Cape: No data available
QUOKOLWENI, Cape: WMS
QUOLORA, Kentani, Cape: see QOLORHA, Kentani, Cape
QUTHING, Lesotho: SPG
QUTHUBENI, also spelt QUTUBENI or QUTHABENI, Cape: No data available
QUTSA, also known as LOWER QUTSA, Tsomo, Cape: No data available
QWANINGA, Willowvale, Cape: No data available
QWEBEQWEBE, Cofimvaba, Cape: see MAIN, Cofimvaba, Cape

Mission Stations - R

RAINY, also known as ELITUBENI and LOWER RAINY, also spelt as RANY, Libodi, Cape: UFS 1897
RAITHBY, Cape: WMS
RAMA, Natal: SACIM
RAMACOMANI, Lesotho: SPG 1877
RAMAH, OFS: LMS 1820-1848. James Backhouse visited it in August 1839 (p 436), and recorded its ruins as follows:

"At the old missionary station of Ramah, the fountain was so nearly dried up, that the people had left the place, and gone to the side of the river. The houses formerly occupied by a native teacher of the London Missionary Society, and as a chapel, were in ruins, but we took up our quarters under the shelter of one of them".

RAMALIANE, Transvaal: HM 1872
RAMRA, also spelt RAMRHA or RHAMRHA, Willowvale, Cape: No data available
RAMUTSA, Botswana: see HARMSHOPE, Botswana
RAMUTSA, Transvaal: see HARMSHOPE, Transvaal
RANKIN, King William's Town, Cape: Believed to have acted as an outstation for the PIRIE mission.
RANY, Libodi, Cape: see RAINY, Libodi, Cape
RATABANE, OFS: WMMS
RATSHOZA, Transkei, Cape: No data available
READSDALE, Seymour, Cape: No data available
REDDERSBURG, OFS: SPG 1864; WMS
REHOBOTH, also spelt REHOBOT, Namibia: RM 1845
REICHENAU, Natal: Rc
REITZ, OFS: DRCSAO 1896
REST, Glen Grey, Cape: see THE REST, Glen Grey, Cape
RETREAT, Cape: DRCSA 1905
REUBEN, Mount Currie, Cape: May have been located at NEW AMALFI, Mount Currie, Cape
RHAINS, Stutterheim, Cape: No data available
RHAMRHA, Willowvale, Cape: see RAMRA, Willowvale, Cape
RHODE, also spelt RODE, Mount Ayliff, Cape: WMS
RHWANTSANA, Glen Grey, Cape: see RWANTSANA, Glen Grey, Cape
RHWARWA, Alice, Cape: see MACFARLANE, Alice, Cape
RICHMOND, Cape: DRCSA 1892
RICHMOND, Natal: SPG 1853
RICHTERSVELD, Cape: RM
RIEBEEK WEST, Cape: DRCSA 1898
RIETFONTEIN, Cape: RM 1885
RIETKLOOF, Transvaal: see GERLACHSHOOP, Transvaal
RIETVLEY, Cape: Bn
RIKATLA, also spelt RICATLA, Mocambique: MSR 1890
RILI, Cape: GMS
RIPPLEMEAD, Alice, Cape: No data available, but may have been a farm name.
RIETVLEI, Umzimkulu, Cape: No data available
RIVERSDALE, Cape: SPG pre 1862; Bn 1868
RIVER USUTU, Natal: SPG 1871
ROBBEN ISLAND, Cape: MorG
ROBERTSON, Cape: SPG pre 1862; DRCSA 1907; WMS
ROCKVILLE, Flagstaff, Cape: No data available
RODE, Mount Ayliff, Cape: see RHODE, Mount Ayliff, Cape
RONDEBOSCH, Cape: SPG 1842; DRCSA 1895
ROODEPOORT, Transvaal: SACIM 1898
RORKE'S DRIFT, Natal: see ST AUGUSTINES, Natal
ROSA, also known as LOWER ROSA, Qumbu, Cape: No data available
ROSS, also known as NCISE, Umtata, Cape: UFS 1893, but may have been earlier in about 1887. The first incumbent was Rev MJC Matheson.
ROSS, Umtata, Cape: Believed to have acted as an outstation for the CUNNINGHAM mission.
ROSS' SCHOOL, King William's Town, Cape: see PIRIE, King William's Town, Cape
ROUND HILL, Bathurst, Cape: No data available
ROUXVILLE, OFS: DRCSAO 1870
RUBE, Butterworth, Cape: No data available
RUNU, Umtata, Cape: No data available
RURA, Cape: SPG; SA
RUSAPI, also spelt RUSAPE, Zimbabwe: SPG
RUSITU, Zimbabwe: SAGM 1897
RUSTENBURG, Transvaal: HM 1864; SPG 1874
RWANTSANA, also spelt RHWANTSANA, Glen Grey, Cape: No data available
RWARWA, Alice, Cape: see MACFARLANE, Alice, Cape

