General South African History Timeline: 1960s

General South African History Timeline: 1900s

General South African History Timeline: 1960s

1960
1 January, Minister of Bantu Education assumes control of University College of Fort Hare.African students are prohibited from attending formerly "open universities" except the University of South Africa and Natal Medical School.
24 January, Rioting by Africans in Cato Manor (Durban) results in the death of nine policemen. Commissioner of Police subsequently testifies that South African police are meeting increasing hostility from Africans in the routine performance of their duties. (New York Times)
February, The Pondoland Rebellion: an uprising of peasants in the Transkei
Protests and open rebellion breaks out in Pondoland.
Albert Luthuli warns White South Africans that resentment among Africans is building up.
3 February, British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan states in South African Parliament that Britain cannot support South Africa's racial policies.
6 February, Walter Sisulu attends a secret meeting of the ANC at Macosa house, Johannesburg, with Ahmed Kathrada.
March, The ANC announces that its anti-pass campaign will start at the end of March 1960.
March - April, Nation-wide strikes in response to banning of the ANC.
20 March, Rioting and arson in Pondoland.
21 March, At Sharpeville the police open fire on the unarmed and peaceful crowd, killing 69 and wounding 186.
Sharpeville Massacre: In the wake of Sharpeville, African students loyal to the African National Congress (ANC) establish the African Students' Association (ASA), PAC sympathising students form the African Students' Union of South Africa (ASUSA), and those loyal to the Non-European Unity Movement (NEUM) form other organisations in the Cape and Natal. However none of these organisations survives long, since identification with banned movements is hazardous, and university authorities are hostile to student political groups. Non-cooperation between peers in different student political groupings makes matters worse.
Police shooting at peaceful demonstrators in Sharpeville against Pass Laws for Africans: 69 men, women and children are killed and about 200 wounded.
The PAC mounts its anti-pass campaign. Police at Sharpeville open fire on peaceful protesters killing sixty-nine and injuring 180. In the Western Cape, police opens fire and two people are killed. The PAC retaliates by calling a work stoppage that lasts for two weeks. Ninety five percent of the workforce goes on strike. PAC youth takes control of the Cape Town townships of Langa and Nyanga, setting up roadblocks and distributing food. 30 000 residents of Black townships of Cape Town march on Caledon Square, led by Philip Kgosana, but the march is thwarted when Kgosana is tricked into calling it off on the promise of top level negotiations. The state calls in the military and the marines, the townships are cordoned off and the situation is brought under government control. A state of emergency is declared, thousands are arrested throughout the country and the ANC and PAC are declared banned organisations. Nelson Mandela is among those imprisoned.
The bloodiest massacre in the history of South Africa takes place in Sharpeville resulting in the Sharpeville Massacre
22 March, Hendrik Verwoerd tells the South African Parliament that the riots can in no way be described as a reaction against the Government's apartheid policy and has nothing to do with passes. Such disturbances are a periodic phenomenon and has nothing to do with poverty and low wages. He further states that his first duty is to thank the South African police for the courageous, efficient manner in which they handled the situation. The police at times found it difficult to control themselves, but they had done so in an exemplary manner. He announces that 132 members of the PAC, including Robert Sobukwe, are being held in Johannesburg and are to be charged with sedition.
23 March, Robert Sobukwe, President of the PAC and Kitchener Leballo, its national secretary, as well as 11 others are charged with incitement to riot.
24 March, The Government bans all public meetings of more than 12 persons until June 30 in an effort to disrupt the wave of protests against the pass laws.
25 March, Representatives of 29 African and Asian members request an urgent meeting of the Security Council to consider ,"the situation arising out of the large-scale killings of unarmed and peaceful demonstrators against racial discrimination and segregation in the Union of South Africa".
27 March, The Commissioner of Police announces that the pass laws are to be suspended until a normal situation has been restored, an occasion taken by Chief A. J. Luthuli to burn his pass. The Police Commissioner says that the pass laws are not being suspended to appease the unfounded protests of Bantu agitators, but because the jails can no longer accommodate the many Africans who present themselves for arrest by openly violating the pass laws.
28 March, ANC calls a nation-wide stay-at-home in protest to the Sharpeville massacre. Pass books are burned in countless bonfires.O. R. Tambo leaves South Africa illegally on the instruction of the ANC to carry on work outside the country
Albert Luthuli publicly burns his pass.
30 March, At the request of 29 African and Asian Member States the Security Council begins consideration of the situation in South Africa, under an agenda item entitled: "The situation arising out of the large-scale killings of unarmed and peaceful demonstrators against racial discrimination and segregation in the Union of South Africa".
The Regime declares a State of Emergency and arrests over 2 000 people. At lunchtime, 30 000 Africans from surrounding African townships march into the centre of Cape Town and demand an interview with the Minister of Justice. The Chief of Security promises to approach the Minister and the crowds march out of Cape Town. Immediately after they disperse, Erasmus announces in Parliament that a State of Emergency has been declared in 80 of the 300 magisterial districts, including every important urban area, and that 18 regiments of the Citizens Force have been mobilised to supplement the police, army and air force.
Albert Luthuli is detained and held until August, When he is tried he is sentenced to a fine of £100 and a six-month suspended sentence.
Unlawful Organisations Act used to ban the ANC and PAC.
31 March, Four more regiments of the Citizens Force are mobilised. Legal authorities in Johannesburg claim that the emergency regulations are creating a situation of virtual martial law.One of the basic reasons for declaring the Emergency is to obtain a return to work by the African population. Under the emergency regulations, refusal to work is punishable by a fine of £1400, five years in prison, or both.
1 April, The Security Council, in its first action on South Africa, adopts Resolution 134 (1960) deploring the policies and actions of the South African Government which have given rise to loss of life of so many Africans and have led to international friction. They call upon the Government to abandon its policies of apartheid and racial discrimination. It requests the Secretary-General, in consultation with the South African Government, "to make such arrangements as will adequately help in upholding the purposes and principles of the [United Nations] Charter." The vote on the resolution was 9 in favour and 2 abstentions (France and the United Kingdom).
Proclamation of a State of Emergency in 31 more magisterial districts.Ten thousand Indians and two thousand Coloureds are ordered to vacate Pietermaritzburg.
2 April, The Bishop of Johannesburg, Ambrose Reeves, takes refuge in Swaziland following continued massive arrests of persons of all races. The New York Times states that the most conservative official estimates place the membership of the ANC and PAC at 70 000.
6 April, The pass system is revived.
7 April, Unlawful Organisations Act No 34: Provides for organisations threatening public order or the safety of the public to be declared unlawful. The ANC and the PAC are immediately declared unlawful. Commenced: 7 April 1960 Repealed by section 73 of the Internal Security Act No 74 of 1982.
The Extension of University Education Amendment Act, Act No 34, bans Black students from attending White universities.
8 April, The ANC and the PAC are banned in South Africa.
Passage of the Unlawful Organisations Act.Banning of the African National Congress and the Pan Africanist Congress. Justice Minister Erasmus announces the banning of ANC and PAC for a minimum of one year and states that there can be no political organisation among urbanised Africans.
9 April, Attempted assassination of Prime Minister Verwoerd at the Rand Easter Show in Johannesburg results in serious wounds in the face. His assailant, a white farmer, is promptly described as mentally unstable.
19 April, First interim report of the Secretary-General of the United Nations, Dag Hammarskjold, pursuant to the Security Council resolution of 1 April.
May - June, Boycotts of South African goods are being implemented in many countries. Labour organisations refuse to service South African cargoes
4 May, Robert Sobukwe, President of the PAC, is sentenced to three years' imprisonment for incitement of Africans to urge the repeal of pass laws. He refuses to appeal, and refuses the aid of an attorney, on the grounds that the court has no jurisdiction over him because it cannot be considered either a court of law or a court of justice.
6 May, The Government states in Parliament that 18 000 persons have been arrested and detained since the proclamation of the emergency.
25 May, Tribal clashes continue to take place in Pondoland (Transkei) between supporters and opponents of the African territorial authorities. 29 Africans are killed, 50 wounded.
June, Representation of Africans in Parliament ends.
15 June - 24 June, Second Conference of Independent African States, at Addis Ababa, calls for sanctions against South Africa.
14 July, Communist Party of South Africa (CPSA), announces its functioning as the SACP, operating underground after its dissolution in 1950.
31 August, The state of emergency is lifted. 10 500 opponents of the Government are still being detained.
5 October, In a referendum limited to white voters only, 52% of South African voters favour the establishment of a Republic. (850,000 in favour; 776,000 opposed). Prime Minister Verwoerd subsequently tells British Prime Minister Macmillan that South Africa wants to remain in the Commonwealth.
11 October, Second interim report of the Secretary-General of the United Nations on the Security Council resolution of 1 April.
23 November, A police convoy is ambushed in Pondoland.
26 November, A week of violence continues in which it is officially estimated that 200 huts have been burned. The Botha Sigcau High School is closed following threats by Pondo who objected to government education.
30 November, The Government closes all lines of communication with five districts in Pondoland and reintroduces emergency regulations for the second time in eight months. Paramount Chief of the Zulus, Cyprian Bhepezulu, and 12 Kraals occupied by his followers are attacked by hostile Africans for their support of the Government's "betterment schemes".
1961
Walter Sisulu's mother, Alice Sisulu dies.
All-in African Conference held in Pietermaritzburg. Calls for a national convention are made, so as to decide on a new constitution.
The ANC takes up arms against the South African Government, goes underground and continues to operate secretly.
Malmesbury Convention of Coloured leaders
The Group Areas Development Board begins to provide public housing in Lenasia.
Urban Blacks Council Act No 79:The first provision for black 'self-government' in the urban townships. Assent gained: 30 June 1961; commencement date unknown.Repealed by sect. 14 of the Community Councils Act No 125 of 1977.
When Umkhonto weSizwe (MK) comes into being Phyllis Naidoo's work becomes all the more crucial. She joins the CPSA
The ANC and the PAC establish religious and welfare front organisations. ANC and SACP members set up the armed wing, Umkhonto we Sizwe. There is a strict undertaking that life will not be endangered, only installations will be attacked. A central high command, with regional commands is set up under the direction of Mandela. The first explosion occurs on 16 December in Durban, followed by explosions in Johannesburg and Cape Town. The president general of the ANC, Chief Albert Luthuli is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize a week before the first explosion. Zindziswa is born to Nelson and Winnie Mandela.
FIFA suspends the Football Association of South Africa (FASA).FASA includes some Black players within its structure. African, Indian, and Coloured officials in the anti-apartheid South African Soccer Federation (SASF) form the anti-racist professional South African Soccer League (SASL). SABFA (the South African Bantu Football Association) launches a National Professional Soccer League (NPSL), which shuts down the following year.
The Port Elizabeth Bus Boycott commences.
6 January - 12 January, The United Nations Secretary-General, Dag Hammarskjold, visits South Africa. He reports to the Security Council on 23 January.
23 January, Report of the Secretary-General of the United Nations, Dag Hammarskjold, on implementation of Security Council resolution of 1 April 1960. He stated that in the course of his discussions with the Prime Minister of South Africa, "so far no mutually acceptable arrangement" had been found on racial policies in South Africa.
27 January, Justice Minister Erasmus tells the Assembly that during the recent disturbances (November-December 1962) in Pondoland, 4 769 Africans, 2 Europeans and 2 others had been taken into custody
February, Delegations of South Africa United Front visit capitals of Commonwealth States to lobby for expulsion of South Africa
26 February, Announcement of the continuation of current defence relations with the United Kingdom.
March, The accused in the Treason trial are found not guilty, after a trial lasting four years.
The remaining 30 accused in the Treason Trial are acquitted of charges of treason
March - April, Debate on apartheid at the resumed 15th session of the General Assembly of the United Nations. African and Asian delegations press for sanctions against South Africa.The representative of UK says on 5 April that while the importance attached by UK to Article 2 (7) of the UN Charter remains undiminished, it regards apartheid as being now so exceptional as to be sui generis, and his delegation felt able to consider proposals on the question of its merits.The Special Political Committee recommends two draft resolutions: an African resolution calling for specific measures and another by 5 Asian countries asking all States to consider separate and collective action as was open to them. In the Plenary on 13 April, the key paragraph of the African draft was voted separately and received 42 votes in favour and 34 against, with 21 abstentions, and was thus not adopted. The sponsors then withdrew the resolution.The Asian draft - which condemned apartheid as a "reprehensible and repugnant to human dignity" - was adopted by 96 to 1, with 0 abstentions as resolution 1598 (XV). Only Portugal voted against it. The United Kingdom voted for a resolution against apartheid for the first time. (India, sponsor of this resolution, voted in favour of both drafts).
2 March, The Bishop of Johannesburg, Ambrose Reeves, resigns after having been deported from South Africa in September 1960 for his strong condemnation of the Government, particularly at the time of Sharpeville and the subsequent emergency. Reeves' action is vigorously supported by the Archbishop of Cape Town, Joost de Blank
12 March, The International Confederation of Free Trade Unions submits a memorandum to the UN General Assembly calling for economic sanctions against South Africa.
12 March, The International Confederation of Free Trade Unions submits a memorandum to the UN General Assembly calling for economic sanctions against South Africa.
15 March, Following ostrong opposition in the Conference of Commonwealth Prime Ministers, Dr. Verwoerd annunces the withdrawal of South Africa from the Commonwealth "in the interests of South Africa's honour and dignity".
Dr. Verwoerd announces the withdrawal of South Africa from the Commonwealth.This provokes a strong reaction amongst the English-speaking white population. Dismay is voiced by the latter and by leaders of the industrial community.Sections of the Afrikaaner population said the country was better off outside the Kafir Commonwealth. Albert Luthuli, former President of the banned ANC says in regard to the Commonwealth Prime Ministers' strong opposition to apartheid: "I am overjoyed".The Synod of 350 delegates of the Dutch Reformed Church endorses the Church's current policy of racial separation. The Synod expresses support for the Government's policy of apartheid and asks that its implementation be expedited. The Church states its conviction that its work would be handicapped if it allowed itself to be diverted from its proven way for the sake of world opinion.Professor A.S. Geyser, who queried whether Article 3 of the Church's principles, which discriminates between white and black, was in line with the Scriptures, was bitterly attacked. The Chairman of the Synod condemned his attitude as arrogant.
25 March - 26 March, All-in African Conference, with 1 400 delegates from 145 religious, cultural, peasant, intellectual and political bodies, is held in Pietermaritzburg. Conference calls for a national convention of elected representatives of all adult men and women, without regard to race, colour or creed. The Republic, it declares, "rests on force to perpetuate the tyranny of minority". If the Government ignores the demand for a national convention, the people are called upon to organise mass demonstrations on the eve of the proclamation of the Republic. Mr. Nelson Mandela is appointed secretary of the National Action Council.
29 March, Sisulu and other accused are found not guilty on a charge of High Treason, in the special court at Pretoria, and released.
Twenty-eight persons (22 Africans, 3 Indians, 2 Whites, 1 Coloured) on trial for high treason since 1956 are found not guilty and discharged. The three judges of the High Court unanimously say there is no evidence of communist infiltration into the African National Congress. "On the evidence presented and our findings, it is impossible for this court to come to the conclusion that the ANC had acquired or adopted a policy to overthrow the State by violence".Hours later the Government retaliates by renewing the ban on the ANC and PAC for another year, placing a nation-wide ban on all meetings, and breaking up the African conference in Pietermaritzburg.
The 'Treason Trial' ends. The total cost of the four-year trial is estimated at R1 million. Twenty-eight people, including Albert Luthuli and Walter Sisulu, who have been on trial for high treason since 1956, are found not guilty and discharged. Hours later the Government retaliates by renewing the ban on the African National Congress and Pan Africanist Congress for another year.
30 March, African and Asian delegations at the UN press for sanctions against South Africa.
April, Conference of the Nationalist Organisations of the Portuguese Territories (CONCP) founded in Rabat.
1 April, Robben Island turned into a prison.
5 April, United Kingdom Government announces support for a UN General Assembly resolution against apartheid for the first time.
6 April, Renewal of the ban on the African National Congress and the PAC.
13 April, The UN General Assembly condemns South African racial discrimination as "reprehensible and repugnant to human dignity" by vote of 95-1.
27 April, Walter Sisulu and his home at Orlando West are searched and various documents are seized, in which blacks are instigated to strike on 29, 30 and 31 May 1961. A case in compliance with Section 2 (A) of the Act 8/1953 (Instigation) is made against him.
3 May, All police leave is cancelled in anticipation of expected strikes at the end of May. Defence legislation is amended to enable use of the armed forces for the suppression of internal disorder. Reorganise of the police so as to co-ordinate its command headquarters with that of the military. Nationalist Party (NP) wins three by-elections with a larger majority than in the 1958 general election.
12 May, The General Law Amendment Act provides for detention of people for twelve days without bail, and trial without jury in cases of murder and arson; also the proof of innocence rests on the accused.
14 May, South Africa signs an agreement with Great Britain in regard to guaranteed preferences on the British market
19 May, General Law Amendment Act No 39:Provides for twelve-day detention. Amended: the Arms and Ammunition Act 28 of 1937 regarding the issuing and cancellation of firearm licences; the 1955 Criminal Procedure Act regarding powers of the Attorney-General to prohibit release on bail or otherwise; and the 1956 Riotous Assemblies Act.Commenced: 19 May 1961 Sections 6 and 7 repealed by the Internal Security Act No 74 of 1982.
29 May, Nation-wide general strike. It is reported that only 10-15 % of the labour force joins the strike. In Johannesburg, however, there was high African absenteeism. More than 40 % of the Rand's huge labour force stays at home. Fifty % of the Asians are out at Durban and 25 % of the Cape Coloureds.A split develops within the African leadership at the last moment. Nelson Mandela and the ANC take the initiative in organising the strike, but leaders of the banned PAC call on non-Whites to ignore it.
29 May - 31 May, Nation-wide Stay-At-Home commences.
30 May, The Union of South Africa officially ceases to exist at midnight
31 May, South Africa is declared a republic, independent and outside the commonwealth. C.R. Swart, the former Governor-General, is sworn in as the first President of the Republic of South Africa.
South Africa formally withdraws from the Commonwealth and proclaims itself a Republic.
Country placed on a war footing to smash the nation-wide strike called to protest against the establishment of the so-called Republic of South Africa.
4 June, The Iraqi Foreign Minister, Hassim Jawad, announces that Iraq will not recognise the government of South Africa because of its apartheid policies.
14 June, South Africa signs an agreement with Great Britain in regard to guaranteed preferences on the British market.
21 June, South Africa:Signs multilateral protocol on international civil aviation.
26 June, South Africa:Signs International Labour Organisation Convention, no. 116, concerning the partial revision of conventions adopted.
While underground, Nelson Mandela writes a letter in which he states the famous words: "The struggle is my life. I will continue fighting for freedom until the end of my days. "
27 June, The government of Ghana imposes a total ban on the export of all Ghanian produce to South Africa and South West Africa, as a protest against apartheid.
29 June, During its plenary conference in Geneva, the International Labour Organisation adopts a Nigerian resolution condemning the racial policies of the South African government and calling for South Africa's withdrawal from the ILO, by 163 votes to nil, with 29 abstentions. The South African Government has no intention of acceding to this request
The International Labour Organisation votes 163 to 89 in favour of a resolution calling for South Africa's withdrawal from the Organisation.
