"Sharpeville, near Vereeniging where 180 people were injured and 69 killed after the police opened fire on protestors on the 21st of March 1960.\r\n.. read moreImage source: www.news24.com"

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South African History Online

Sharpeville Massacre, 21 March 1960

At the annual conference of the African National Congress (ANC) held in Durban on 16 December 1959, the President General of the ANC, Chief Albert Luthuli, announced that 1960 was going to be the "Year of the Pass."

Aftermath: Sharpeville Massacre 1960

The Sharpeville massacre was reported worldwide, and received with horror from every quarter. South Africa had already been harshly criticised for its apartheid policies, and this incident fuelled anti-apartheid sentiments as the international conscience was deeply stirred.

1960-1966: The genesis of the armed struggle

The 1960s marked an important watershed in South Africa's struggle against apartheid. The aftermath of the Sharpeville Massacre, in 1960, signalled the beginning of a far more brutal and intensive phase of state repression that would crush internal resistance in the space of a few years.

Anti-Indian Legislation 1800s - 1959

1859
After protracted negotiations between the Natal Government and the British Secretary of State for the Colonies, the Natal Coolie Law, Law 14 of 1859 is passed.

South African Indian Congress (SAIC)

The period 1860-1923 is characterised firstly by the introduction of indentured Indian labourers into Natal and of the "passenger" Indians who came to trade, and secondly by the Gandhi resistance campaign and the formation of the Natal Indian Congress (NIC - 1894).

Passive Resistance in South Africa

The passive resistance movement in South Africa is seen as, largely, led by M K Gandhi and the Indian Congresses campaigns. However, this form of passive resistance or non violent protests came to dominate the tactics used by the liberation movements in the period of the armed struggle.

Group Areas Act of 1950

The National Party was elected in 1948 on the policy of Apartheid ('separateness'). This 'separateness' put South Africans of different racial groups on their own paths in a partitioned system of development.

How the Group Areas Act shaped spaces, memories and identities in Cape Town

The cornerstone of the Group Areas Act of 1950 was to prevent interracial contact ‘as far as possible’, while at the same time ensuring that those described as ‘white’ South Africans would be privileged with the exclusive rights and enjoyment of prime property in the country.

South African Coloured People Organisation (SACPO)

Like all other Black ethnic groups, the Coloureds also fell victim to segregation and repressive legislations enacted by Colonial and successive governments since shortly after the founding of the Cape of Good Hope, Natal and the Boer Republics.