Mission Stations - S

SAARON, Cape: Bn
SAARON, Transvaal: HM
SABAU, Transkei, Cape: No data available
SABELELE, also spelt SABALELE, Cofimvaba, Cape: No data available
SABIE, also spelt SABI, Transvaal: CN 1920
ST AIDANS, Zimbabwe: SPG
ST ADENS, Mount Currie, Cape: No data available
ST ALBANS, Pietermaritzburg, Natal: SPG 1868
ST ALBANS, Engcobo, Cape: No data available
ST ALBANS, diocese of St Johns, Cape: SPG 1868
ST ANDREWS, Cape: SPG 1875
ST ANDREWS, Lusikisiki, Cape: Reported to be the first mission established by Bishop Callaway, in 1890. It may thus be the same ST ANDREWS mission as that reported for the SPG above.
ST ANDREWS, Matatiele, Cape: No data available
ST ANNES, Cape: SPG
ST AUGUSTINES, Glen Grey, Cape: No data available
ST AUGUSTINES, Mafeking, Cape: SPG 1897
ST AUGUSTINES, Tsolo, Cape: Founded in 1865 by the Rev Bransby Key on the banks of the Nqu River. It was burnt down in 1880 during the Mpondomise uprising. Key then relocated his mission to the banks of the Ncolosi River which he named ST CUTHBERTS. See ST CUTHBERTS, Tsolo, Cape.
ST AUGUSTINES, Cape: SPG c1865
ST AUGUSTINES, Zululand, also known as RORKE'S DRIFT, Natal: SPG 1880
ST BARNABAS CHURCH, Keiskammahoek, Cape: This may not have been a mission station but merely a church.
ST BARNABAS, Lusikisiki, Cape: No data available
ST BARNABAS, Mount Frere, Cape: No data available
ST BARNABAS, Northern Cape: SPG 1893
ST BARNABAS, on the Ntlaza River, Cape: SPG 1893
ST BARTHOLOMEW, Northern Cape: SPG 1897
ST BARTHOLOMEWS, Qumbu, Cape: No data available
ST BERNARD MKIZI, Lott Hakone, ten km south of Mafeking, Cape: SPG 1900
ST BERNARDS, Matatiele, Cape: No data available
ST COLUMBUS
, Matatiele, Cape: No data available
ST CUTHBERTS, Cape: SPG 1884; SSJE 1904
ST CUTHBERTS, Tsolo, Cape: Founded by the Rev Bransby Key on the banks of the Ncolosi River after his mission at ST AUGUSTINES was burnt down in 1880 during the Mpondomise uprising.
ST CYPRIAN, Cape: see NEW RUSH, Kimberley, Cape
ST CYPRIAN, Glen Grey, Cape: No data available
ST GABRIEL'S, Cala, Cape: No data available
ST GEORGE'S, Cape: see FLAGSTAFF, Cape
ST GILES, Northern Cape: SPG 1897
ST HELENA BAY
, Cape: SPG 1858
ST HILARION, Golungo Alto, Angola: David Livingstone visited the ruins of convent there in 1854:

"Went to view the ruins of the convent of St Hilarion. It is situated in a lovely valley, the headquarters of Bango, containing 4 000 hearths, about 3 miles NW of Golungo Alto. The ruins consist of a church, with images still standing in it, and at the shrine of which Mr Canto bowed down and uttered a short prayer. Some crosses were standing about, and in the apartments of the bretheren stood several large chests for holding provisions. "The ruins of a small convent exist on a beautiful hill in front of the residencia of the Chefe, and a little beyond lies a plantation".