4 July, A United Nations eight-man committee with instructions to investigate conditions in the Mandated Territory of South Africa, is refused permission to enter the Territory. The minister for External Affairs, Eric Louw announces that if members of the committee try to enter they will be detained and sent back and that this will involve the United Nations in an act of aggression.
The Sierra Leone government imposes a ban on all trade and commerce with South Africa, as a protest against its apartheid policies. Ports and airports will be closed to all South African ships and aircraft; no white South Africans will be allowed to enter Sierra Leone; those already in the country will not be granted re-entry visas.
5 July, The International Monetary Fund (IMF) announces it has entered into a stand-by agreement with South Africa under which South Africa may draw up to the equivalent of $75, 000,000 in a various currencies, during the next twelve months.
Indemnity Act No 61:With retrospective effect from 21 March 1960. This Act indemnifies the government, its officers and all other persons acting under their authority in respect of acts done, orders given or information provided in good faith for the prevention or suppression of internal disorder, the maintenance or restoration of good order, public safety or essential services, or the preservation of life or property in any part of the Republic.Commenced: 5 July 1961
8 July - 10 July, Malmesbury Convention of Coloured leaders.
15 July, H.A. Fagan, former Chief Justice and Minister of Native Affairs, agrees to become leader of the National Union. Its founder, J. du P. (Japie) Basson will remain party chairman.
22 July, Sisulu, together with Moses Kotane and P.P.D. Nokwe, travel through the country to rally support.
24 July, South Africa signs multilateral agreement under article 18 of the Antarctic Treaty.
August, Sisulu visits Cape Town and organises for the extension to the ANC Youth League.
The Group Areas Development Board is replaced by the Department of Community Development.
1 August, The Prime Minister announces that there will be a general election on 18 October 1961. The necessary proclamation will be issued on 28 August 1961, nomination day 15 September 1961, and the House of Assembly will be dissolved.
2 August, A re-organisation of the Cabinet is announced by Dr. Verwoerd.
4 August, South Africa: Signs treaty with France amending the air agreement of 17 September 1954.
15 August, An electoral alliance is announced between the United Party (UP) and the National Union (NU) in Bloemfontein, in a form of a nine-point pact determining the basic objectives.
26 August, A.K. Ganyile, a Pondo leader and refugee in Basutoland is kidnapped with two companions by six South African policemen, taken across the border into South Africa, and imprisoned in the Transkei.
September, Government establishes a Department of Indian Affairs and recognised that "the Indians are a permanent part of the population of this country".
1 September, Establishment of the Department of Indian Affairs.
18 September, South Africa signs multilateral agreement on aviation.
October, Albert Luthuli is informed that he has been awarded the 1960 Nobel Prize for Peace for his "fight against racial discrimination" through non-violent means. Luthuli is the first African to win the prize.
4 October, Separate elections for the four Cape Coloured representative seats are held. They are won by Independents with the United Party support.
6 October, Sisulu is sentenced to R30-00 or 90 days imprisonment because he is not in possession of a reference book.
8 October, The Nationalist Party wins the general election and shows a gain of 10% in its popular vote. In addition, it increases its Parliamentary majority by three seats. The results are:Nationalist Party - 105 seatsUnited Party - 49 seats Progressive Party - 1 seat. National Union - 1 seat. First case of sabotage on Government installations near Johannesburg.
11 October, South Africa signs multilateral treaty amending the Phyto Sanitary Convention of 1954. The Foreign Minister, E. Louw, defends South Africa's apartheid policy in the United Nations, against African criticism. On the same day the Assembly adopts a Liberian censure motion on South Africa, with sixty-seven in favour, one against, twenty abstaining, nine not participating in the vote (including the Britain and the United States) and three absent.
The General Assembly decides - by 67 votes to 1, with 20 abstentions - to censure the Foreign Minister of South Africa for his offensive speech in the General Assembly. Only South Africa votes against the censure.
13 October, The Minister of Justice issues the first house arrest order.
17 October, Sisulu is arrested on a charge that he does not own a reference book. Sisulu is confined to his house for 5 years.
18 October, The government increases its strength in the elections. The final results are: Nationalists 105, United Party 49, Progressive Party 1, and National Union 1.
General Election: The National Party increases its majority in Parliament and obtain a majority of the total vote. Progressive Party is reduced from 11 seats to one. The seat is given to the party leader Helen Suzman.
20 October, The Minister of Justice bans all meetings to protest against arrest, trial or conviction of any person.
23 October - 26 October, The Special Political Committee in the United Nations, with South Africa participating, debates South Africa's racial policies.
25 October, South Africa signs treaty with Italy regarding air services.
26 October, South Africa signs multilateral treaty for protection of performers, producers of phonograms and broadcasting organizations.
28 October, Sisulu attends a gathering in the form of a welcome party at the house of Lilian Ngoyi. He is, together with Lilian Ngoyi and Alfred Nzo, arrested and charged under inter alia section 9(1) of Act 44 of 1950. The case is later withdrawn because sufficient evidence could not be supplied to prove that the party was in fact a meeting.
29 October, Forty-five ANC leaders meet in Lobatsi, Bechuanaland, to plan increased political activity against the Government of South Africa.
14 November, The British Prime Minister, Harold Macmillan, informs the House of Commons that responsibility for the conduct of Britain's relations with South Africa will be transferred from the Commonwealth Relations Secretary to the Foreign Secretary, from 1 December 1961. Sir John Maud will continue to hold the posts of Ambassador to South Africa and of High Commissioner.
28 November, The United Nations General Assembly adopts an eight nation resolution, by seventy-two votes to two, with twenty-seven abstentions, calling on all member states to take such separate and collective action, as is open to them to bring about the abandonment of South Africa's racial policies. It does not specifically call for sanctions.
December, Handbills are distributed by Umkhonto we Sizwe (the Spear of the Nation) announcing new methods to be adopted in the struggle for freedom and democracy.
1 December, South Africa signs an agreement with the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
5 December, Albert Luthuli and his wife board a plane in Durban to be flown to Oslo via London to receive the Nobel Peace Prize for 1960. The government issues him with a special ten-day passport, with restrictions on his movements and public appearances.
11 December, Wearing a Chief's ceremonial garb, Albert Luthuli receives the Nobel Peace Prize in the presence of King Olaf of Norway, many diplomats and other dignitaries, and is given a standing ovation. In his acceptance speech, Albert Luthuli declares: "I regard this as a tribute to Mother Africa, to all peoples, whatever their race, colour or creed".
Albert Luthuli delivers his Nobel Peace Prize address entitled 'Africa and Freedom' and pays tribute to the late Dag Hammarskjöld, "a distinguished world citizen and fighter for peace," a previous recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. At the conclusion of his address, Albert Luthuli sings the liberation anthem Nkosi Sikel'I Afrika and all the assembly soon joins in singing or humming the anthem.
South Africa signs multilateral treaty extending the declaration on the provisional accession of Tunisia to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.
12 December, Verwoerd tells the Council of Coloured Affairs that it will be transformed into a Coloured 'Parliament' with a 'Cabinet', initially of four members, within the framework of a ten-year plan for the development towards self-determination of the Cape Coloured population.
16 December, Umkhonto weSizwe (MK) is formed to "hit back by all means within our power in defence of our people, our future and our freedom".
Five bomb explosions occur in Johannesburg and five others at Port Elizabeth.
Handbills calling for sabotage are distributed in English and Zulu. During the night a series of explosions are set off, damaging a post office, several African affairs offices and electric power stations near Johannesburg and Port Elizabeth.
18 December, Three further attempts to sabotage buildings in and near Johannesburg are discovered.South Africa signs treaty with Sweden to further extend the period of validity of traffic rights granted to Scandinavian Airlines System. South Africa signs treaty with Norway to further extend the period of validity of traffic rights.
21 December, As a result of investigations into the Port Elizabeth explosions, Security Police arrest and charge Robert H. Strachan with causing malicious damage to property.
1962
The Programme of action: the South African Communist Party adopts "The Road to South African Freedom".
Fietas, Johannesburg: In 1962 there are 177 shops in the area with two mosques, four churches, two cinemas, 4 Islamic schools, 1 Hindu school, 1 Tamil school/temple/hall, 1 Indian girls' school, 1 'coloured' junior school, 1 'coloured' college, 1 Indian junior school, a communal hall and a number of social clubs. The Queenspark Sports Grounds next to the cemetery on Krause Street is also considered part of Fietas. The residential stands in the area have an average of 4 cottages on them.
The Minister of Justice continues issuing a series of house arrest orders confining people to their homes for a period of five years.
Sonia Bunting is placed under house arrest.Florence Matomela is banned and restricted to Port Elizabeth, where she is subsequently sent to prison for five years for furthering aims of ANC. Winnie Mandela is banned under Suppression of Communism Act, and restricted to Orlando Township.After ANC is outlawed, Dorothy Nyembe becomes President of Natal Rural Areas Committee and organises anti-government demonstrations with rural women during the Natal Women's Revolt. Lillian Ngoyi is banned and confined to Orlando Township. Cissie Gool receives LLB degree from UCT and is admitted as an advocate to the Supreme Court.Ruth Mompati goes into exile and becomes secretary and head of the Women's Section of the ANC in Tanzania.
Anti-Indian Legislation: The Sabotage Bill is tabled.
Poqo uprisings in the Cape result in vicious killings, particularly of Whites.
Eleven fans die at Jeppe Station, Johannesburg, following Moroka Swallows and Orlando Pirates derby football match at Natalspruit. 10 000 spectators in Maseru, Lesotho (then Basutoland) watch the Whites-only Germiston Callies defeat the Black Pirates by 3 goals to1.Orlando Pirates Women's Football Club and Mother City Girls are among the first (short-lived) Black women's football teams.
Sabotage Act is introduced.
January, Nelson Mandela secretly leaves South Africa to attend a Pan African Freedom Movement conference in Addis Ababa. He travels to other countries to receive military training and then comes back into the country to continue operating underground.
Mandela is smuggled out of the country. He attends the Pan-African Freedom Conference in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia which is hosted by Tambo. He addresses the Conference and meets Emperor Haile Selassie. Mandela canvasses support in North and West African countries, meets Col. Boumedienne of Algeria, commander in chief of the army of National Liberation, and undergoes training in demolition and mortar firing. He meets Nyerere and Kaunda who later head their states, and Oginga Odinga, the opposition leader in Kenya. He flies to Britain where he meets Hugh Gaitskell and Jo Grimond, Labour and Liberal Party leaders. Winnie Mandela is banned for two years. Mandela returns to South Africa, and is met at the border and driven to Johannesburg. The Congress of Democrats is banned. Mandela visits Luthuli on his return to Johannesburg; he is disguised as a chauffeur.
13 January, Fietas, Johannesburg: A census is held determining that there are 177 shops in the area. Population:Indian - 4125'Coloured' - 501Malay - 860Chinese - 59'African' - unknown
17 January, The Department of Justice announces that the charges against A.K. Ganyile have been dropped, the government regrets the incident, Ganyile is released, returns to Basutoland and later claims damages against the Minister of Justice and the policemen concerned.Leaders of the South African National Convention Movement, a coloured opposition organisation, completely reject Dr Verwoerd's plan as offering them 'sovereignty in no area but subservient in all'.
21 January, The President of the Newspaper Press Union of South Africa, M.V. Jooste, issues the draft of a voluntary Press Code, including proposals for the setting up of a three-man Board of Reference.
23 January, Dr Verwoerd, announces his plan for the granting of 'self-rule' to the Transkei. It is to have its own Parliament and Cabinet, separate citizenship and control over agriculture, education, health, social services and roads with defence, foreign affairs and justice remaining in the hands of the central government in the meantime.
31 January, The government's proposals for self-government for the Transkei are submitted to the committee of twenty-seven chiefs and headmen appointed by the Transkeian Territory Authority to press its claims.South Africa signs treaty with Luxemburg relating to air services.
1 February, A statement entitled 'We don't want crumbs' appears in New Age. In the statement Albert Luthuli unequivocally rejects the Government's homelands policy.
7 February, Walter Sisulu and Duma Nokwe go from house to house in Orlando, Johannesburg and rally support amongst the residents against the government's policy in respect of Bantu Urban Councils.
Beginning of International Solidarity Campaign.
19 February, The first part of the South African Press Commission's first report is tabled in parliament by the Minister of the Interior, De Klerk. The report, which has taken eleven years to draw up, consists of two volumes totaling 700 pages, with nineteen annexures running to 1 566 pages. It strongly recommends that the South African Press Association (SAPA) gives more say in its affairs to the Afrikaans-language press.
20 February, South Africa signs a treaty amending the statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency.
22 February, South Africa signs a parcel post agreement with Canada.
12 March, The Defence Minister, J.J. Fouche, outlines the basic principles of South Africa’s defence policy and gives a detailed of measures being taken to build up the Defence Forces and to make South Africa self-supporting in military equipment.
21 March, The minister of finance, Dr.Eben Dönges, introduces a budget of national security with increased expenditure on defence.
23 March, The Minister of Water Affairs announces an ambitious scheme to harness the Orange River for power and irrigation at a cost of R450 million, spread over about thirty years.
29 March, The Minister of Defence J.J. Fouché discloses that South Africa is buying supersonic Mirage III jet fighters from France, and that South African forces are being equipped with French Alouette helicopters.
6 April, South Africa signs a multilateral agreement for the accession of Israel to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.
30 April, South Africa signs treaty with Germany extending the economic agreement of 28 August 1951.
May, Under a government sponsored Bill, which received its third reading in the House of Assembly on 8 February 1962, a Coloured Development Corporation with a share capital of R500 000 (£250 000 Sterling) is established to aid coloured businessmen in developing and enlarging their own industries in the townships reserved for them.
End of may, Victorio Carpio repudiates Pretoria statement.
3 May, South Africa signs a multilateral procés-verbal extending the declaration on the provisional accession of the Swiss Confederation to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.
4 May, The Transkeian Territory Authority approves the draft Constitution as a whole, after considerable controversy, mainly concerning the composition of the Legislative Assembly.
6 May, United Nations representatives of the committee to investigate the conditions in South West Africa, Victorio Carpio (Philippines) and Dr Martinez de Alva (Mexico), begin informal talks with Dr Verwoerd and South African officials in Pretoria. They subsequently visit South Africa and return to Pretoria.
8 May, R.H. Strachan is found guilty of conspiring to cause bomb explosions and is sentenced to three years’ imprisonment.
17 May, Dr Jan Steytler, leader of the Progressive Party, launches a nationwide protest campaign against the General Laws Amendment Bill, published by the government on 12 May 1962 defining the crime of sabotage in the widest terms.
23 May, South Africa signs an amendment agreement with Great Britain on sugar for Swaziland.
24 May, A Bill replacing the Republic of South Africa (Temporary Provisions) Act, due to expire on 31 May 1962, is enacted and receives the Royal Assent. It is designed to regulate finally the operation of British law in relation to South Africa.
26 May, A joint statement is issued, agreed to by Dr Verwoerd, Victorio Carpio, Dr de Alva and the Foreign minister, Eric Low, indicating that no evidence has been found in SWA of genocide by South Africa, or of any excessive military occupation. The conditions there do not constitute a threat to world peace.
28 May, South Africa signs a convention with Great Britain on the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income.
June, The General Laws Amendment Act (Sabotage Act) is passed.
4 June, South Africa signs agreement with Great Britain for the temporary suspension of the margin of preference on tin plate.
11 June, South Africa signs cultural agreement with the Federal Republic of Germany.
12 June, South Africa signs amendment to the co-operation agreement with the United States.
20 June, South Africa signs agreement with Japan on the safeguards of materials transferred to Japan of the International Atomic Energy Agency.The International Commission of Jurists in Geneva, issues a 2 000-word statement asserting that the ‘the Sabotage Bill’ reduces the liberty of the subject to a degree ‘not surpassed by the most extreme dictatorship of the Left or Right’.
23 June, The African delegates and others walk out of the International Labour Conference in Geneva when delegates of the Government and employers of South Africa go to the rostrum to participate in the general debate on the Director-General’s report.In 1961, the conference had asked the Governing Body to forward a request to the South African government to withdraw from the ILO in view of its apartheid policy. The Government ignored the request and sent its three delegations to the conference. The ILO Constitution has no provision for excluding a member.
27 June, Parliament passes the General Law Amendment Act – the ‘Sabotage Bill’ – sponsored by the Minister of Justice, B.J. Vorster, defining sabotage in the widest terms and prescribing a minimum sentence of five years and a maximum of death. Its purpose is to combat communism.
General Law Amendment Act (Sabotage Act) No 76: Increases the State President’s power to declare organisations unlawful. Further restrictions can be imposed in banning orders, restricting movement. Persons can now even be banned from social gatherings, including having more than one visitor at a time. The Minister is able to list banned persons in the Government Gazette (GG). This Act creates the offence of sabotage by providing that any person who commits any wrongful and wilful act whereby he/she injures, obstructs, tampers with or destroys the health or safety of the public, the maintenance of law and order, the supply of water, light, power, fuel or foodstuffs, sanitary, medical, or fire extinguishing services can be tried for sabotage (Horrell 1978: 443).Commenced: 27 June 1962.Section 16 repealed by the State of Emergency Act No 86 of 1995.
July - September, Seventy-five serious fires attributed to widespread arson are reported in Natal.
10 July, South Africa:Signs the International Wheat Agreement.
23 July, Ben Turok is sentenced to three years imprisonment for attempting to cause an explosion in the centre of Johannesburg in February.
26 July, South Africa signs multilateral recommendations under article IX of the Antarctic Treaty.
30 July, Under the provisions of the General Law Amendment Act of 1962 a list of 102 persons prohibited from attending gatherings is published in the Government Gazette. It includes Patrick Duncan, Albert Luthuli, Duma Nokwe, Ronald Segal, Walter Sisulu, Oliver Tambo and Benjamin Turok.
1 August, South Africa signs multilateral agreement for the accession of Portugal to the General Agreement on Tarrifs and Trade.
3 August, The United Nations Special Committee on South West Africa disowns the Pretoria statement.
5 August, Nelson Mandela, who went underground in 1961, is arrested near Durban. He is sentenced to five years’ imprisonment on November 7, 1962; then tried again, while in prison in the “Rivonia Trial“ and sentenced to life imprisonment.
7 August, The South African Congress of Democrats is banned by the Minister of Justice under the Suppression of Communism Act.
8 August, South Africa signs treaty with Great Britain, extending to South West Africa the Convention of 28 May 1962 on the avoidance of double taxation and the avoidance of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income.
15 August, The Liquor Laws Amendment Bill, under which Africans are for the first time allowed to buy liquor freely, comes into effect. Introduced on 9 June 1961, given a second reading on 19 June 1961, its third on 24 June 1961 and subsequently approved by the senate, its long delay in implementation is attributed to the large number of applications for liquor licences received.
16 August, South Africa signs amendment with Great Britain on the Ottawa Trade Agreement of 20 August 1932.
17 August, The Defence Minister, J.J. Fouché, announces that the striking power of the Defence Force has been increased twenty-fold as compared with two years earlier, while that of the Navy is to be increased ten-fold in the next few years.
24 August, African delegations requests Secretary-General U Thant to help obtain the release of Nelson Mandela. In a statement, they condemn the arrest on 5 August and note that he was held under the Sabotage Act, which carries a possible death penalty.
31 August, South Africa signs a visa agreement with Austria.
7 September, The South African Congress of Democrats is banned by the Minister of Justice under the Suppression of Communism Act.
14 September, South Africa signs a visa agreement with Belgium.
28 September, South Africa signs an International Coffee Agreement.
October, ANC conference in Botswana
End-October: The Minister of Justice continues issuing a series of house arrest orders confining people to their homes for a period of five years.

