The Sand River Convention, under which Britain renounces all claims to authority beyond the Vaal River, is signed.

Saturday, 17 January 1852

On 17 January 1852 the United Kingdom signed the Sand River Convention treaty with approximately 5 000 Boer families, recognizing their independence in the region to the north of the Vaal River (Transvaal).

This laid the foundation for the Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek (South African Republic) that was to be established later in 1852.


  1. Omer-Cooper: History of Southern Africa; Pakenham, T. (1991). The Scramble for Africa, Johannesburg: Jonathan Ball.
  2. Destination Kruger Park, Transvaal Republic, [Accessed: 19 December 2013]

Last updated : 19-Dec-2013

This article was produced for South African History Online on 16-Mar-2011