ST JAMES, Cape: see PEDDIE, Cape
ST JOHN EVANGELIST, OFS, but may have been in Basutoland: SPG
ST JOHN BAPTIST, Bolotwa, Cape: see BOLOTWA, Cape
ST JOHN'S, Cape: No data available
ST JOHN'S, previously called the IMMIGRANT LOCATION, Stutterheim, Cape: No data available
ST JOHN'S, Umtata, Cape: No data available
ST JOHN'S RIVER, Cape: WMS
ST JOSEPH'S, King William's Town, Cape: No data available
ST JOSEPH'S, Macleantown, Cape: No data available
ST LEONARD'S, Umzimkulu, Cape: No data available
ST LUKE'S, Cape: SPG 1864; DGT
ST LUKE'S, East London, Cape: No data available. Located at Newlands.
ST LUKE'S, Komga, Cape: Anglican mission established in 1854 by Messrs Clayton and Garde on behalf of Bishop Gray. Society not known. The Rev Robert Mullins was stationed here when he first arrived in South Africa in the 1850s.
ST LUKE'S, Transkei, Cape: No data available
ST MARK'S, Cofimvaba, Cape: SPG 1855. Established in 1855 by Archdeacon HT Waters, it was the first Anglican mission founded in the Transkei.
ST MARK'S, Mount Frere, Cape: No data available but there exists some doubt as to its status as a mission.
ST MARY'S, Matatiele, Cape: No data available
ST MARY'S, Qumbu, Cape: Believed to have acted as an outstation for ST CUTHBERT'S mission.
ST MARY'S, Stutterheim, Cape: No data available
ST MATTHEW'S, Mount Fletcher, Cape: No data available
ST MATTHEW'S, Keikammahoek, Cape: SPG 1856; SPG Trade School 1876
ST MICHAEL, Natal: Rc
ST MICHAEL'S, Glen Grey, Cape: No data available
ST MICHAEL'S, Herschel, Cape: see HERSCHEL, Cape
ST MONICA'S, Libodi, Cape: No data available
ST NICHOLAS, Libodi, Cape: No data available
ST PATRICK'S, Libodi, Cape: No data available
ST PAUL'S, Tsolo, Cape: Believed to have acted as an outstation of the SULENKAMA mission.
ST PAUL'S, Matatiele, Cape: No data available
ST PAUL'S, Zululand, Natal: SPG 1863
ST PETER, Butterworth, Cape: SPG 1882
ST PETER'S, Cape: SPG 1879
ST PETER'S, Glen Grey, Cape: No data available
ST PETER'S GWYTYU, also known as GWYTYU, Queenstown, Cape: Established by the Rev Robert Mullins, it was burnt down in 1879 during the Mpondomise uprising.
ST PHILIP'S, Cape: SPG c1857
ST SAVIOUR'S, OFS: SPG 1881
ST STEPHEN'S, Cape Town, Cape: DRCSA
ST STEPHEN'S, Colesberg, Cape: SPG 1849
ST STEPHEN'S, Port Elizabeth, Cape: SPG 1879
ST THOMAS, Maribogo, Cape: SPG 1900
ST THOMAS' SCHOOL, Stutterheim, Cape: Rc School for the Deaf
ST XAVIER, Matatiele, Cape: No data available
SAK RIVER, Cape: see KICHERER, Cape
SALEM, Cape: SAfMS 1820; WMS 1826; RM
SALEM, district of Piet Retief, Transvaal: MHLF 1907
SALEM, district of Pretoria, also known as POTOANE, Transvaal: HM 1871
SALISBURY, Zimbabwe: SPG 1890; DRCSA
SALTER'S POST, Mount Currie, Cape: No data available
SAMBIU, Namibia: Rc 1929
SANDVELD, Cape: RM
SANDFLATS, Cape: DGT
SANNASPOORT, OFS: see FAURESMITH, OFS
SAREPTA, Cape: RM 1862
SARON, Cape: RM 1847
SARON, also spelt SAARON, Transvaal: HM 1867
SAULSPOORT, Transvaal: DRCSAT 1866
SCHEPMANSDORF, Namibia: RM
SCHIETFONTEIN, Cape: RM 1840
SCHOKUANE, Botswana: LMS
SCHOONBERG, Cape: No data available
SEA VIEW, Bizana, Cape: Mor
SEBAPALA, Lesotho: P 1885
SEBENZI, Stockenstrom, Cape: see BALFOUR, Stockenstrom, Cape
SEHONGHONG, Lesotho: P 1892
SEKHUKHUNILAND, also see MOOIFONTEIN, Transvaal: SPG 1897
SEKUBU, also spelt SIKUBU, Lesotho: SPG 1877. John Widdicombe reported as follows:

