The Sand River Convention, under which Britain renounces all claims to authority beyond the Vaal River, is signed.

Saturday, 17 January 1852

On 17 January 1852 the United Kingdom signed the Sand River Convention treaty with approximately 5 000 Boer families, recognizing their independence in the region to the north of the Vaal River (Transvaal).

This laid the foundation for the Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek (South African Republic) that was to be established later in 1852.


  1. Omer-Cooper: History of Southern Africa; Pakenham, T. (1991). The Scramble for Africa, Johannesburg: Jonathan Ball.
  2. Destination Kruger Park, Transvaal Republic, [Accessed: 19 December 2013]

Last updated : 19-Dec-2013

This article was produced by South African History Online on 16-Mar-2011

Support South African History Online

Dear friends of SAHO

South African History Online (SAHO) needs your support.

SAHO is one of the most visited websites in South Africa with over 6 million unique users a year. Our goal is to fulfill our mandate and continue to build, and make accessible, a new people’s history of South Africa and Africa.

Please help us deliver this by contributing upwards of $1.00 a month for the next 12 months.

Make a donation here and send us a message of support.