ANC Conference is held in Botswana. Delegates come from all over South Africa and from abroad.Vorster says that the biggest danger confronting South Africa is not communism, but liberalism. He warns the English press which continued to be the mouthpiece for the Congress Alliance. The Minister of Justice issues the first house arrest order under the new Sabotage Act against Mrs. Helen Joseph, national vice-president of the banned Congress of Democrats. The order is valid for five years. Minister of Justice Vorster issued an order banning until 30 April 1963 all meetings to protest against arrest, trial or conviction of any person. The order is understood to have been issued to counter demonstrations in connection with the trial of Nelson Mandela and the house arrest orders.

Albert Luthuli is elected rector by the students of Glasgow University in recognition of his “dignity and restraint” in “a potentially inflammatory situation”.
13 October, The first restrictions to house arrest under the Sabotage Act are imposed in Johannesburg on Helen Joseph.
19 October, The office of the Minister of Agricultural Economics and Marketing is rocked by an explosion in Pretoria.
27 October - 28 October, 45 African (and one Indian) leaders from South Africa meet at Lobatsi, Bechuanaland, to make plans to step up political activity. They are said to have been warned that unless their efforts against the government are intensified, funds from African states will be cut off.
6 November, At its 17th session, the United Nations General Assembly adopts a resolution on South Africa’s racial policies, deploring the failure of the South African government to abandon its racial policies, and establishing a Special Committee to keep these under review. The resolution favours diplomatic and economic sanctions against South Africa and asks that the UN Security Council consider expelling South Africa from the Council.
6 November, The General Assembly requests Member States to take specific measures to bring about the abandonment of apartheid, including breaking of diplomatic, trade and transport relations. It also sets up a Special Committee to follow developments and report to the General Assembly and the Security Council. [Resolution 1761(XII)][From its session in 1962, the General Assembly combined the items on the treatment of Indians in South Africa and on apartheid into one item: “Policies of Apartheid of the Government of the Republic of South Africa”.]
7 November, Mandela is sentenced to five years imprisonment.
9 November, The Minister of Justice states that there have been 23 attempts of sabotage from late September to date. Nearly 60 African suspects are reported to have been arrested.
15 November, Thirty-eight African and Asian delegations table a draft resolution in the Trusteeship Committee asking for an effective United Nations ‘presence’ in South West Africa, and asking the General Assembly to reaffirm ‘the inalienable right of the people of South West Africa to independence and national sovereignty.’ Uganda Prime Minister Milton Obote announces a boycott of South African goods.
16 November, A list of 437 persons said to have been office-bearers, officers, members or active supporters of the banned Communist Party of South Africa is published. Listed persons are banned from belonging to 36 specified organisations and ordered to cease membership of such organizations by 1 February 1963.
21 November, In an outbreak of violence at Paarl, Cape Province, two whites are beaten to death and seven blacks are shot during a march on a police station by about 100 blacks.
27 November, Seven people are killed in Paarl. Africans march on the police station to free prisoners arrested in recent killings. When the police open fire, there were disturbances in the town. The Minister of Justice appoints Mr. Justice J. H. Snyman to inquire into the causes of violence.
29 November, President Swart appoints a one-man commission to inquire into the riots at Paarl.
1 December, South Africa signs a loan agreement with the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development concerning the seventh Transport Project.
10 December, Albert Luthuli and Dr. Martin Luther King Jnr issue a joint statement “Appeal for Action Against Apartheid”
21 December, The International Court of Justice at The Hague rules, by the narrow majority of eight votes to seven, that it has jurisdiction in the case brought by Ethiopia and Liberia alleging that South Africa has violated its mandate over South West Africa.Dr Verwoerd intimates that the government proposes to introduces legislation providing for the extension of the territorial sea limit for South Africa and South West Africa from three to six nautical miles and establishment of a contiguous fishing zone extending to twelve miles from the base line.
1962 - 1964
December - June, In this period over 300 sentences are passed for such crimes as political murder, arson, acts of sabotage and bomb throwing, as well as for membership of banned organisation such as Poqo and the ANC. Forty death sentences are imposed in addition to numerous sentences of life imprisonment and lesser terms, at trials throughout the country.
1962 - 1963
7 December - 13 March, The Paarl Riots Commissioner, Justice J.H. Snyman hears evidence at Paarl and elsewhere. Detailed information on the nature and activities of the Poqo organisation is obtained. It is equated with the PAC. 
1963 - 1964
Repression under the 90 and 180-day detentions.
African students begin focussing their attention on the multi-racial National Union of South African Students (NUSAS) an outspoken anti-government organisation with a membership drawn heavily from White English-speaking universities, for want of a better vehicle to express their political aspirations.
1963

30 June - In a two-day meeting to discuss emergency measures against South Africa and the problems its membership poses, the governing body of the International Labour Organisation (ILO) resolved that South Africa should be excluded from ILO meeting.