"Preparations for departure from Thlotse were soon made, and a week afterwards Mr Balfour and his catchiest were encamped at Sekubu - the name of the village nearest their ground -busily engaged in hut-building.
"The site of this new mission is a very fine one. It is at the foot of a high ridge jutting out from a leading spur of the Malutis, at the back of which are several interesting (San) caves; and the view from the crest of the ridge is one of the wildest and most magnificent to be found anywhere in the world. At any rate, such is the opinion of those travellers who have seen it. A number of scattered kraals and villages are spread all round, the inhabitants of which are some of the rudest, most savage, and most thoroughly heathen in the whole of Basutoland.
"Within three months several rondavels were finished, and the foundations of a small but substantial church of stone put in. A peach orchard was laid out, enclosed with a sod wall, and planted with young trees; ...
"Mr Balfour had fortunately succeeded in securing the services of a clever American, living not far off on the borders of the Free State, who "knew a great many traders, and could turn his hand to anything". This man engaged to build a church, and a school-room at a little distance from it, for a very moderate sum, and he carried out his contract faithfully. Two of the rondavels were placed at his disposal, and shortly afterwards he arrived with his wife and family.
"In preparing designs and plans for the church and school, as well as in all practical matters connected with the mission, Mr Balfour was greatly aided by the advice and experience of the leading trader of the district, Mr Alfred Ernest Richards. This gentleman, whose head-quarters were at Leribe, most kindly acted as "Clerk of the Works", and spared neither time nor trouble in super-intending the building operations; making also many valuable suggestions, which were the outcome of his own personal experience in the country. The result was that the Epiphany Mission - for such was the dedication of the church at Sekubu - soon possessed neat-looking and thoroughly substantial buildings, superior, in durability at least, to any others then in the diocese.
"On Easter Eve we baptized our first little batch of converts, four in number: three Basutos and a Zulu. The chapel was already too small for the congregations of inquirers and heathen who frequented more or less regularly the Sunday services. So in June we pulled down the partition wall between the mission-room and the chapel, thereby enlarging the latter by twelve feet; and in lieu of the former we built an oblong hut of raw brick and sods, which served for study and reception-room".

The effects of the 1880 Anglo-Basotho conflict were also reported upon by John Widdicombe:

"The Church had at the time three Missions in Basutoland: one in the south at Mohale's Hock, under the charge of the Rev. E W Stenson; a second, as the reader already knows, at Sekubu, in the extreme north, where the Rev T Woodman and his sister were working; and my own at Thlotse Heights.
"At Sekubu the buildings were rifled of their contents, and the huts burnt. The church and the school being stone structures escaped the flames, and were used as cattle kraals and stables.

SEKWANI, also spelt SEKWANE, Botswana: DRCSA 1890
SELEPENG, also spelt SELEPEN, Botswana: LMS 1899
SELUKWE, Zimbabwe: SPG; WMMS
SENEKAL, OFS: DRCSAO 1882
SEPLAN, Xalanga, Cape: The name is drawn from "Sybrand", the surname of a man who farmed in this area during the 1820s.
SEQHOBONG, Mount Fletcher, Cape: No data available
SEROWE, Botswana: LMS 1862
SERUMELO, OFS: WMMS
SEYMOUR, Cape: WMS; SAfMS
SHATI, Transkei, Cape: No data available
SHAWBURY, Qumbu, Cape: SAfMS 1839; WMS 1839. Established under the Rev WH Garner of the Wesleyan Missionary Society. In 1880 it also included a girl's Institution. On 21 September 1909 "The Methodist Churchman" published the following report:

