Between 1985 and 1990, political violence was a common occurrence in South Africa, with Black townships most affected. The violence took place under the State of Emergency, which was declared in 1985 by President PW Botha, and was extended for another two years in 1987. Most violent action was directed at the apartheid government, but soon spread between residents of townships in Johannesburg along factional lines. Conflict broke out between supporters of the African National Congress (ANC) and Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) and resulted in the death of at least 150 people on 15 August 1990.
A third force was blamed for the violence as it was later discovered that the apartheid government's support for either side had drastically escalated tensions between the ANC and IFP. Despite intermittent fighting between the two factions, the State of Emergency was lifted in 1990, and by the time the first democratic elections had taken place in 1994, relative calm had been restored to areas of conflict.
• Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau.
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