Sisulu’s wife Albertina is placed under banning orders (remains so until 1983)
Police raid the secret headquarters of MK, arresting the leadership. This leads to the Rivonia Trial where the leaders of MK are charged with attempting to cause a violent revolution, and thus sentenced to life imprisonment.
Some ANC leaders - among them Oliver Tambo and Joe Slovo avoid arrest and leave the country. Other ANC members leave to undergo military training.
Fietas, Johannesburg: Harry, ‘the fat man’, a tramp living in Fietas disappears. On inquiry from his family in Soweto it is found that he has died, but later it transpires that he is alive and well.
Dorothy Nyembe is arrested for leading the Natal Women’s revolt where women refuse to fill cattle dipping tanks.
The United Arab Republic government informs the United Nations that it has banned South African ships from entering UAR ports, and that, while they will still be allowed to use the Suez Canal they will be denied all facilities there.The Rivonia Trial opens in a special court at Pretoria. Eleven men are charged with complicity in more than 200 acts of sabotage aimed at facilitating revolution and armed invasion of South Africa. The indictment is quashed on the grounds that the State has not provided sufficient details of the alleged offences, but a new indictment is prepared and the trial proceeds.
The Coloured Person’s Education Act places control over ’coloured’ education under the Department of Coloured Affairs. ’Coloured’ schools are also compelled to register with the government. ’Coloured’ education is made compulsory.
Miriam Makeba addresses the United Nations’ Special Committee Against Apartheid, in New York. Sonia Bunting goes into exile and continues to work for the Communist Party. She becomes organiser of the World Campaign for the Release of South African Political Prisoners.Frances Baard is detained and held for 12 months in solitary confinement.Dorothy Nyembe is arrested for furthering the aims of the ANC and is sentenced to three years imprisonment.
Albertina Sisulu is arrested.
Steve Biko is introduced to politics as a teenager, when one of his older brothers, Khaya, a student at Lovedale High School, is arrested as a suspected Poqo member and jailed for three months. The South African Police interrogate Steve Biko in connection with his brother’s Pan Africanist activities, and Steve Biko is subsequently expelled from Lovedale. Steve Biko develops a strong antipathy toward White authority, and carries this attitude with him when he enters St Francis College at Marianhill in Natal, a liberal Catholic boarding school and one of the few remaining private high schools for Africans in South Africa. 
The FIFA executive lifts the Football Association of South Africa’s (FASA) suspension. FASA announces it will send an all-White team to the 1966 World Cup, and an all-Black team to the 1970 World Cup. FIFA president Stanley Rous gets FASA temporarily reinstated in 1963, but FASA is again suspended in 1964. It is expelled from FIFA in 1976.
International Labour Organisation (ILO) votes to expel South Africa. 
1 January, Thousands of Commonwealth citizens resident in South Africa, mostly Britons, become technically aliens through failing to apply for permanent residence by 31 December 1962 under the Commonwealth Relations Act enacted on 15 June 1962.
11 January, Sisulu attends a secret meeting at the house of George Xarile together with F. Van Rensburg (a shift boss from Vlakfontein mine). It is understood that Van Rensburg made bombs for Sisulu - presumably from dynamite.
18 January, Parliament opens with the debate of ‘no confidence’ moved by the Leader of opposition Sir de Villiers Graaff. The prime minister defends the government’s Bantustan policy by attempting to establish the fact that it has been implicit in the National Party programme since it came to power in 1948.
5 February, A white family is savagely killed in their caravan whilst camping on the Bashee River in the Ingcobo area of the Transkei. Forty Africans are later arrested and twenty-two sentenced to death for the murders.
8 February, SA signs a favourable Nation Trade agreement with Spain.The government publishes the draft of the Bantu Laws Amendment Bill intended to remove most of the remaining rights of Africans in white areas, including the security of employment or residence.
11 February, The Defence Minister, J.J. Fouché, announces in the House of Assembly that he intends to increase the strength of the permanent army by fifty per cent.
19 February, The Minister of Defence announces the re-establishment, as of 1 April 1963 of the ‘Cape Corps’ of Coloureds to be employed in non-combatant roles.
20 February, Walter Sisulu attends a secret ANC meeting of the Phomolang branch.
22 February, South Africa signs agreement with Australia on air pollution.
23 February, At the annual conference of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa in Leopoldville, fifteen African states table a draft resolution requesting the United Nations Economic and Social Council to deprive SA of membership because of its policy of racial discrimination. The resolution is adopted by thirty votes, with Britain, France and Spain opposing it.
25 February, Potlako Leballo, claiming to be the leader of the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC), confirms in Maseru, Basutoland, that Poqo and the PAC are one and the same organisation and that its revolutionary council is discussing the timing and manner of an uprising to be launched in South Africa during 1963.
27 February, South Africa signs a treaty with the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland amending the trade agreement of 16 May 1960.
2 March, First meeting of the Special Committee on the Policies of Apartheid of the Government of the Republic of South Africa (later renamed “Special Committee against Apartheid“).
4 March, Sisulu is sentenced in the Johannesburg Regional Court, to 6 years imprisonment under section 3 (1) (A) Act 8/53. Sisulu appeals, but bail is refused.
Walter Sisulu, former Secretary-General of the African National Congress is convicted of having incited African workers to strike in protest against the Republic of South Africa Constitution Act of 1961, and having furthered the aims of the ANC. He is sentenced to six years’ imprisonment.
9 March, Sisulu is released on R6 000 bail.
14 March
The Publications and Entertainment Bill, which has been before a select Committee for nearly two years, passes its third reading in the House of Assembly by 60 votes to 40. The Minister of Interior is to appoint a Publications Control Board to control importation, distribution, exhibition, sale or possession of any publications deemed ‘undesirable’
15 March, The Defence Minister, J.J. Fouché, gives the Senate details of South Africa’s defence programme and replies to statements made by Harold Wilson on the British Labour Party’s attitude to arms supplies to South Africa.
20 March, Police obtain information that Sisulu is an office bearer of Umkhonto weSizwe (Spear of the Nation).
The Budget introduced by the Minister of Finance, Dr. T.E. Dönges, provides the record sum of R202 million for defence and internal security.
21 March, Justice Snyman, judge in the Cape division of the Supreme Court, produces an Interim Report of his inquiry into the Paarl riots. This develops into an investigation into the Poqo organization, operating from Basutoland in collusion with subversive groups in the Transkei and its involvement in the murders and terror in the Eastern Province and the Transkei. The report is immediately tabled in the house of Assembly by the Minister of Justice B.J. Vorster, who announces that he accepts the judge’s findings and will act on them.
25 March, Potlako Leballo, claiming to be the leader of the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC), confirms in Maseru, Basutoland, that Poqo and the PAC are one and the same organisation and that its revolutionary council is discussing the timing and manner of an uprising to be launched in South Africa during 1963.
26 March, Sisulu attends an ANC party in Dube Pokaso. The party is held in aid of strengthening ANC funds
1 April, The Foreign Officer of the Philippines announces that it has instructed its Commerce Department, the National Marketing Corporation and the Bureau of Customs, to implement a boycott of all South African goods as well as to halt exports to South Africa.
2 April, First meeting of the Special Committee on the Policies of Apartheid of the Government of the Republic of South Africa (later renamed “Special Committee against Apartheid“).
3 April, Sisulu placed under 84 hours house arrest.
South Africa:Signs a treaty with Great Britain on the temporary suspension of the tariff preference on crude oil.
6 April, South Africa signs a Parcel Post agreement with Japan.
8 April, South Africa signs an amendment to the constitution of the International Labour Organisation.
14 April, South Africa signs a treaty with Bechuanaland protectorate on radio-tele-communications and meteorological services at Maun.
18 April, The Foreign Minister states that the South African government is unable to assist the United Nations Special Committee on Apartheid since its establishment is contrary to the provisions of the United Nations.
19 April, Security Police visit Sisulu’s house and find that Sisulu has fled.
20 April, The Rand Daily Mail reports that Sisulu has fled to Bechuanaland.
South Africa signs the Olive Oil Agreement.
22 April, The Transvaler reports that Sisulu has not yet arrived in Bechuanaland. The Star, however, alleges that he has been seen in Bechuanaland.
23 April, Dr. Verwoerd, states in Parliament that if political refugees in the British Protectorates are allowed to organise revolution against South Africa then these territories must expect retaliation.
24 April, The Pretoria News alleges that Sisulu has arrived in Lorenco Marques, Mozambique, on the 24th of April 1963 according to a press report in the L.M. newspapers.
South Africa signs the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations.The Minister of Justice introduces a General Laws Amendment Bill implementing Justice Snyman’s recommendations establishing emergency courts to deal with cases arising from Poqo activities, and gives the Minister power to detain anyone without trial in solitary confinement for ninety days, and thereafter for further periods of ninety days, at the Minister’s discretion. The Minister is also given powers to detain without trial anyone who has been convicted of an offence endangering the security of the state. Only Helen Suzman, representing the Progressive Party, opposes the Bill in toto.
26 April, At a meeting in Oslo, the Foreign Ministers of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden and the Icelandic Ambassador call upon South Africa to change its racial policies and to cooperate with the United Nations.
30 April, Walter Sisulu is in Lobatse.
Algeria announces a total boycott of South Africa.Three listed white communists serving sentences of house of arrest, escape to Bechuanaland.
May, The security police begins 90-day arrests. A widespread purge of ‘subversive elements’ is undertaken.
1 May, Prime Minister Vorster announces that Robert Sobukwe has been taken to Robben Island, where he will be detained indefinitely in terms of the General Laws Amendment Bill of 29 Apr.1963.
2 May, General Law Amendment Act No 37:Section 17, the ninety-day detention law, authorises any commissioned officer to detain - without a warrant - any person suspected of a political crime and to hold them for ninety days without access to a lawyer (Horrell 1978: 469). In practice people are often released after ninety days only to be re-detained on the same day for a further ninety-day period. The ‘Sobukwe clause’ allows for a person convicted of political offences to be detained for a further twelve months. The Act also allows for further declaration of unlawful organisations. The State President can declare any organisation or group of persons which has come into existence since 7 April 1960 to be unlawful. This enables the government to extend to Umkhonto we Sizwe and Poqo the restrictions already in force on the ANC and the PAC (Horrell 1978: 416).Commenced: 2 May 1963, except ssctions 3, 9 & 14, which came into effect at different times.Sections 3-7 and 14-17 repealed by the Internal Security Act No 74 of 1982.
7 May, South Africa signs agreement with Portugal.
8 May, Exchanges notes with Scandinavia amending the Air Agreements of December 1961. The United Nations Special Committee on Apartheid publishes its first Interim Report, recording with satisfaction the number of countries that have broken off diplomatic and
commercial relations with South Africa, but noting with regret that nearly 20 member states still maintain these.The British Ambassador in Pretoria and High Commissioner for the Protectorates, Sir John Maud, confirms that a distinction is made between ordinary political refugees and people who flee to the Protectorates to organize revolution. It is Britain’s policy ‘to prevent action in any territory designed to foment violence in the Republic’
16 May, South Africa signs the Ocean Mail Contract with the Union Castle Company.
24 May, The Transkei Self-Government Bill is enacted, giving, for the first time, limited self-government to Africans in a defined area. It incorporates the draft Constitution for the Transkei, as finally approved by the Transkei Territorial Authority in December 1962.
30 May, Transkei Constitution Act No 48:Self-government granted to Transkei.Commenced: 30 May 1963 Repealed by Sch 7 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa Act No 200 of 1993.
5 June, South Africa signs treaty with Great Britain on the release from the bound margin of preference of 10% ad valorem on certain preserved fruits.
Number of alleged Poqo members arrested is 3 246. (House of Assembly, June 12).
25 June, South Africa signs provisional air agreement with the Federal Republic of Germany.The final report by Justice Snyman on the Paarl Riots is submitted to Parliament. It analyses the main causes of the riots.
26 June, Sisulu speaks on “Freedom Radio“ and urges the youth to join forces and continue the struggle to fight for freedom.
27 June, South Africa signs treaty with Bechuanaland Protectorate on postal services and insured parcels.
28 June - 30 June, The governing body of the International Labour Organisation (ILO) meets in Geneva to discuss emergency measures against South Africa and the problems its membership poses. It is resolved that South Africa should be excluded from ILO meetings.
2 July, Cameroon closes its sea and air ports to both Portugal and South Africa.
3 July, Extension of University Education Amendment Act No 67:Amended the 1959 Extension of University Education Act and the University College of Fort Hare Transfer Act No 64 of 1959.Commenced: 3 July 1963 Repealed by section 21 of the Tertiary Education Act No 66 of 1988.
4 July, South Africa signs treaty with Swaziland on postal services including parcel post.
6 July, Robert John McBride is born in the Coloured section of Addington Hospital, Durban. His father Derrick Robert McBride and mother Doris are teachers at a Clairwood school. His maternal grandparents were Collin Campbell van Niekerk, a White Afrikaner, and Grace, a Coloured daughter of a Zulu-speaking mother and a Coloured father.Robert grows up in Wentworth, a suburb 11km from the city centre of Durban. Converted from a World War 2 military transit camp, Wentworth is flanked by the industrial area of Jacobs and an oil refinery, and is reserved for Coloured people.
11 July, Walter Sisulu is arrested and detained under Section 17 of Act No. 37 of 1963.
12 July, Hungary announces the breaking-off of trade relations with South Africa.The Security Police surrounds a house in Rivonia and arrests eighteen people, including Walter Sisulu, former Secretary-General of the banned African National Congress and Ahmed Kathrada, who had also gone ‘underground’ from house arrests.
13 July, The government of India announces that it is cutting India’s last remaining links with South Africa by refusing landing and passage facilities to South African aircraft.The Security police disclose the existence of an underground group the Yu Chi Chan, said to include people trained in Peking and Algeria for sabotage in South Africa.
15 July, Dr Verwoerd announces that the government has decided to withdraw from the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) owing to the hostility shown by African states
16 July, Ivory Coast closes sea and airports to South Africa and Portugal.
18 July, The United Nations Special Committee on Apartheid releases its second Interim Report recommending an effective embargo on the supply of arms and ammunition, and of petroleum.Harold Wolpe, a Johannesburg solicitor, and listed Communist, is arrested on the Bechuanaland border.
22 July, Ethiopia closes her airspace to South African aircraft.
26 July, The British High Commissioner for Basutoland, Bechuanaland and Swaziland issues the Prevention of Violence Abroad Proclamation, which makes it an offence for persons to conspire against, or incite, or instigate violence in South Africa or other neighbouring territories. It comes into immediate effect.
30 July, In the Geneva session of the United Nations Economic and Social Council, an Argentinian resolution states that South Africa shall not take part in the work of the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) until conditions for constructive co-operation have been restored by a change of its racial policy. The resolution is adopted by six votes to two, with ten abstentions.Yugoslavia closes its consular office in Johannesburg.
31 July - 6 August, The United Nations Security Council debates the South African situation. The SA government reaffirms its decision not to participate in the debate arguing that discussions would be on matters it considers to fall solely within its domestic jurisdiction.
August, The Christian Institute of southern Africa, a non-racial interdenominational organisation, is founded under the directorship of Rev. C. F. Beyers Naudé.
1 August - 30 September, South Africa signs a multilateral treaty for the prolongation of the International Sugar Agreement.
6 August, Guinea announces that she has broken off diplomatic, commercial and cultural relations with South Africa and Portugal, and has banned the entry of their nationals into Guinea.
7 August, The United Nations Security Council adopts Resolution 181 calling upon all states to cease forthwith the sale and shipment of arms, ammunition and military vehicles to South Africa.South Africa is denied landing and over flying rights by the United Arab Republic as from this date.
8 August, South Africa signs an amendment to the sugar agreement of 3 June 1957 with Great Britain.
10 August, Dr K.G. Abrahams is arrested in the Gobabis area of South West Africa and is subsequently charged with being the chairman of the Yu Chi Chan Club (YCCC) aimed at overthrowing the government by revolution. A previous attempt to arrest him on 19 July 1963 was obstructed by the local community at Rehoboth, SWA. Conflicting accounts surround the circumstances of his arrest. He himself claims to have been abducted from Bechuanaland, where he had been travelling between Ghanzi and Lobatsi.
11 August, Harold Wolpe (arrested on the Bechuanaland border) and Arthur Goldreich (arrested in the Rivonia raid) escape from the Johannesburg Central Police station, ‘go to ground’ and on 28 August emerge in Bechuanaland.
Arthur Goldreich, Harold Wolpe, Moosa Moolla and A. Jassat escape from prison and leave the country.
19 August, Dr Abrahams makes a habeas corpus application to the Cape Supreme Court and demands his return to Bechuanaland where he claims to have been already granted political asylum.Indonesia announces the severance of diplomatic and commercial relations with South Africa, and the closure of Indonesian ports to South African vessels.Sudan closes her sea and airports to South Africa and Portugal.The Abrahams case is discussed by Sir Hugh Stephenson, the new British Ambassador in Pretoria and High Commissioner for Bechuanaland and the Permanent Secretary of the South African Foreign Ministry, in the light of the request by the British Colonial Office for a full report.
20 August, The Israeli government informs the United Nations Special Committee on Apartheid that it has taken all necessary steps to ensure that no arms, ammunition, or strategic materials may be exported from Israel to South Africa in any form, directly or indirectly.Mauritius closes her sea and airports to South Africa and Portugal.
22 August, South African Airways (SAA) announces the re-routing of its services to Europe via Luanda (Angola), Brazzaville, the Cape Verde Islands, and Las Palmas.
28 August, Goldreich and Wolpe are found to be in Francistown, Bechunaland, having flown there from Swaziland.
30 August, The Prime Minister announces, in a statement before the Supreme Court in Cape Town, that Dr Abrahams will be returned to Bechuanaland. He and his three companions, are returned to Ghanzi on 31 August 1963, and the charge of sabotage is withdrawn on 11 September 1963.
31 August, Libya closes her sea and airports to South Africa and Portugal and denies them over-flying rights.
September, South African Airways is excluded from flying over the African continent; the only exception is Portuguese territory.
3 September, Dr Verwoerd suggests that the three Protectorates might develop to independence under South Africa’s guidance rather than under Britain’s and offers to administer them as self-governing Bantustans.
9 September, At a meeting in Stockholm the Foreign Ministers of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden confirm that their countries neither permit, nor intend to permit any exports of arms to South Africa. Their ultimate aim is the guaranteeing of equal rights to all citizens
12 September, Chad closes its air space to South Africa and Portuguese aircraft, as well as to all other planes carrying goods or passengers to or from the two countries.
14 September, South Africa signs a multilateral Convention on Offences Committed on Board Aircraft.
16 September, The final report of the United Nations Special Committee on Apartheid gives a detailed review of developments on South Africa’s racial policies since 6 November 1962. It is unanimously approved and published on 18 September 1963.
17 September, Regulations incorporating new measures to prevent aircraft transporting ‘criminals or refugees’ in or out of the three British High Commission Territories are published in the Government Gazette. Thirty-seven airports are designated as compulsory landing points (twelve for Basutoland, seventeen for Bechuanaland and eight for Swaziland).
23 September, The United Arab Republic Ministry of Economy announces that all economic ties with South Africa will be severed.At the World Health Organization’s Regional Conference for Africa, in Geneva, 26 African delegates leave the opening session in protest against the presence of South African and Portuguese delegates. The Conference is left without a quorum and adjourned on 24 September 1963.
27 September, The Danish Foreign Minister states in the United Nations General Assembly that the Scandinavian Foreign Ministers have refused an invitation by Dr Verwoerd to visit South Africa to see for themselves the reality of the racial situation. Such a journey is not seen as furthering a solution to the South African problem in accordance with the principles of the United Nations Charter.
30 September, Tanganyika formally ends all imports and exports, direct and indirect, from and to South Africa.
October, Prominent leaders of the ANC and allied organisations charged in the Rivonia Trial. (Many of them had been arrested on the Rivonia farm).
1963 - 1964
October - June, The Rivonia Trial is held and ends with Mandela, Mbeki, Sisulu, Goldberg, Kathrada, Mhlaba, Mlangeni and Motsoaledi being sentenced to life imprisonment.
2 October, Kuwait breaks off diplomatic relations with South Africa and all Kuwaiti air and seaports are closed to South African aircraft and vessels.
9 October, Walter Sisulu, Nelson Mandela, Govan Mbeki, Ahmed Kathrada, Rusty Bernstein, Dennis Goldberg, James Kantor, Andrew Mlangeni, Elias Motsoaledi, Raymond Mhlaba and Bob Hepple (The Rivonia trialists) are charged with sabotage and attempting to overthrow the state violently.
In the Cape members of a breakaway group form the Non-European Unity Movement, Neville Alexander, Don Davis, Marcus Solomons, Elizabeth van der Heyden, Fikile Bam, Ian Leslie van den Heyden, Lionel Davis, Dorothy Alexander, Dulcie September, Doris van der Heyden and Gordon Hendricks are brought to trial in Cape Town.
10 October, An urgent resolution is considered by the United Nations Political Committee condemning the government of South Africa for its repression, requesting it to abandon the trial in progress and to grant unconditional release to all political prisoners and to all persons subjected to other restrictions for having opposed the policy of apartheid. It is approved, and the following day, 11 October 1963, passed by the General Assembly by 106 votes to one.
11 October, South Africa signs multilateral sugar agreement.
The General Assembly adopted resolution 1881(XVIII) requesting the Government of South Africa to abandon the Rivonia Trial of Nelson Mandela and other leaders, and forthwith to grant unconditional release to all political prisoners and to all persons imprisoned, interned or subjected to other restrictions for having opposed the policy of apartheid. The vote was 106 to 1, with only South Africa voting against.(This date was subsequently proclaimed the Day of Solidarity with South African Political Prisoners.)
15 October, The Netherlands Permanent Representative at the United Nations announces that his government has banned the export and transit to South Africa of weapons and munitions which could be used for the oppression of the non-white population.
17 October, The Rev. Dr. Arthur William Blaxall, an Anglican clergyman, is convicted on charges of aiding the activities of the PAC and the ANC. He pleaded guilty and does not appeal against the sentence. However, on instructions from Vorster he is released on parole the following day.
21 October, The Canadian Minister for External Affairs announces that the government has imposed an embargo on further sales or shipments of Canadian military equipment to South Africa.
28 October, The United Nations General Assembly Social, Humanitarian and Cultural Committee approves a Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination in which South Africa’s policy of apartheid is specifically condemned.
November, The Minister of Security announces that 543 people have been detained under the 90-day clause. Of these 151 have been released, 275 have been charged in court, 61 are due to be charged shortly, five have escaped and 51 are still being questioned.
7 November, South Africa signs treaty with Great Britain on the suspension of the margin of preference on crude sperm oil.
8 November, South Africa signs multilateral agreement on radio regulations.
13 November, South Africa signs multilateral treaty on the provisional accession of Yugoslavia to the General Agreement on Tarrifs and Trade.
16 November, South Africa signs treaty extending the declaration on the provisional accession of Argentina to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.
18 November, Eric H. Louw, Foreign Minister since January 1955, announces his intention to retire.
20 November, The first elections to the 45 seats for elected members of the Transkei Legislative Assembly take place.There are no political parties, the choice being between candidates supporting Chief Kaiser Matanzima and those supporting Paramount Chief Victor Polo Ndamase of the West Pondos, believed to favour multi-racialism. All adults are entitled to vote; voters comprise all Xhosa, not only in the Transkei, but throughout South Africa.
21 November, It is officially announced on Eric Louw’s seventy-third birthday that the South African Ambassador in London, Dr. Hilgard Muller, will be sworn in as Foreign Minister on 9 January 1964.
22 November, South Africa signs multilateral treaty banning nuclear weapon testing in the atmosphere.
28 November, South Africa signs treaty with Great Britain on the temporary suspension of the tariff preference on crude sperm oil enjoyed by South Africa,
December, Transkei granted self-government. In elections held earlier, opponents of Bantustan policy won a majority of the 45 elected seats. But they were outnumbered by 64 appointed Chiefs who became members of the assembly.
Zainab Asvat leads a women’s march to Union Buildings to protest appointment of Indian National Council and Group Areas Act.
2 December, It is officially conceded that the majority of the members elected to the first Transkei Legislative Assembly support Chief Poto. The voting percentage in most areas is reported to be over 70% and the total number of voters to have exceeded 800 000.
3 December, The Rivonia Trial, concerning two charges of sabotage, one under the Suppression of Communism Act, and one under the General Law Amendment Act, begins before Justice de Wet. The Prosecutor, Dr Percy Yutar gives details of explosives to be used to commit acts of destruction, to be followed by guerrilla activity and military invasion.
4 December, The United Nations Security Council unanimously adopts a resolution calling on the South African government to cease its repressive measures and calls on all states to embargo materials for arms manufacture.
The Security Council, in resolution 182(1963) calls upon all States “to cease forthwith the sale and shipment of equipment and materials for the manufacture and maintenance of arms and ammunition in South Africa“. It requests the Secretary-General to establish a small group of experts to examine methods of resolving the situation in South Africa “through full, peaceful and orderly application of human rights and fundamental freedoms to all inhabitants of the territory as a whole, regardless of race, colour or creed, and to consider what part the United Nations might play in the achievement of this goal.“
6 December, The Transkei Legislative Assembly meets for the first time in Umtata and elects Chief Kaiser Matanzima as Chief Minister by fifty-four votes to forty-nine for Chief Victor Poto, with two papers spoilt. Chief Matanzima forms a political party with the backing of the non-elective chiefs and their supporters; Chief Poto goes into opposition as the leader of the democratically elected members.
10 December, South Africa signs multilateral treaty on consent to marriage, minimum age for marriage and registration of marriages.
11 December, The first of the ‘Bantustans’ comes into existence when the Minister of Bantu Administration and Development, De Wet Nel opens the Transkei Legislative Assembly at Umtata. Chief Kaiser Matanzima is installed as Chief Minister.
12 December, South Africa accepts Procès-verbal extending the provisional accession of Tunisia to the General Agreement on Tarrifs and Trade.
15 December, Walter Sisulu’s appeal is dismissed by the Transvaal section of the Supreme Court. He must therefore serve his 6 year prison sentence.
16 December, The General Assembly appeals for assistance to families of persons persecuted by the South African Government for their opposition to apartheid. [Resolution 1978(XVIII)]
23 December, South Africa signs treaty with Southern Rhodesia on the removal of the operation of the 6 February 1964 trade agreement of 16 May 1960.South Africa signs treaty with Southern Rhodesia on the continuation of the extradition agreement of 19 November 1962.South Africa signs treaty on extradition (Northern Rhodesia) with Great Britain.It is announced in Pretoria that Dr. Carel de Wet, M.P. for Vanderbijlpark, Transvaal and grandson of General C.R.. de Wet, a leading Boer commander in the South African War of 1899-1902, has been appointed Ambassador to the United Kingdom.
1964 - 1970
All Pageview residents are issued with eviction orders.
1964
Vuyisile Mini, W. Mkaba and Z. Khanyiga, all eastern Cape trade union leaders, are executed for killing a police informer.
African Self-Help Association is set up. Frances Baard is sentenced to five years under the Suppression of Communism Act for ANC activities.Hilda Bernstein escapes to Botswana, then London and becomes a member of the External Mission and Women’s Section of the ANC