"The new Native Church at Shawbury is approaching completion, and is to be opened on the 28th October. It is a large and excellent building. When it is opened the old church will be used for school class rooms. Another old building is doomed - the original Mission House. I took a photograph of it. The Rev J Whiteside tells in his "History of the Methodist Church in South Africa" how one nigh, in the time of the Rev WH Garner, a lion put his head over the lower half of the door of this house, and gave a terrific roar, to the great alarm of the inmates. That door has long ago passed away; now the house is beyond repair, and soon only the tale of the lion will remain".

SHEPHERD'S HOPE, Matatiele, Cape: No data available
SHEPSTONE NORTH, Natal: see PORT SHEPSTONE, Natal
SHEPSTONE SOUTH, Natal: see PORT SHEPSTONE, Natal
SHEMELD'S MISSION, location not known, believed Natal: Ind pre-1890
SHEWASS, Transvaal: see HA TSEHEWASSE, Transvaal
SHIFUNGE, Mocambique: SPT 1897
SHILOH, Queenstown, Cape: MorG 1814; Mor 1828; Bn before 1862. James Backhouse visited it in January 1839 (p 201), and recorded the following:

"The dwellings of the missionaries and the chapel were simple, substantial buildings, as were also a mill, that was now standing for want of water, and a smith's shop. There were two or three cottages belonging to Hottentots, but most of the people of the (Khoikhoi) nation resident here, were living in rude huts of boughs and reeds, plastered with mud. These were built in the form of a roof, sloping in two angles, and were generally destitute of windows and chimneys. The (Xhosa) and (Mfengu) inhabited bee-hive shaped huts, of boughs thatched with grass. The settlement of Shiloh contained at this time 384 (Thembu), (Xhosa), (Mfengu), and (San), and 162 (Khoikhoi)".

The following year, in April 1848, Thomas Baines visited Shiloh and reported the following:

"Passing a long row of willow trees shading the furrow by which the waters of the Klipplat were led out to fertilise the lands of the Institution. I entered the village. The Church, School, and the Mission house, were near substantial buildings, over the front of the latter a vine was trained, and in the centre of the square stood a small detached arch in which a bell was suspended. The principal street consisted of a row of brick cottages more or less neatly thatched, and generally with a space before the door smoothed and laid with a mixture of ant-hills and cattle dung, on which were spread beans, mealies, and (maize). And at the end, near a building with a capacious chimney and perforated wall, stood a couple of poles, about twenty feet in height, with another laid across them, and used in the preparation of riems or thongs of hide; several lengths of which, being passed over the horizontal beam with a weight, often a wagon wheel, attached to them, are hoisted into a compact mass by the insertion of a pole between the spokes and allowed, on its withdrawal, to whirl violently round and twist themselves in the contrary direction, till, just as the motion ceases and the wheel is for a moment stationary, the pole is dexterously inserted and the riems twisted as tightly as possible before it is withdrawn, and the operation is continued for the whole day or longer, the riems being greased at intervals till they are considered sufficiently pliable.
"A number of hartbeeste houses [43], nearly resembling a thatched roof destitute of walls, inhabited by the (Khoikhoi), and of the more usual hemispherical huts of the (Mfengu) and (Thembu), in some cases surrounded with a screen of bamboos laid side by side, strongly fastened at top and bottom to a twisted withe and plaited on end in a small circular trench, composed the remainder of the village, almost every interval being filled with a kraal for goats or cattle; while, beyond it, appeared extensive patches of cultivated land irrigated by the water from the furrow formerly mentioned.
"I had scarcely time to sketch the Institution before the wagons were again in motion, and travelling nearly two miles to the north over a level plain we crossed a little stream called the Hottentots 'Wittle's Rivier', and outspanned beside four or five wattle and daub huts which, on the same authority, were called 'Os Kraal', but, in fact, constituted the nucleus of the rising village of Whittlesea, so named after the birth place of His Excellency Sir Harry Smith".
"The hardbieshuis had nothing to do with the hartebeest. It gets its name from the 'stout reeds', harde biesies, used for covering the timber framework, and was a type of house used by Voortrekkers and stock- farmers. It did not have open sides”.

