"Oliver Tambo and Nelson Mandela see each other for the first time in 28 years in Sweden (12 March 1990).. read moreImage source: www.sundayworld.co.za"

This Day In History

The State of Emergency is declared in thirty six magisterial districts.

Saturday, 20 July 1985
The increasing popular resistance and violent township protests amid the 1980s forced the South African government to declare a State of Emergency. On 20 July 1985 President P.W.  Botha announced that violence in the country showed that "ordinary law and order was inadequate”. ..
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South African History Online

Pan Africanist Congress (PAC)

The Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) is a political party whose presence in the South African political landscape spans just over half a century.


States of Emergency in South Africa: the 1960s and 1980s

One of the key instruments used by the apartheid government to neutralise political dissent was the State of Emergency (SOE). In periods when the government faced unprecedented internal revolt – both in 1960 and in the 1980s – an Emergency was declared.

Dutch East India Company (DEIC)/VOC

March 20, 1602 marked the beginning of the inexorable end for many a state in the then known world. On that day, four hundred years ago, a group of Dutch merchants and independent trading companies.

Settler Colonialism and Afrikaner Nationalism

The rise of Afrikaner Nationalism like Capitalism and African Nationalism profoundly shaped the history of the country, and continues to influence the political, economic and ideological life in South Africa today

A history of Apartheid in South Africa

Translated from the Afrikaans meaning 'apartness', apartheid was the ideology supported by the National Party (NP) government and was introduced in South Africa in 1948. Apartheid called for the separate development of the different racial groups in South Africa.

National Party (NP)

The first leader of the National Party (NP) became Prime Minister as part of the PACT government in 1924. The NP was the governing party of South Africa from 1948 until 1994, and was disbanded in 2005. Its policies included apartheid, the establishment of a South African Republic, and the promotion of Afrikaner culture. NP members were sometimes known as ‘Nationalists’ or ‘Nats’.

Pass laws in South Africa 1800-1994

Slaves at the Cape were forced to carry passes. This made it easier for their owners and the local authorities to control their movements.

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Chapter six: Coloured Representative Council

The Coloured Persons Representative Council (CRC) was established in accordance with Section I of the Coloured Persons Representative Council Act (No. 49 of 1964). 

CHAPTER 9 - Tactics of talks, Tactics of confrontation, The Road to Vula, July 1985 - December 1986 Insurrection cannot be led from afar. by Howard Barrell

From about July 1985, the ANC faced a fundamental strategic choice. Its one option was revolutionary confrontation; the other was a negotiated settlement.