Term 1: The Industrial Revolution in Britain and Southern Africa from 1860

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Timeline: Events and inventions during the Industrial Revolution

1694 - First Central Bank established in England

1712 - Thomas Newcomen invented the first productive steam engine. 

1719 - John Lombe starts his silk factory

1733 - James Kay invented the Flying Shuttle, a simple weaving machine.

1764 - James Hargreaves invented the Spinning Jenny, which allowed one worker to spin eight spindles

1769 - Richard Arkwright invented the water frame, which hooked up spinning machines to a water wheel.

1769 - James Watt patented his revision of the steam engine, featuring a separate condenser. 

1774 - Samuel Crompton invented the spinning mule which combined spinning and weaving into one machine. 

1776 - Adam Smith published The Wealth of Nations. 

1781 - Watt adapts his steam engine from a reciprocal to a rotary motion. 

1785 - Edmund Cartwright invented the power loom, which, after 1800 was powered by new steam engines. Replaced the flying shuttle.

1785 - Henry Cort invented highly successful iron refining techniques.

1790 - Carkwright changes his huge factories over from water power to steam engines.

1799 - Combination Acts make it illegal in England for workers to unionize in order to bargain for higher pay or better working conditions. 

1800 - 10 million tons of coal mined in Great Britain. 

1801 - Richard Trevithick drives the Cornish “puffer” steam powered locomotive down the street of Camborne, England. 

1811 - Luddite Rebellion begins. 

1812 - Parliament passes law making it illegal by penalty of death to destroy industrial machines. 

1813 - 14 Luddites hanged in Manchester after a rushed one-day trial. 

1816 - George Stephenson patented a steam engine locomotive that ran on rails. 

1825 - Stephenson commissioned to construct a 30-mile railway from Liverpool to Manchester. 

1829 - Stephenson’s Rocket wins the speed contest on the new Liverpool to Manchester railroad. 51 miles of railroad track in Great Britain and the entire world. 

1832 - Sadler Committee investigates child labor in factories and issues report to Parliament.

1833 - The first Factory Act provides first small regulation of child labor in textile factories. 

1834 - Poor Law created “poorhouses” for the destitute.

1835 - 106,000 power looms operating in Great Britain.

1844 - Friedrich Engels publishes his observations of the negative effects of industrialization in The Condition of the Working-Class in England. 

1848 - British government sets up the General Board of Health to investigate sanitary conditions, setting up local boards to ensure safe water in cities.

1848 - Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels published The Communist Manifesto. 

1849 - 10,000 people die in three months in London from Cholera epidemic.

1849 - 6,031 miles of railroad track in Great Britain. 

1875 - Public Health Act gives government responsibility to ensure public health for housing and sewage.

1880 - Education Act made school compulsory for children up to age 10.

1890 - 90% of all ships in the world are built in Great Britain. 

1890 - 35,00 miles of railroad track in Great Britain. 

1901 - This Factory Act raised the minimum work age to 12 years old. 

1905 - 236 million tons of coal mined in Great Britain. 

1918 - Education Act made school compulsory for children up to age 14.

1944 - English government mandates and funds compulsory education for all citizens through age 18.

Source: www.webs.bcp.org

Last updated : 20-Mar-2015

This article was produced for South African History Online on 20-Mar-2015