In the face of strong opposition by rank-and-file members (mostly White) to some of its more “radical“ policies, the National Union of South African Students (NUSAS) shifts rightwards, confining itself to symbolic multiracial activities and protests after-the-fact against government infringements on academic freedom. This marks the beginning a phase of deep frustration for the small Black membership, as virtually all channels for the expression of anti-apartheid sentiment are closed. The students allow themselves to be co-opted into the new non-risk style of NUSAS politics, since they are unable to adequately articulate their opposition to injustice. 

Black Labour Act No 67:Consolidated the laws regulating the recruiting, employment, accommodation, feeding and health conditions of black labourers.Commenced: 1 January 1965 Repealed by section 69 of the Black Community Development Act No. 4 of 1984.

Education Act No 2:This over-rides the South African apartheid schooling system and provides for black schooling and subsidies.Commenced: 1 April 1965

Robert McBride’s sister Bronwyn is born.

Robert McBride’s maternal grandfather, Collin Campbell “Sonny“ van Niekerk (a White Afrikaner) dies. He was a bus driver in the rural village of Harding, southern Natal.

FASA’s (Football Association of South Africa) suspension is re-imposed by the FIFA Congress. The Federation leadership is persecuted, arrested, or banned. Avalon Athletic win the SASL (South African Soccer League) double (League and Cup titles). Eric Sono dies in a car crash at the age of 27.The Pretoria Sundowns soccer team is revived.
4 January, In a New Year message, the South African Prime Minister, Dr Verwoerd, says it is justifiable for the whites to refuse to commit national suicide and to fight for self preservation.
6 January, South Africa signs treaty with France on the installation of a scientific space tracking station in South Africa.
13 January, The United Nations Secretary-General names four experts to examine the problem of apartheid in South Africa in accordance with the UN Security Council Resolution of 4 December 1963. They are: Sir Edward Asafu-Adjaye (Ghana); Josip Djerdja (Yugoslavia); Sir Hugh Foot (United Kingdom); and Alva Myrdal (Sweden).
17 January, Leader of the Opposition, Sir de Villiers Graaff, demands a judicial inquiry into the activities of the Broederbond, and demands the resignation of the Prime Minister from this society. Dr Verwoerd refuses to resign.
24 January, It is announced that efforts by Britain’s Foreign Secretary, Mr Butler, and Glasgow University to obtain permission from the South African government for Albert Luthuli to leave Natal and be installed as Rector of Glasgow University have failed.
27 January, The appointment of the group of experts to examine the problem of apartheid, in terms of the United Nations Security Council resolution of 4 December 1963, is completed.
30 January, South Africa signs a treaty with Great Britain on the suspension of the margin of preference on butter.
4 February, The International Court of Justice announces that in the South West African cases (Ethiopia v. South Africa; Liberia v. South Africa) the counter-memorial of South Africa has been filed. 20 June 1964 is fixed as the time limit for the filing of replies by Ethiopia and Liberia and 20 November 1964 for the filing of South Africa’s rejoinder.The number of men required for military training in 1964 is to increase by 60%, i.e. from 10,368 to 16,537.
5 February, The South African government informs the United Nations Secretary-General that it is unable to agree to a visit by the group of experts, as it would be an interference in the internal affairs of the Republic.
6 February, Revd Robert Selby Taylor, Bishop of Grahamstown, is elected Archbishop of Cape Town and Metropolitan of the Province of South Africa, in succession to Dr Joost de Blank who recently returned to Britain on medical advice.
7 February, The Transkei opposition leader Paramount Chief Victor Poto, forms South Africa’s first African political party - the Democratic Party. Its aims include the retention of the Transkei as an integral part of South Africa.
8 February, The leader of the South African opposition, Sir de Villiers Graaff, agrees with the government that the composition of the proposed United Nations Committee to Study Apartheid preclude any possibility of an objective or impartial inquiry and that the group should not be received in South Africa.
15 February, The governing body of the International Labour Organisation (ILO) meeting in Geneva, votes in favour of suspending South Africa from participation in its Annual General Conferences. The resolution is passed by thirty-two votes to fourteen with two abstentions.
23 February, A new weekly air service between Johannesburg and New York, with an intermediate stop at Rio de Janeiro is inaugurated in spite of the opposition of the UN Special Committee on Apartheid.
28 February, A Bill, presently before Parliament, provides for the establishment of a Coloured Representative Council comprising 30 elected and 16 nominated members. The State President will be able to confer power on the Council, to make laws for Coloureds in respect of finance, local government, education, community welfare and pensions.
March, The South African delegation walks out of the World Health Organization (WHO) having been deprived of its voting rights.
5 March, South Africa signs a multilateral declaration on the provisional accession of Iceland to the General Agreement on Tarrffs and Trade.
7 March, The Minister of Posts and Telegraphs, Dr Hertzog, confirms that the government’s policy regarding television is unchanged. There is no question of television being introduced.
9 March, The United Nations Special Committee on the Policies of Apartheid resumes its meetings and decides to draft an appeal to the Security Council and the General Assembly to ensure implementation of resolutions on South Africa adopted by them. They recommend that South Africa halt current trials of anti-apartheid leaders and refrain from executing persons already sentenced to death.
11 March, About 200 delegates from all parts of the world attend the Accra Conference for Solidarity with the Workers and People of South Africa.
14 March, The South African Government announces its withdrawal from the International Labour Organisation.
20 March, South Africa signs a treaty with Great Britain on the elimination of the margin of preference of 10% ad valorem on boxwood.
21 March, The 1964-65 Budget provides for R210m on defence, an increase of R52m over the previous year. The Minister of Defence, Dr. Donges, admits it is a large increase but is confident the House will furnish ‘the wherewithal to discourage foreign aggression’.
23 March, South Africa signs multilateral treaty embodying results of the 1960-61 Tariff Conference pertaining to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.
31 March, South Africa signs treaty with Denmark, Norway and Sweden on the temporary amendment of 1958 air agreements.The United Nations Special Committee on Apartheid publishes a report recommending that the Security Council call on South Africa to refrain from executing people sentenced to death for political offences. to end political trials in process and grant amnesty to all political prisoners.
17 April, The Conference on Sanctions against South Africa ends in London by issuing the declaration that total economic sanctions are feasible and practicable, and calls for world action to end apartheid.
18 April, Dr N.E. Alexander and four others are found guilty of sabotage and are sentenced to ten years imprisonment. The judge finds that the accused participated in the activities of the National Liberation Front (NLF), a continuation of the Yu Chi Chan Club, whose aims was to further violence and revolution.South Africa signs agreement with France and a third party.
20 April, At the Rivonia Trial, Nelson Mandela, former leader of the banned ANC, blames the actions of the government for adoption of policies of violence by African leaders. He surveys the history and aims of the ANC and gives reasons why Umkhonto we Sizwe (the Spear of the Nation) was formed.The United Nations Group of Experts on Apartheid submits its report to the Secretary-General. It proposes a National Convention to set a new course for South Africa’s future and envisages the removal of a mass of restrictive and discriminatory legislation.
The Group of Experts on South Africa presents its report to the Secretary-General, recommending that “all the people of South Africa should be brought into consultation and should thus be enabled to decide the future of their country at the national level.“ The Group was set up in pursuance of the Security Council resolution of 4 December 1963, with Mrs Alva Myrdal (Sweden) as Chairman. Sir Hugh Foot (United Kingdom) was Rapporteur.

