In the preparation of the introductory essays in this volume, heavy reliance has been placed on the documents collected by the editors and the interviews conÂducted by them inside and outside South Africa. The documents, of which only a small proportion are reproduced here, and the transcripts of interviews may be consulted with the permission of the editors.
Much valuable material of the South African Institute of Race Relations in Johannesburg is being microfilmed and will be available from the Cooperative Africana Microform Project (CAMP) of the Center for Research Libraries in Chicago. Among its rich though uneven holdings of South African material, CAMP possesses files of Inkundla ya Bantu (Bantu Forum) for 1944-1951 and the left-wing Guardian and its successors, The Clarion, People's World, and Advance. Among other important newspapers and periodicals of the period were Ilanga Lase Natal, the Bantu World, Imvo Zabantsundu (Native Opinion of South Africa), Indian Opinion, Umteteli wa Bantu, African Lodestar, Workers' Voice, Inkululeko [Freedom], Drum, The Forum, and The South African OutÂlook. Also valuable are trial records, notably Regina vs. Sisulu and 19 Others, Johannesburg Magistrate's Court, August-December 1952, and the record of the treason trial of 1956-1961. The latter, in part, and certain other trial records are available from CAMP.
Only a few African leaders have written books: Jordan Ngubane, An African Explains Apartheid (New York: Praeger, 1963); Albert Luthuli, Let My People Go: An Autobiography (London: Collins, and New York: McGraw-Hill, 1962); and I. B. Tabata, The All African Convention: The Awakening of a People (Johannesburg: People's Press, 1950). Dr. A. B. Xuma wrote "Extracts from the Life Story of Dr. Alfred Xuma" in eleven brief installments in Drum, March 1954-January 1955. Because of the foresight of Benjamin Pogrund, Dr. Xuma's extensive personal papers are at the Institute of Race Relations in Johannesburg. A number of Professor Z. K. Matthews's published articles during 1951-1953 are listed in a footnote in the introductory essay to the Defiance Campaign but contain little biographical matter. Unpublished manuscripts by him and Ngubane have been useful in the preparation of this volume. R. V. Selope Thema wrote editorials in the Bantu World; two of his articles published elsewhere are footÂnoted in the section on the Defiance Campaign. Dr. S. M. Molema collected political material and correspondence that are available from CAMP.
A popular and sympathetic history of the African National Congress is Mary Benson's South Africa: The Struggle for a Birthright (New York: Funk & Wag-nails, 1969). Earlier editions are South Africa: The Struggle for a Birthright (Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Books, 1966) and The African Patriots: The Story of the African National Congress of South Africa (London: Faber &faber, 1963). A much shorter history, with biographical chapters, is Anthony Sampson, The Treason Cage: The Opposition on Trial in South Africa (London: Heinemann, 1958). Leo Kuper, a sociologist, has analyzed the main developments in "African Nationalism in South Africa, 1910-i964," in volume two of Monica Wilson and Leonard Thompson (eds.), The Oxford History of South Africa (London: Oxford University Press). (Because of censorship, his chapter is not included in the South African edition.) See also his perceptive study of the Defiance Campaign, Passive Resistance in South Africa (London: Jonathan Cape, 1956; New Haven: Yale University Press, 1957). Julius Lewin analyzed "The Rise of African Nationalism" in an article published in 1953 and reprinted in Politics and Law in South Africa: Essays on Race Relations (London: Merlin Press, 1963). Ronald Segal, Political Africa: A Who's Who of Personalities and Parties (New York: Praeger, 1961) contains biographies of thirty-one non-white leaders. A valuable historical study of the ANC, not available during the preparation of this volume, is Peter Walshe, The Rise of African Nationalism in South Africa: The African National Congress, 1912-1952 (London: C. Hurst and Co., 1970). See also his "Black American Thought and African Political Attitudes in South Africa," Review of Politics (January 1970, pp. 51-77)
Edward Roux's Time Longer than Rope: A History of the Black Man's StrugÂgle for Freedom in South Africa (London: Gollancz, 1948; 2nd ed., Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1964), written by a former Communist who was politically active in the 1920s and early 1930s, has for years been the indispensaÂble history of the wide range of radical activity in South Africa. His book is now complemented by Class and Colour in South Africa 1850-1950 (Baltimore: PenÂguin Books, 1969) by H. J. and R. E. Simons, two outstanding South Africans, a political sociologist and a trade unionist, who have also been active as CommuÂnists. Their book is a richly detailed analysis of the interactions of national movements and class struggles. Briefer historical surveys are by Brian Bunting, a Communist, The Rise of the South African Reich (Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Books, 1964) and Alex Hepple, formerly leader of the now-defunct Labour Party, South Africa: A Political and Economic History (LonÂdon: Pall Mall Press, 1966). The autobiography of Michael Scott, A Time To Speak (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1958) includes his observations on the Campaign for Right and Justice.
An essential book for an understanding of South African liberalism is Alan Paton's splendid biography of Jan Hofmeyr: Hofmeyr (London: Oxford UniverÂsity Press, 1964). It has also been published in abridged form as South African Tragedy: The Life and Times of Jan Hofmeyr (New York: Scribner's 1965; paperback, 1970). Margaret Ballinger's From Union to Apartheid: A Trek to Isolation (Cape Town: Juta, 1969) is a political rather than autobiographical history of 1937-1960, the years when she sat in Parliament as a representative of the Africans of eastern Cape Province. Her book was not at hand during the preparation of the introductory essays, nor was Janet Robertson, Liberalism in South Africa, 1948-1963 (London: Oxford University Press, 1971).
For those beginning their study of South Africa, a good introduction is Leo Marquard, The Peoples and Policies of South Africa (4th ed., London: Oxford University Press, 1969). A more extensive analysis of white politics is GwenÂdolen M. Carter, The Politics of Inequality: South Africa since 1948 (New York:
Praeger, 1958, 1959). Other relevant materials are listed in the bibliographical note appearing in Volume I and in the bibliographical sections of The Politics of Inequality and G. M. Carter (ed.), Five African States: Responses to Diversity (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1963).