The Black Consciousness Movement of Azania is formed in London

Saturday, 12 April 1980

Following the waning of the influence of the Black Consciousness Movement (BCM), members of the movement formed new groups and some joined other liberation movements such as the African National Congress (ANC). On 12 April 1980, Professor Barney Nyameko Pityana formed the Black Consciousness Movement of Azania (BCMA) in London, UK. The BCMA was an avowedly Marxist group, which used the Azanian People Organisation (AZAPO) as its political voice.

• World Socialist Movement ,"Black consciousness in South Africa",From: World Socialist Movement ,[Online], available at:,[Accessed on: 11 April 2014]
Azanian People Organisation,"This is AZAPO ",From: Azanian People Organisation ,[Omline], available at: ,[Accessed on: 11 April 2014]

Last updated : 07-Apr-2017

This article was produced by South African History Online on 16-Mar-2011

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