Baines returned to Shiloh in September 1848.

"After operating upon the homely but substantial viands before me I started for Shiloh, and passing the numerous (Xhosa) huts, hartebeeste houses, and other belonging to the more substantial inhabitants who could afford to use mud and half-burned brick, and the well built and extensive mission premises forming a square at the south side of the village, I crossed the two aqueducts by which the lands are irrigated and along the banks of which are planted a long row of fine tall willows with their graceful foliage waving in the breeze, and came to the river just below".

One year later, in September 1849, Baines was once again there and recorded the following:

"Many of the huts have a space before them surrounded by a mat composed of bamboo reeds about seven feet long and an inch thick, laid side by side between two ropes of reed round which small reeds are passed between the bamboos, thus binding them firmly together; another row of fastening about eighteen inches from the first, and perhaps another below that, completes the mat, which is then set upon edge in a circular trench and earth pressed in all round it, rendering it a firm and substantial fence".

Within two years Shiloh had been reduced to ruins. Baines wrote the following account in December 1851:

"... entering the village found the worthy missionary Bonatz standing by the school which two years ago I had seen filled with orderly and attentive (Khoikhoi) and European children. His dwelling was in ruins, but the Church had been rendered incombustible by the removal of the thatch, and, beyond the displacement of patches of plaster by the bullets of the assailants, had sustained but little damage. It had been surrounded, by the direction of Captain Tylden of the Royal Engineers, by a loop-holed wall with bastions at each corner. The windows had been bricked up and loop-holed, and a parapet had been built in front and rear, the gables themselves offering sufficient protection at the ends. From a loop-hole in the northern gable several (Mfengu) were shot, and from the south-western angle poor Webster met his death. The spot where he fell, near the corner of the mission house, being pointed out to me by his cousin, whom I had at first supposed to be the person killed. A few cottages, however, had escaped the general wreck ..."

SHILOH, also known as SILOE, Lesotho: P 1863
SHILOUVANE, Transvaal: MSR 1886
SHINARA, Cape: No data available
SHIXINI, Willowvale, Cape: No data available
SHOSHONG, Botswana: LMS 1862; SPG 1889; HM. It was established by John MacKenzie who also lived there for a number of years as its resident missionary. The following account, written by MacKenzie over a number of years, from about 1859 onwards, describes the construction of the Station's church and its first Mission buildings.

"On either side of the ravine Mackenzie and Price built their little two-roomed cottages of wattle and daub".

In 1862 MacKenzie's first residence at Shoshong was somewhat rudimentary.

"Although I did not regard Shoshong as my permanent station in 1862, I proceeded, soon after my arrival, to build a temporary hut. I availed myself of the custom of the natives, and asked the chief to point out where I might build, which he was very willing to do. I bought nothing in connection with the building except the labour of the people who assisted me. The structure itself, whose outward appearance was more picturesque than symmetrical, was made of poles, plastered on both sides, and thatched with reeds. The house was divided into three rooms, to which a fourth was afterwards added. The kitchen was outside. Our "windows" were covered with white calico; they were therefore not very bright "eyes" to the house, but allowed of the free passage of "wind", so that our lowly abode was deliciously cool. When the hut was built we expected to occupy it only for a few months: it was however our only dwelling for three years".

By 1865 MacKenzie had set about building a second and more substantial structure.

“It was under such circumstances that I resolved to build a better dwelling-house than the wattle-and-daub hut in which I had hitherto dwelt. I had to begin at the beginning, and make the moulds for the bricks. Brick-making was then proceeded with. I next went to the forest with a party of men, and felled timber, which we conveyed to Shoshong to be dressed there. The stone foundation of the house was laid by myself, and I had begun with the bricks, laying them down according to a scheme which I found in a book on the technical arts when a bricklayer who had recently begun trading in ivory and feathers arrived at the station. I got several lessons from him on the practical detail of bricklaying, which I did not find in the book; and he was also kind enough to raise the wall a considerable height before he left. I was equally fortunate in obtaining assistance in the making of doors and window-sashes from English traders, who were on the station at the time. Before I entered the new house at the end of the year, I made the following entry in my note-book:- "Have to record that for many months I cannot remember having been seated for half an hour during the day with either book or newspaper. Continually at out-door work".