The Group of Experts on South Africa presented its report to the Secretary-General. Indication of recommendations. Nelson Mandela addresses court at Rivonia trial.
24 April, The Prime Minister maintains that the country is economically so strong that it can withstand economic sanctions. The only vulnerable spot is oil supply.
May, Minister of Justice, John (B.J.) Vorster, serves Albert Luthuli with yet another five-year ban confining him to his home in Groutville.
1 May, SA sign treaty with Great Britain on the elimination of the margin of preference of 10 percent ad valorem on prepared or preserved groundnuts. President Kayibanda of Rwanda says the people and government condemn apartheid but think a realistic view should be taken of the probable effects of economic sanctions.
6 May, South Africa signs treaty with Great Britain on the temporary suspension of the margin of preference guaranteed to the UK on tin plate.The Bantu Laws Amendment Bill passes its third reading, giving the Minister of Bantu Administration the powers to declare prescribed areas in which the number of Africans to be employed could be determined; to override local authorities in African affairs and to redirect redundant labour to African Reserves. This comprehensive piece of apartheid legislation is an essential component of the overall plan for separate development.
9 May, Opening the first Legislative session of the Transkei Legislative Assembly, President Swart says that the Transkei now has an all-Westernised system of government. The Republic of South Africa will continue to assist the Transkei and will train its successors in office.
16 May, The Commission of Inquiry into the South African Press tables the second part of its report, severely criticising the reporting on South African affairs by foreign correspondents, or local correspondents working for foreign news agencies, who show an antagonism towards Afrikaners and the government. The Commission recommends the setting up of a press council to control newspapers and correspondents.
23 May, Albert Luthuli’s first five year ban expires but he is immediately served with a new and stricter order.
30 May, The leader of the Basutoland National Party, Chief Leabua Jonathan, indicates that Basutoland is so economically dependent on South Africa that the imposition of economic sanctions is not feasible.
3 June, South Africa signs a treaty with Southern Rhodesia on the continuation of the workmen’s compensation agreement of 11 October 1958.
5 June, Dr Verwoerd says that the government has no intention of trying to incorporate Bechuanaland, Basutoland or Swaziland into South Africa.A resolution to expel South Africa from the Universal Postal Union is approved by the Union’s congress in Vienna, by 58 votes to 30, with 26 abstentions.
9 June, Dr Verwoerd announces the appointment of a one-man commission of enquiry, consisting of a Judge of Appeal, to investigate all secret organisations likely to influence unlawfully the State, the people, or the administration of justice. The inquiry is to be held in secret.
The UNO Security Council - in resolution 190 - urges the South African Government to end the Rivonia Trial and grant an amnesty to all persons imprisoned or restricted for having opposed the policy of apartheid.
12 June, At the conclusion of the Rivonia Trial eight of the accused are sentenced to life imprisonment. The central figure in the trial is Nelson Mandela who argues that he was driven to acts of sabotage by the frustration of all legitimate means of political protest. His argument is rejected by the Judge. The State has not charged the accused with High Treason, and Mr Justice de Wet accordingly decides not to impose the supreme penalty.
Nelson Mandela and other accused, except Rusty Bernstein, are sentenced to life imprisonment at the Rivonia Trial. Dennis Goldberg is held in Pretoria

In a statement issued following the imposition of life sentences on Nelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu and six others after the Rivonia Trial, Albert Luthuli declares: “The African National Congress never abandoned its method of militant, non-violent struggle ...However, in the face of the uncompromising White refusal to abandon a policy which denies the African and other oppressed South Africans their rightful heritage freedom - no one can blame brave, just men for seeking justice by use of violent methods; nor could they be blamed if they tried to create an organised force in order to establish ultimately peace and racial harmony”. 
13 June, In terms of a new General Laws Amendment Bill, the death penalty is extended to people who have undergone sabotage training within South Africa; the Minister of Justice is again empowered to detain people for indefinite periods after they have served prison sentences; and the twelve-day ‘jail without bail’ law of 1962 is renewed.At the Rand Criminal Sessions three Africans are imprisoned for twelve years and one for eight years on a charge of sabotage.
15 June, The United Nations Security Council, taking into account the recommendations and conclusions of its Group of Experts, condemns the apartheid policies of the government of South Africa and the legislation supporting those policies.
16 June, Rev Joost de Blank presents a petition to the Secretary-General, on behalf of the World Campaign for the Release of South African Political Prisoners (sponsored by the Anti-Apartheid Movement in London). The petition was signed by 91,691 persons in 28 countries. The World Campaign informed the Secretary-General that the demand for the release of South African political prisoners has been supported by organisations with a membership of over 258 million.
19 June, Sabotage groups blast three pylons, one in the Transvaal and two on the Cape Flats.Parliament ends its session after 103 days and the passing of 100 bills.
22 June, South Africa signs a treaty with Great Britain on the introduction of a system of levies for certain cereals and related products.
24 June, General Law Amendment Act No 80:Amended the 1963 General Law Amendment Act so that the Minister of Justice can extend the operation of the Sobukwe clause in individual cases. Sobukwe was thus imprisoned until 1969. This clause was re-enacted in amended form in 1976.Commenced: 24 June 1964Repealed by the Corruption Act No 94 of 1992.
July, The police make many arrests throughout the country under the provisions of the General Laws Amendment Act.
6 July, Mr. Mahomed Suliman Bhana, who had been active in the TIYC and is outspoken against apartheid policies, is served a banning order restricting him from attending any political or social gatherings, from entering any location and from leaving the Magisterial District of Johannesburg.
21 July, The United Nations Committee on the Policies of Apartheid of the Government of South Africa expresses very serious concern at the reported arrest of Abraham Fischer, defence attorney in the Rivonia Trial.
24 July, A time bomb placed in the main concourse of the Johannesburg railway station explodes during the evening rush hour, causing extensive injuries. Frederick John Harris is later tried and sentenced to death for this offence.
Bomb explodes at Johannesburg station, killing a white woman. (John Harris later convicted and hanged.)
29 July, Dr Verwoerd issues a statement making it clear that the government will not yield to outside pressure to reduce the sentences in the Rivonia Trial.
31 July, The Minister of Justice, B.J. Vorster, states at a Nationalist Party meeting that he is not prepared to lift the 90 day detention clause because of activity in five places in Africa where saboteurs are being trained for sabotage in South Africa and because of the regrouping of Communists since the Rivonia Trial.
August, Winnie Mandela and Albertina Sisulu are given permission to visit Robben Island, but are forbidden to travel together as they are both banned.
4 August, Cabinet changes follow the retirement of Paul Sauer, Minister of Lands, Forestry and Public Works. Jan F.W. Haak becomes Minister of Planning and of Mines: the three portfolios previously held by Paul Sauer are allocated to the following Ministers in addition to their existing portfolios: Lands, D.C.M. Uys; Forestry, WA. Maree and Public Works, P.W. Botha.
13 August, South Africa signs a Sugar Agreement with Great Britain (South Africa, Great Britain, Swaziland).
15 August, Minister of Defence, Fouche, announces that private enterprise will be responsible for the manufacture of aircraft for the South African Air Force. Jet trainers, to replace the SAAF’s Harvards will be the first aircraft to be made locally.
18 August, South Africa: Signs second declaration on the extension of the standstill provisions Article XVI:4 of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.
22 August, A spokesman at the Police Headquarters in Pretoria states that the strength of the South African Police Reserve has reached 17 554 and that reservists are attached to almost every police station in South Africa.
24 August, South Africa signs a treaty with Malawi on double taxation.
28 August, Transkei Authorities Act No 6:Sets in place mechanisms for the recognition of the Transkei government.
Commenced: 28 August 1964 Repealed by the Transkei Authorities Act No 4 of 1965
15 September, South Africa signs agreement with Portugal on postal services (for Mozambique).South Africa signs a treaty with Northern Rhodesia on postal services.South Africa signs a treaty with Malawi on postal services.
19 September, The Minister of Bantu Administration and Development, De Wet Nel, says that ‘Tswanaland’, a number of African reserves skirting the border with Bechuanaland, will be the next Bantustan to be granted self-government.
24 September, South African ordinance workshops produce the first Belgian F.N. rifle, which is now ready to go into production.
7 October, It is announced in Rawalpindi that the government of Pakistan has decided to ban all exports from Pakistan to South Africa and has issued instructions to Pakistani shipping companies not to enter South African ports. Landing and passage facilities have already been refused to South African aircraft.South Africa signs multilateral agreement accepting the constitution of the Universal Postal Union.
9 October, The demand to the United Nations by four Caprivi chiefs and officials of the newly-formed Caprivi African National Union, for the withdrawal of South Africa and the right to self-determination, is reported. The United Nations Special Committee on the Policies of Apartheid, at the special meeting, urgently demands that South Africa refrain from executing three leaders of the ANC, sentenced to death in March 1964. The appeals of the three - V. Mini, W. Khayinga and Z. Mkaba - against their sentences, are rejected by the Supreme Court.
10 October, The United Party leader, Sir de Villiers Graaff, tells the Free State Congress that the Party rejects the idea of one man, one vote and will retain white leadership over all South Africa.
13 October, South Africa signs agreement with Portugal (for Angola) with regard to rivers of mutual interest and the Kunene River Scheme.South Africa signs an agreement with Portugal (for Mozambique) providing for the extension of cooling facilities for citrus fruit. South Africa signs treaty with Portugal (for Mozambique) on railway matters.South Africa signs an economic agreement with Portugal.
16 October, South Africa signs a treaty with Southern Rhodesia on air transport.
23 October, South Africa signs treaty with Great Britain for the continuation of the trade agreement of 16 May 1960.
26 October, The United Nations Special Committee on the Policies of Apartheid decides to issue an appeal to member states and organisations to assist families of persons persecuted by the government for their opposition to the policies of apartheid.
30 October, UN accepts multilateral procès-verbal extending the declaration of 13 November 1962 on the provisional accession of the United Arab Republic to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.
6 November, Shock and profound indignation is expressed by the Special Committee on the Policies of Apartheid, at its emergency meeting over the execution of the three ANC leaders in Port Elizabeth.
Vuyisile Mini, Zinakile Mkaba and Wilson Khayinga, three prominent trade union leaders from the Eastern Cape, are executed.
11 November, South Africa signs an agreement with Greece on the reciprocal exemption from taxes on income derived from the operation of ships or aircraft.
20 November, The trial of Abram Fischer, Q.C., and thirteen others, charged with being members of the banned Communist Party, begins.
25 November, In a by-election at Edenvale, near Johannesburg in which the Broederbond is the main issue, the National Party’s candidate Dr. Piet Koornhof, general secretary of the Broederbond since 1962, retains the seat for the National Party with an increased majority of nearly 1 000.
26 November, The Prime Minister, Dr Verwoerd, welcomes the British Labour government’s announcement that the supply of the sixteen Buccaneer aircraft is being sanctioned. Immediate action concerning the Simonstown Agreement has been avoided.
28 November, Dr Verwoerd enters into a dispute with the British Prime Minister, Harold Wilson over the contract to supply Buccaneer aircraft, and threatens to abrogate the Simonstown Agreement if the planes are not supplied.
30 November, South Africa signs trade agreement with Southern Rhodesia.
1 December, South Africa signs multilateral customs agreement on the welfare of seafarers.
5 December, The Minister of Justice, B.J. Vorster, announces the suspension, from 11 January 1965, of the clause in the General Law Amendment Act providing for detention for ninety days. All detainees will have to be released or charged in court by that date.
10 December, It is announced that the Prime Minister’s Economic Advisory Council has accepted a five-year plan designed to give South Africa an annual economic growth rate of five and a half per cent.
12 December, Conclusion of Rivonia Trial. Sisulu, Mandela, Mbeki, Kathrada, Mhlaba, Mlangeni & Motsoaledi sentenced to life imprisonment in the Pretoria Supreme Court for: Sabotage Conspiracy to sabotage and Furtherance of the aims of a prohibited organisation (The Communist Party of South Africa and the ANC).
21 December, South Africa s igns treaty with Great Britain on the supply of military equipment to South Africa.
30 December, South Africa signs multilateral treaty [1955(xix)] establishing the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
1965
Whites in Zimbabwe rebel against the British government.
Transkeian Police Act No 5:Provides for a national policing service and the various powers vested in it.Commenced: 6 January 1967

The Indian Education Act is passed, placing Indian education under the control of the Department of Indian Affairs. In 1976, the SA Indian Council took over certain educational functions. Indian education was also made compulsory.

