- A change to armed struggle and the state’s intensified repression 1960s
- A chronology of meetings between South Africans and the ANC in exile 1983-2000 by Michael Savage
- A History of Abantu-Batho Newspaper 1912-1931
- An Autobiographical Note by Nelson Mandela, 1964
- ANC and the early development of apartheid 1948-1950s
- ANC Conference Documents
- ANC January 8th Statements
- ANC Origins and Background
- Armed Struggle, the anti-apartheid struggle accelerates 1984-1990
- Armed Struggle, the revival of armed activity 1970s-1980s
- Barbara Masekela’s speech (ANC Women’s Section), 1982
- Continued resistance and internal criticism 1920s and 1930s
- Defiance Campaign 1952
- Delegates in attendance at the SANNC Founding Conference in 1912
- Delegations and dialogue between ANC and internal non government groups
- Early Resistance, the 1913 Land Act and deputations to London
- Isitwalandwe/Seaparankwe Award
- National Executive Committee as elected by ANC, 20 December 2007, 52nd National Conference, Polokwane
- Poqo political trials and the execution of its operatives in the 1960s
- References: ANC feature
- Rejuvenation of the ANC and intensification of the struggle 1940s
- Second letter from Nelson Mandela to Hendrik Verwoerd 26 June 1961
- South African Students Congress (SASCO)
- The Founding of the SANNC
- The Rivonia Trial Fifty Years later
- The ‘four nation’ thesis
Continued resistance and internal criticism 1920s and 1930s
In the following years, the African National Congress (ANC) leadership evolved to be more inclined to action than passive deputation, but very little was achieved during the 1920s and 1930s. The ANC continued to criticise the government and called for changes, participated in the 1919 anti-pass campaign, and resisted the Hertzog Bills, which called for ‘comprehensive segregation’. The effects of their protests were however, not far reaching, and their support base remained middle-class.
It was in fact the trade unions that were more effective with regards to the masses at this time. In 1919 the Industrial Commercial Workers Union (ICU), founded by Clemens Kadalie, with support from the dockworkers in Cape Town, became a mass movement most active in the 1920s. For much of the 1920s the ANC was considered moribund, with the ICU dominating the political landscape in both urban and rural areas of South Africa. The late 1920s saw internal conflict between moderates and those that supported the more radical ideas of Marcus Garvey. Lack of political success eventually led to those with more radical ideas coming to the fore, Josiah Gumede being one of the most prominent from this group.
In 1927 Gumede became president of the ANC, and spent some time in the Soviet Union. The ANC began to work together with the Communist Party of South Africa (CPSA) on some of their campaigns, until Gumede lost the presidency in 1930 and the ANC officially rejected communism. Seme took over as president, and tried to bring the ANC back to its more moderate path. Yet, the 1930s saw the rise to prominence of the SACP, particularly in some Black townships as the ANC experienced a marked decline.
However, the proceeding years were filled with excessive internal conflict, which left the ANC quite ineffective against the government. This was also due to the fact that the government was taking action against resistance organisations, and that the ANC lacked the support of the masses. There was even talk in the mid-1930s of disbanding the ANC and starting a new organisation that did not have the same problems with leadership conflict. However, the Jubilee Celebration in 1937 demonstrated the fact that the ANC did in fact have a substantial support base.