In 1867 work began on the Church at Shoshong:

"Early in 1867, I commenced to build a church at Shoshong, having secured the services of two bricklayers. In the absence of a more qualified workman, I undertook the wood work as my department. Macheng was kind enough to furnish me with two regiments of men to assist me in felling the timber. When I followed them to the forest I found they had cut down, according to my orders, some tall trees, but in their ignorance had afterwards destroyed the timber by dividing each tree into several pieces! They said they had done so for the convenience of those who would have to lift the trees into a waggon. I explained to them that they must leave the trees at their greatest length, and expressed my fear that we should not find a sufficient number long enough to span the new church. My assistants, who were chiefly old men, loudly expressed their disapprobation and incredulity. "Why cut such large trees? It was wrong to fell them with an axe. Hitherto they had always been burned down when a man wanted to clear a field for cultivation. After they were felled, it was evident that no human beings could ever lift them. Macheng and the missionary had laid their heads together to impose a burden on them to no purpose", etc. In the end I had to hire other men before a sufficient quantity of timber was cut down. In them I had more willing assistants; but the work of the backwoodsman was hard for such people. I encouraged them by slaughtering an ox for their use; and Khamane, who accompanied me to the forest, killed a giraffe. The tall and resinous tambootie tree, which I selected for beams and rafters, was easily split. The partially dressed logs we conveyed to Shoshong in waggons which were kindly lent me by both Europeans and natives. A pit-saw was next set to work, and after a few lessons two raw natives were able to use it, and sawed almost all the timber for the church. Macheng again assisted me by ordering two regiments of women to cut bundles of grass for thatch. The building, which holds 500 people, was finished by the end of the year".

Emil Holub visited Shoshong in 1874, and reported on various aspects of the mission:

"High above the river-bed on the steep to the left, could be seen the ruins of a European building, the remains of the Hermannsburg Mission Chapel, which had been used as a rampart in one of the native battles, and had been all but destroyed. The mission had previously withdrawn from Shoshong and been replaced by the London Missionary Society, of which the buildings are very comfortable, and form an important settlement, as besides the chapel and school, they include the dwellings occupied by the married native students.
"As missionary in Shoshong during the incessant discords in the royal family, he (John MacKenie) had a most difficult position to maintain. But he was the right man in the right place: with much circumspection he acted as mediator between the contending parties; gifted with discretion, and full of sympathy for all that is noble, he succeeded in smoothing down many difficulties, and arousing some-ting like a proper sense of justice and humanity. It is entirely owing to him that Sekhomo's son, Khame, is now one of the best native sovereigns in the whole of South Africa. I had placed our waggon at the south-east end of the town, where it was quickly surrounded by an inquisitive crowd, and there I left it while I paid my visit to the king.
"The mission-house of the London Missionary Society lies on the side of the pass, and as we went towards it we saw three groups of houses on the right, forming the central portion of the town, of which another section lies in a rocky hollow on the other side".

SIBANGWENI, Libodi, Cape: No data available
SICHAR, Transvaal: HM 1909
SICHEM, Cathcart, Cape: MorG. May have been located at GOSHEN, Cathcart.
SIDBURY, Cape: SPG 1841; WMMS
SIDWADWENI, Tsolo, Cape: No data available
SIFOLWENI, Matatiele, Cape: No data available
SIGINGENI, Mount Frere, Cape: see LOWER MVENYANA, Mount Frere, Cape
SIGUBUDU, Transkei, Cape: No data available
SIGUBUDWINI, Tsomo, Cape: No data available
SIGUNGQWINI, Tsolo, Cape: No data available
SIHLABA HILL, Transkei, Cape: No data available
SIKHOBENI, Cofimvaba, Cape: see WODEHOUSE FOREST, Cofimvaba, Cape
SIKUBU, Lesotho: see SEKUBU, Lesotho
SILIMELA, Port St Johns, Cape: No data available
SILINDINI, Tabankulu, Cape: No data available
SILO, Transkei, Cape: No data available
SILOE, Lesotho: see SHILOH, Lesotho
SILVER FOUNTAIN, Namaqualand, Cape: LMS before 1813. John Campbell visited it in September 1813 and reported as follows:

"All (missionaries) live in huts covered with mats of rushes, the same as the ordinary Hottentot houses, only those belonging to Cornelius Kok and Mr Sass are much larger, to that a person can walk about in them.