Moroka Swallows win their first national championship (SASL - South African Soccer League).
Leeds United winger Albert Hurry-Hurry Johanneson becomes the first Black South African (indeed the first Black ever) to play in an English FA Cup final (against Liverpool). 
20 January, It is reported in London that the British government will not issue a permit for the export of the ground-to-air missiles South Africa requires.
22 January, Parliament opens with debate on a motion of ‘no confidence’ in the government in which the opposition attacks the policy of separate development, (the Bantustan policy) an the grounds that the creation of independent states could offer an entree for communism inside the Republic.
25 January, Abram Fischer, Q.C., standing trial under the Suppression of Communism Act, fails to arrive in court, forfeits his bail and disappears. Letters are read in court enumerating the reasons for his action and making a bitter attack on government policy. A warrant of arrest is issued.
30 January, Minister of Justice B.J. Vorster, tells Parliament that 1 095 people have been detained under the ninety-day clause during the eighteen months imprisonment without trial, since law has been in operation.
5 February, The Prime Minister, speaking in the House of Assembly, states that territorial separation is not the essential part of the apartheid policy -political separation is. He will not hesitate to use force to ensure white domination in the ‘white man’s own area’.
12 February, A proclamation applies a section of the Group Areas Act to all public places of recreation, including sporting events, theatres and concerts so that such places in white areas arenot for use by non-whites and vice versa.
13 February, The unofficial Dutch mission, under Professor W.G. de Gaay Fortman, coming to South Africa to discuss apartheid, is cancelled. The tour will no longer be undertaken because the government has refused permission for the mission to meet Dr. Albert Luthuli.
25 February, Archbishop Owen McCann of Cape Town becomes South Africa’s first Cardinal when he is invested by Pope Paul in St Peter’s Basilica.
26 February, South Africa signs multilateral agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, South Africa and the United States for the application of safeguards.
4 March, Prime Minister H.F. Verwoerd,discloses that the restriction on Seretse Khama, now Prime Minister of Bechuanaland, visiting South Africa has been lifted and friendly relations with Bechuanaland are now desired.
6 March, Justice D.H. Botha, the Commissioner appointed to inquire into the activities of secret societies - the Broederbond, the Freemasons and the Sons of England - is unable to make any finding against any of these organisations.
15 March, The prolonged hearing of the dispute over the constitutional position of South West Africa is resumed by the International Court of Justice at The Hague. Extensive evidence is led on behalf of South Africa.
18 March, The Director-General of the South African Atomic Energy Board, announces in Pretoria that South Africa’s first nuclear reactor has ‘gone critical’.
24 March, Provincial Council elections show a sharp swing to the government side and shock the opposition UP. Although provincial, the campaigns are conducted on national, and particularly racial, issues.
30 March, The proposal is made that members of the International Court of Justice should make a personal visit to South West Africa, South Africa, Liberia, Ethiopia, and elsewhere in Africa as the Court might wish. The invitation is rejected.
30 March, The Indians Education Bill is passed, providing for the transfer of the control of education of Indians from the Provincial Councils to the Indian Affairs Department of the central government, despite opposition from the UP.
2 April, Twelve people are found guilty of charges brought under the Suppression of Communism Act, for being members of the Communist Party, taking part in its activities and furthering its aims. On 13 April they are sentenced to terms of imprisonment ranging from one to five years.
4 April, Units of the SADF are being equipped with a rifle made completely in South Africa. It is the R1-7.62 mm rifle, developed from the Belgian FN rifle, with improvements.
6 April, The International Court of Justice at The Hague hears the arguments of Ethiopia and Liberia in the South West Africa cases presented by E.A. Gross of the New York Bar. It is alleged that South Africa has infringed its League of Nations Mandate by applying its racial policies in the territory.
7 April, The United Nations Special Committee on the Policies of Apartheid meets and is informed of the executions in South Africa of W. Bongco and F.J. Harris for acts arising from their opposition to apartheid.
9 April, South Africa signs multilateral agreement on the facilitation of international maritime traffic.
13 April, South Africa signs treaty with Great Britain on the temporary waiver from 1 July 1964 to 5 May 1965 of the margin of preference on white maize.
22 April, South Africa signs an agreement with Swaziland on air services.
24 April, The Minister of Bantu Administration and Development formally opens the Transkei Assembly Session, giving a preview of the more important legislation to be introduced. Bills include one to establish a separate Transkei flag and one to reorganize the Regional, Tribal and Community Authorities and consolidate existing legislation.
29 April, South Africa signs treaty with Denmark, Norway and Sweden on the temporary amendment of the air agreements of 1958.
4 May, Units of the SADF are being equipped with a rifle made completely in South Africa. It is the R1-7.62 mm rifle, developed from the Belgian FN rifle, with improvements.
7 May, The Deputy Minister of Bantu Administration and Development, M.C. Botha, announces in Parliament that Local Authorities must issue permits to householders who wish to have more than one servant sleeping on their premises. This is construed as a move to keep the suburbs White at night.
8 May, The opposition leader Sir de Villiers Graaff, speaking in the Legislative Assembly, claims that the number of Africans in white areas will continue to increase indefinitely if the country’s rate of economic development is maintained. Chief Leabua Jonathan, leader of the Basutoland National Party which is to form the Protectorate’s first government, tells political refugees that they are welcome to stay provided they do not use Basutoland as a base for operations against South Africa.
12 May, South Africa signs multilateral agreement amending the international sanitary regulations - WHO regulation no. 4.
13 May, The Official Secrets Act Amendment Bill is passed. It is designed to prevent the publication of information which would hamper or nullify the operations of the security police.
15 May, South Africa signs treaty with Portugal concerning SAA and TAP on air pooling.
18 May, The Separate Representation of Voters Amendment Bill lays down that the four white Members of Parliament elected to represent Coloureds will sit for fixed five-year terms and will no longer be elected eight days before the White Parliamentary elections. The effect is to prolong the terms of the present M.P.s for Coloureds and postpone a new election for Coloured voters who might elect Progressive Party members.
19 May, A Commission is appointed to inquire into an experiment involving twelve gold mines in which African miners have been employed.
21 May, The Minister of Defence states that South Africa has already made progress in building up her own military power and is almost independent in the provision of small arms.
22 May, Minister of Defence Fouché announces that R12m. had been spent on the defence radar screen in the Transvaal.
25 May, South Africa signs agreement with Belgium on reciprocity regarding admission to medical practice.
3 June, President Kaunda of Zambia says that an £8 million air base is being built by South Africa in the Caprivi Strip and accuses South Africa of warmongering. The Minister of Transport, B.J. Schoeman, replies that the air strip being constructed at Katimo Mulilo, is intended only for administrative purposes when roads in the Caprivi Strip are impassable.
5 June, The Constitution Amendment Bill of South Africa provides for an increase in the number of members of Parliament from 160 to 170.
7 June, The Police Amendment Bill, passed unopposed, empowers the police to search without a warrant any person or premises within one mile of South Africa’s borders and to seize anything found. It is designed to combat the infiltration of saboteurs from other parts of Africa.
10 June, South Africa signs agreement with Southern Rhodesia for the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income.
15 June, South Africa signs a multilateral agreement on arbitration for a global commercial communications system.The Constitution Amendment Bill, published on 5 March 1965, but amended by a Select Committee, provides that the number of Parliamentary seats will be increased by ten, and that the ‘loading’ and ‘unloading’ of constituencies should be applied on a country-wide instead of a provincial basis.
19 June, The government has instructed its Ambassador to The Hague to inform the Dutch government of its displeasure over a grant of 100 000 Guilders being made to the Defence and Aid Fund for assistance to the victims of apartheid. This is seen as interference in the domestic affairs of South Africa.
22 June, The Suppression of Communism Amendment Bill authorising the Minister of Justice to prohibit the publication of statements or writings of those furthering or defending the aims of Communism.
25 June, The Criminal Procedure Amendment Bill is enacted. Among its provisions, this Bill empowers the Attorney General to order the Court not to give bail to defendants and to arrest and detain, for up to six months before a trial, any state witness who might be open to intimidation, or be considered likely to abscond. The General Bar Council of South Africa criticises the Bill as a grave interference with the rule of law and the administration of justice.
Criminal Procedure Amendment Act No 96 (180-Day Detention Law): Provided for 180-day detention and re-detention thereafter. The Attorney-General was empowered to order the detention of persons likely to give evidence for the state in any criminal proceedings relating to certain political or common-law offences. Unlike the ninety-day provision, this did not specify interrogation as part of the detention. Detainees could be held for six months in solitary confinement and only state officials were permitted access to them. No court had the jurisdiction to order the release of prisoners or to rule on the validity of the regulations under the Act.Commenced: 25 June 1965Repealed by section 344 of the Criminal Procedure Act No. 51 of 1977 except for ss 319(3) and 384.
1 July, South Africa signs multilateral treaty for the extension of the International Wheat Agreement 1962.The police raid the editorial offices of the Rand Daily Mail in Johannesburg and confiscate documents relating to a series of articles on prison conditions written by Harold Strachan.
3 July, A restriction order is served on Harold Strachan of Durban in terms of the Suppression of Communism Act. He has already been imprisoned for three years for conspiring to cause explosions.South Africa appoints ambassadors, R.H. Coaton to Argentina, J.C.H. Maree to Australia, A.A.M. Hamilton to Spain.
5 July, South Africa’s first atomic reactor, Safari I, is opened by the Prime Minister at Pelindaba outside Pretoria. Nuclear power will be used for peaceful purposes only.
8 July, South Africa signs multilateral agreement on transit trade of land-locked states.
10 July, The Netherlands Foreign Minister Dr Luns says at The Hague that the Dutch government’s gift of £20 000 Sterling to the Defence and Aid Fund is pledged to an organisation legally active in South Africa for many years, and is part of their international care and responsibility role.
5 August, South Africa’s first atomic reactor, Safari I, is opened by the Prime Minister at Pelindaba outside Pretoria. Nuclear power will be used for peaceful purposes only.
8 August, Following the findings of the Viljoen Commission into the employment of African labour in twelve gold mines, the experiment is terminated. The Minister of Mines, J.W. Haak, says the government has decided that the colour-bar in the mining industry should be withdrawn.
20 August, The Transkei Chief Minister, Chief Kaiser Matanzima, tells an election rally in the Umzimkulu District that the Transkei has been given self-government so that people can rule themselves according to their customs. He promises that European-owned farms will soon be bought by the South African government and distributed to the people.
24 August, South Africa signs a treaty with Great Britain on the temporary waiver from 5 May 1965 to 7 January 1966 of the margin of preference on flat white maize.
4 September, Dr Verwoerd clearly indicates that no Maoris will be acceptable in any New Zealand rugby team visiting South Africa in future. There is a strong reaction in New Zealand to this declaration of policy.
10 September, Regulations covering the detention of 180-days detainees held as witnesses, are published in the Government Gazette.
21 September, The leader of the opposition United Party presents the party’s Race Federation Programme to delegates to the Natal Congress.
13 October, William Rowntree is nominated as the new American ambassador to South Africa to replace J.C. Salterwaite, due to leave South Africa on 18 November 1965.
14 October, South Africa signs treaty with France on air pooling, concerning SAA and UTA.
19 October, New electoral divisions are defined and plans are open for inspection. 160 electoral divisions are provided for the House of Assembly - an increase of ten - and in addition there will be six for South West Africa and four for Cape Coloured voters.
27 October, The Prime Minister opens a new international radio service, ‘The Voice of South Africa’, intended to counter the hostile propaganda beamed to the Republic from foreign sources.
1 November, South Africa signs multilateral agreement on the prolongation of the International Sugar Agreement.
2 November, Members of the Basutoland Congress Party demand the incorporation into Basutoland of ‘Congo Territory’, a large area of the Orange Free State, Natal and Eastern Cape Province.
3 November, Following a decision of the Johannesburg Bar Council the name of Abram Fischer is struck off the roll of advocates.
6 November, A R500,000 grant offered to the proposed new Afrikaans University in Johannesburg by the Johannesburg City Council, is accepted by the University Committee.
9 November, Establishment by the Secretary-General of the United Nations Programme for the Education and Training Abroad of South Africans.
11 November, On the eve of the Rhodesian Declaration of Independence, South Africa’s Prime Minister announces that South Africa will continue to maintain normal friendly relations with both Britain and Rhodesia, adopting an official neutral position. Abram Fischer, Q.C. is re-arrested in Johannesburg.
13 November, The Archbishop of Cape Town, the Most Reverend Robert Selby Taylor, says in his charge to the Synod of the Church of the Province of South Africa, constituted in Cape Town, that barriers erected to keep races apart are creating in the minds of many a serious conflict
17 November, South Africa signs multilateral agreement further extending the international wheat agreement of 1962.
14 December, UNO Accepts Procès-verbal extending the declaration of 13 November 1962 on he provisional accession of Yugoslavia to the General Agreement of Tariffs and Trade.Also accepts Procès-verbal extending the declaration of 5 March 1966 on the provisional accession of Iceland to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.
15 December, The United Nations General Assembly, in its twentieth session, passes a resolution strongly condemning the apartheid policies and calling for economic and diplomatic sanctions against South Africa.
The General Assembly requests the Secretary-General to establish a United Nations Trust Fund for South Africa to provide humanitarian assistance to persons persecuted under discriminatory and repressive legislation in South Africa and to their dependants.
20 December, A re-organisation of the South African Defence Force replaces the General Staff with a body to be known as the ‘Supreme Command’ with the Commandant-General as Chairman and the Executive Commanders as members.
31 December, The government’s attitude to Rhodesia’s unilateral declaration of independence is defined by the Prime Minister, Dr Verwoerd, when he says that South Africa will not be coerced into any form of boycott.
1966
From Marianhill, Steve Biko enters the Natal University’s non-White medical school, familiarly known as Wentworth. A vastly talented political analyst, he is soon elected to the Students’ Representative (SRC) and through the SRC he is drawn into National Union of South African students (NUSAS) activities.
Education Act No 9:Enacted various schooling mechanisms.Commenced: 6 January 1967

Phyllis Naidoo is banned. She is arrested for ten days for breaking her banning order. She leaves for Lesotho where she becomes a victim of a parcel bombDorothy Nyembe is released and banned for five years. She is restricted to the magisterial district of Durban

Phyllis Naidoo decides to study law.

Tabata, nephew of the Tembu Chief Jongintaba Dalindyebo, dies. It was this latter chief to whom Henry Mandela entrusted his young son, Nelson Mandela.

Kaiser Dalunonga Matanzima, a relative of Nelson Mandela, becomes Chief Minister of the apartheid ’bantustan’ homeland of Transkei.