SIMMER AND JACK, Transvaal: SACIM
SIMONSTOWN, Cape: SAfMS 1827; DRCSA; WMMS
SINGENI, Transkei, Cape: No data available
SITEBE, Transkei, Cape: No data available
SITANGAMENI, Qumbu, Cape: No data available
SITOZA, Engcobo, Cape: No data available
SIVIVANENI, Bizana, Cape: No data available
SIXUZULU, Engcobo, Cape: No data available
SMADHLENE HILL, Umzimkulu, Cape: No data available
SMITHFIELD, OFS: SPG 1863; DRCSAO 1892; WMMS
SNYKLIP, Cape: MorG
SOGA'S, Stutterheim, Cape: see MGWALI, Stutterheim, Cape
SOMERSET, Somerset East, Cape: see SOMERSET EAST, Cape
SOMERSET EAST, Cape: SAfMS 1825; CUSA 1842; UFS 1878; PCSA 1897; WMS
SOMERSET STRAND, Cape: see STRAND, Cape
SOMERSET WEST, Cape: SAfMS 1844; SPG 1849; WMS
SOMERVILLE, Cape: UFS 1886
SOMERVILLE, Tsolo, Cape: Presbyterian mission, society not known. Appears to have risen from the old TSOLO mission sometime in the early 1880s.
SOMERVILLE-TRANSKEI, Kentani, Cape: see TUTURHA, Kentani, Cape
SOMKELE, Natal: see LANSDOWNE, Natal
SONNEBLUM, Cape Town, Cape: No data available
SOUTHWELL, Bathurst, Cape: Established in 1849, it was located at Lombard's Post farm and its first resident minister was Canon Henry Waters. The original wooden structure was replaced in 1868 by a stone building whose foundation stone was laid by Archdeacon N Merriman.
SPRINGBOK, also known as SPRINGBOKFONTEIN, Cape: SPG
SPRINGBOKFONTEIN, Cape: see SPRINGBOK, Cape
SPRINGFONTEIN, also known as GERLACHSTAL, OFS: Bn 1894
SPRING GROVES, Bathurst, Cape: No data available
SPRINGVALE, Cape: No data available
SPRINGVALE, Natal: SPG 1856; DNa
STANDERTON, Transvaal: DRCSAT 1893
STANGER, Natal: SAfMS 1862; SA
STEGI, Swaziland: CN 1928
STEINKOPF, Namaqualand, also known as BESONDERMEID, Cape: LMS 1819; RM 1846
STEINTHAL, Cape: RM
STELLENBOSCH, Cape: CMML 1821; RM 1830; SPG 1838; WMS; SAfMS
STENDAL, Natal: Bn 1860
STERKSTROOM, Cape: SAfMS
STEYNSBURG, Cape: WMS
STOCKENSTROOM, Cape: DRCSA
STRACHAN, OFS: WMS
STRAND, also known as SOMERSET STRAND or HET STRAND, Cape: DRCSA 1907
STRAUSSBAY, Cape: MorG
STUARTSTOWN, also known as IXOPO, Natal: SAfMS 1879; WMS
STUTTERHEIM, Cape: Bn 1820-1848
SULENKAMA, Qumbu, Cape: see BUCHANAN, Qumbu, Cape
SULPHUR SPRINGS, also known as PNIEL, Transvaal: MHLF 1906
SUNBURY, Natal: FBS 1918
SUTHERLAND, Cape: DRCSA 1896
SWAKOPMUND, Namibia: Rc 1899; RM 1905
SWANE, Flagstaff, Cape: No data available
SWAZILAND: see MAHAMBA, Swaziland
SWEETWATERS, Natal: HF 1912
SWELLENDAM, Cape: DRCSA 1820-1849; SPG 1849; LMS; WMMS

Last updated : 11-May-2016

This article was produced for South African History Online on 01-Apr-2011