The anti-racist SASL (South African Soccer League) folds due to lack of playing grounds. 
1 January, In a New Year message, Prime Minister Verwoerd emphasises that South African policy is one of non-interference in the issues between Rhodesia and the United Kingdom. Regular relations will be maintained with both parties.
28 January, The Prime Minister states that detention under the 180-day clause of the Criminal Procedure Amendment Act has been applied in the case of 23 people, all of whom were required as witnesses in criminal cases, including those against Abram Fischer and Fred Carneson.
1 February, All South African refugees are to report to the Basutoland police for documentation or face deportation to South Africa. A closer check is to be kept on political asylum figures.
4 February, Abram Fischer is committed for trial by a Pretoria magistrate. He pleads not guilty to all allegations.
7 February, The Suppression of Communism Amendment Bill provides for the extension by a further year the power of the Minister of Justice to detain prisoners convicted under the Suppression of Communism Act for further periods after the expiry of their sentences. This power is applied in the case of Robert Sobukwe and his detention will be extended.
25 February, Seven Africans are detained in the Transkei on an allegation of conspiracy to commit murder. Five are opposition members of the Legislative Council and the plot concerns the possible assassination of the Prime Minister, Chief Kaiser Matanzima.
March, Phyllis Naidoo is banned and restricted. No reason is given for these restrictions despite requests.
18 March, The Defence and Aid Fund is banned as an unlawful organisation under the Suppression of Communism Act. It is an autonomous South African body providing legal aid for persons accused of political offences and support for the families of political prisoners. The fund’s office in Cape Town, East London, Johannesburg and Port Elizabeth are searched by police, as well as the homes of its office bearers, including that of the author, Alan Paton.
Defence and Aid Fund is declared an unlawful organisation in South Africa.
23 March, Abram Fischer goes on trial in the Pretoria Supreme Court facing various charges of illegal activity, including membership of the Communist Party, conspiring to commit sabotage and to providing training for guerrilla warfare.
28 March, The trial of Fred Carneson, a listed communist and former editor of New Age opens before the Supreme Court in Cape Town, the charges being sabotage and contravention of the Suppression of Communism Act on three counts. On 25 May he is sentenced to a total of five years and nine months’ imprisonment.
29 March, South Africa signs treaty with Zambia on postal services.
30 March, Six political parties participate in the General Elections, with 356 candidates contesting 166 seats. The result is a sweeping victory for the National Party, who have a majority of 82 seats over the combined opposition. United Party members decline from 49 to 39 and the Progressive Party duly obtain one seat.
1 April, An official list is published of 44 people who have left South Africa and whose writings will not be allowed under the Suppression of Communism Act.
6 April, The Chairman of the opposition Democratic Party in the Transkei, KM. Gunzana, is elected leader to succeed Paramount Chief Victor Poto who is to retire.South Africa signs agreement with Italy on the postal administration between South Africa and Italy on the exchange of money orders.
9 April, Following the victory of the National Party in the General Election, Dr Verwoerd forms a new government.
20 April, South Africa signs multilateral agreement on the further extension of the International Wheat Agreement, 1962.
29 April, South Africa signs multilateral treaty on the partial revision of radio regulations.South Africa signs treaty with Denmark, Norway and Sweden on the extension of the period of validity of traffic rights at Zurich in respect of South African territory granted to SAS by the 1958 agreement.
4 May, The court finds Abram Fischer guilty on all 15 counts of the indictment, including alleged sabotage, Communist Party membership and being a contact between the South African Communist Party and its overseas committee in London.
5 May, South Africa signs treaty with the Federal Republic of Germany on postal services.
6 May, Presidents Joaquim Chissano and Nelson Mandela sign an agreement to allow South African farmers to settle and farm in Mozambique.
9 May, Abram Fischer is sentenced to life imprisonment on the charge of conspiracy with the ANC and Umkhonto we Sizwe to commit sabotage; and to twenty-four years’ imprisonment on six counts concerning Communist Party membership.
10 May, South Africa signs a treaty with Great Britain for the release from the bound margin of preference on raw coffee.
11 May, The President of the National Union of South African Students (NUSAS), Ian Robertson, receives a banning order under the Suppression of Communism Act.
14 May, The government grants an amnesty in celebration of the fifth anniversary of the Republic. Over 30 000 prisoners stand to benefit.
20 May, After the State President assents to the Transkei Flag Bill, the new flag of the Transkei: ochre-red, white and green is hoisted in the capital Umtata for the first time.
31 May, The Republic celebrates its fifth anniversary with a massive military demonstration in Pretoria. A crowd of more than 500 000 sees nearly 20 000 troops and 200 aircraft take part in the proceedings.
4 June, Senator Robert Kennedy arrives in South Africa as the guest of NUSAS. He speaks at several universities, meets ex-Chief Albert Luthuli, banned leader of the ANC, but at no time does any member of the government meet him and official hostility is evident.
8 June, South Africa officially refuses an invitation to send representatives to an international seminar on apartheid, to be held in Brazil, in August and September 1966. The government sees the seminar simply as part of the political campaign waged against South Africa at the United Nations.
22 June, A spokesman for the World Council of Churches says in Geneva that the government has refused permission for Bishop Zulu to attend the world conference on ‘Church and Society’ in July. The Anglican Prelate was to have been one of the eight conference presidents.
30 June, Transkeian Authorities Amendment Act No 7:Amended the list of authoritative bodies in the homeland.Commenced: 30 June 1966
July, Steve Biko attends the annual National Union of South African Students (NUSAS) Congress as an observer.
7 July, South Africa signs a treaty with Great Britain on the temporary waiver of the margin of preference on flat white maize.
17 July, The latest list of banned people totals 936 in three categories: 467 listed communists, 515 banned under the Suppression of Communism and Riotous Assembly Acts and three banned only under the Riotous Assemblies Acts. Of the names there are 49 that are listed both as communists and as banned.
18 July, The International Court of Justice at The Hague rejects the complaints by Ethiopia and Liberia against South Africa, in which they allege there are breaches of duties as the mandatory power to South West Africa. The President of the Court, Sir Percy Spender of Australia, decides the issue with his casting vote. The government welcomes this decision: the South West African National Union and SWAPO reject the decision out of hand.
20 July, South Africa ccepts the accession of Yugoslavia to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.South Africa signs a parcel post agreement with the Netherlands.
29 July, Addressing the Senate, President Swart announces that legislation is to be introduced by the government to prohibit interference by one population group in the political affairs or institutions of another population group. It is aimed at thwarting Progressive Party plans to counter the October elections of the four Coloured People’s representatives in the Assembly. On another issue he makes it clear that no proposal to leave the United Nations is at present being contemplated by the government.
6 August, The Universities Amendment Act and the Extension of University Education Amendment Act give the Minister of Education Arts and Science complete control over student life in South African universities.
12 August, Under the Suppression of Communism Amendment Bill tabled in Parliament, any attorney or advocate who has committed an offence under the Act at any time is liable to be struck off the roll. Other clauses give the Minister of Justice powers to cut listed people off from contact with any organization he chooses to specify. The Bill is rejected outright by the Progressive Party member Helen Suzman.
17 August, South Africa accepts the accession of Switzerland to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.
22 August, South Africa signs an agreement with the Union Castle Co. on ocean-freight.
23 August, The South African Minister of Posts and Telegraphs complains that Radio Tanzania’s broadcasts from Dar-es-Salaam are interfering with broadcasts in South Africa.
23 August - 4 September, An International Seminar on Apartheid in Brazil is organised by the UN Division of Human Rights, the Special Committee against Apartheid and the Government of Brazil. It is the first of scores of conferences and seminars on apartheid organised or co-sponsored by the United Nations.
6 September, Verwoerd is murdered in parliament and is succeeded by Prime Minister Vorster.
The Prime Minister, Dr H.F. Verwoerd, is fatally stabbed in the House of Assembly by Demitrio Tsafendas, a messenger who had been serving the Press Gallery. Dr T.E. Donges, the Minister of Finance, temporarily takes over the duties of Prime Minister.South Africa signs a treaty with Botswana on air transport between Bechuanaland National Airways (BNA) and South African Railways and Harbours.
8 September, South Africa signs a guarantee agreement with the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
10 September, Dr Verwoerd is buried in Hero’s Acre, Pretoria. A mile-long cortege is watched on its three-mile journey by a crowd of some 250 000 people.
12 September, The Minister of Defence, Botha, announces in Cape Town that the posts of Secretary for Defence and Commandant-General of the Defence Force are to be combined under one head.
13 September, The Parliamentary caucus of the National Party unanimously elects B.J. Vorster, Minister of Justice, as its new leader. He automatically becomes Prime Minister, promises to uphold Dr Verwoerd’s policies and will temporarily retain the Cabinet Portfolio of Police.
14 September, Justice van Wyk of the Appellate Division of the Supreme Court is appointed as a one-man Commission to inquire into all aspects of the assassination.
27 September, The United Nations General Assembly votes by 114 votes to two (South Africa and Portugal), with three abstentions (Britain, France and Malawi) to terminate the mandate and to declare the administration of South West Africa to be the responsibility of the United Nations. The government views this Resolution as illegal and unconstitutional, and proposes to ignore it.
1October - 17 October, Tsafendas is brought to trial before the Judge-President of the Cape Province.
5 October, A new Afrikaans-medium university is established in Johannesburg, the Rand Afrikaans University (in 2005 this is renamed the University of Johannesburg).
13 October, The General Laws Amendment Bill of 1966 is published. The Bill entitles police officers to detain people for up to fourteen days if they are suspected of offences against security.
21 October, D. Tsafendas, accused of assassinating Dr. Verwoerd in the House of Assembly, is committed to detention in prison at the State President’s pleasure.
26 October, The General Assembly decided - in resolution 2142A (XXI) to proclaim 21 March as the International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. Many delegations had proposed this date as it is the anniversary of the Sharpeville massacre of 1960.
Group Areas Act No 36:While in theory this was not discriminatory legislation, it was implemented in a way that was advantageous to whites (Dugard 1978: 82).Commenced: 26 October 1966 Repealed by s 48 of the Abolition of Racially Based Land Measures Act No 108 of 1991.
1 November, The United Nations General Assembly adopts a fifty-four nation resolution by 114 to 2 against (South Africa and Portugal) with three abstentions (Malawi, France and Great Britain) calling for the establishment of a fourteen-member ad hoc Committee to recommend practical means for the administration of South West Africa. The Assembly also decides that South Africa’s Mandate over SWA is terminated.
3 November, The government announces that President Swart will retire on 31 May 1967.
4 November, Industrial Conciliation Further Amendment Act No 61: Strikes are prohibited and lock-outs may not be done for any purpose unconnected with the employee/employer relationship (Horrell 1978: 279).Commenced: 4 November 1966Repealed by Labour Relations Act No 66 of 1995.
General Law Amendment Act No 62: Designed in response to guerrilla activities on the northern borders of the then South West Africa (Dugard 1978: 116). Section 22(1) was amended to provide for the detention of suspected ‘terrorists’ for up to fourteen days for purposes of interrogation. The Commissioner of Police could apply to a judge to have the detention order renewed. This was essentially a forerunner of the 1967 Terrorism Act.Commenced: 4 November 1966 Sections 3-6 & 22 repealed by the Internal Security Act No 74 of 1982
11 November, South Africa signs multilateral agreement on telecommunications and treaties tabled on 21 October 1965.
14 November, South Africa signs treaty with Portugal (for Angola) on air transport.
17 November, South Africa accepts procès-verbal extending the declaration on the provisional accession of the United Arab Republic to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.
25 November, The new British Ambassador to South Africa, Sir John Nicholls, presents his credentials to the State President
28 November, The Bantu Administration Minister MC. Botha, announces measures leading to the creation of South Africa’s second ‘homeland’ in the Northern Transvaal.
29 November, South Africa signs a treaty with Malawi on postal services.
30 November, South Africa signs a multilateral treaty on the safety of life at sea.
14 December, South Africa signs a multilateral treaty on load lines.
The Minister of Agricultural Technical Services, J.J. Fouche, claims that South Africa is strong enough to withstand sanctions for at least three years.
20 December, The United Nations General Assembly passes a draft Resolution, by 87 votes to one (Portugal) and 12 abstentions, indicating that the situation in South Africa constitutes a threat to international peace and that universally applied mandatory economic sanctions are the only means of achieving a peaceful solution.
28 December, The Lesotho government announces it will deport 8 South Africans, whom it describes as a danger to peace.
1967
MK begins a joint campaign with ZAPU, a people’s army fighting for the liberation of Zimbabwe. They aimed to find a route into South Africa by first crossing the Zambezi River from Zambia and into Zimbabwe, then marching across Zimbabwe through Wankie Game Reserve, and crossing the Limpopo River into South Africa.
The formation of the University Christian Movement (UCM).

Environmental Planning Act No 88:Places restrictions on the number of blacks who may be employed in the manufacturing industry in the larger industrial areas.Assent gained: 19 June 1967; commencement date not found

The National Education Policy Act setting out the principles of Christian National Education (CNE) for white schools, is promulgated.

Sarah Carneson is imprisoned for breach of her banning order.
1 January, South Africa signs a multilateral Sugar Agreement of 1958.
10 January - 11 January, B.J. Vorster and Chief Jonathan of Lesotho meet in Cape Town. A joint statement emphasizes their belief in peaceful co-existence. Economic aid and technical assistance are also proposed.
11 January, The projected North Sotho ‘nation’ in the Northern Transvaal province is to run its own affairs of state. Matters passing to its control include education, finance, justice, public works, agriculture, forestry and community development.
18 January, A report prepared by UNESCO, published in Paris, states that the policy of apartheid ‘is not only an inadmissible answer to the racial and group conflict, but is itself the major cause of racial and group conflict there’. The report is based essentially on official government publications and reports (relating to discriminatory practices) from scientific and research institutions within and outside South Africa.The Lesotho government invites all South African political refugees to make formal application to leave the country, to indicate proposed dates of departure and countries of choice. Transit rights through South Africa will be arranged.
19 January, The National Party Parliamentary caucus nominates Dr T.E. Dönges, Minister of Finance since 1958, as candidate for the Presidency, on a second ballot. The United Party opposition nominates Major Piet van der Byl.
24 January, Prime Minister B.J. Vorster announces in Cape Town that Dr Dönges, nominated as the government’s candidate for the Presidency, has tendered his resignation as Minister of Finance. His portfolio is to be taken over by Dr Diederichs. Mr J.W. Haak becomes Minister of Economic Affairs and Dr Carel de Wet, South African Ambassador in London will take over the portfolio of Mines and Planning.
27 January, The head of the South African Defence Force, Commandant General Hiemstra, announces the successful conclusion of Anglo-South African talks on aspects of the Simonstown naval agreement for the defence of sea routes around southern Africa.
7 February, A bill is published, which requires every Coloured male between the ages of 18-24 to register for selective service in training camps. It is passed in Committee on 8 March and approved 9 March 1967.
8 February, A spokesman for the Royal Navy announces that the British Command at Simonstown Naval Base will close on 12 April 1967. South Africa will in future assume greater responsibility for the defence of the sea route around the Cape.
15 February, Suppression of Communism Further Amendment Bill is approved by 106 votes to 40 at its third reading. It is made retrospective to 27 June 1962.
18 February, The government drops two Bills which were designed to enforce racial segregation on university campuses.
22 February, The Minister of Defence, P.W. Botha, discloses that South Africa’s northern borders are protected by a radar complex constituting an early warning system and that her coasts will be covered by the Decca navigational system costing R6m.
28 February, The electoral college elects T.E. Dönges as the next State President by 163 votes to fifty-two, cast for Major van der Byl.
2 March, The Population Registration Amendment Bill, with reference to racial legislation concerning the Coloured population, is published. The President is empowered to define, by proclamation, the ethnic and other groups into which Coloured persons and Blacks may be classified.
3 March, An official announcement by the government of Lesotho indicates that preparations for anti-South African political refugees to be flown from Lesotho across South Africa to other African states to the north have reached an advanced stage.
4 March, Dr. Theophilus Ebenhaezer Dönges, is elected South Africa’s second State President and will assume office on Republic Day, 31 May 1967.
6 March, The Commission on Human Rights deplores the actions of the South African Government as “contrary to international law and international morality“.
8 March, Suppression of Communism Act No 24:Prohibits certain persons from making or receiving donations for the benefit of certain organisations; prohibits others from practising as advocates, attorneys, notaries and conveyances, and extends the grounds for deporting people from the Republic.Commenced: 8 March 1967Repealed by section 73 of the Internal Security Act 74 of 1982.
13 March, Discussions are conducted with Malawi on the occasion of a visit to South Africa by three Malawian Cabinet ministers.South Africa signs treaties with Denmark, Sweden and Norway regarding the extension of the period of validity of the traffic rights at Zurich in respect of South African territory granted to SAS.South Africa signs trade agreement with Malawi.South Africa signs treaty with Lesotho on the amendment of the insured parcel agreement of 27 June 1963 and 1 July 1963.
27 March - 31 March, The project of a dam across the Zambezi River at Cahora Bassa in Mozambique, involving the construction of a hydro-electric power station, is discussed at talks with the South African government in Lisbon.
31 March, A government spokesman in Gaborone, indicates that Botswana intends to curb the activities of 200 South African political refugees.
8 April, The government publishes a Bill entitled the Prohibition of Mixed Marriages (Amendment) Bill. In effect, marriage between a white South African man and a ‘non-white’ woman, even if they were married abroad, will not be recognised in South Africa.
19 April, The Minister of Defence announces in Paris that he has signed an agreement for the purchase of French submarines of the Daphne class, their cost being the equivalent of GB£12 million.
Prime Minister B.J. Vorster declares at the opening of the Sixth Session of the Transkei Legislative Assembly that the government will assist blacks in their development and will transfer more functions and responsibilities to the government of the Transkei as the latter becomes able to handle them efficiently.
26 April, A draft resolution on South West Africa is submitted to a special session of the United Nations General Assembly by 56 countries. It declares that obstruction to its proposals by South Africa will constitute a flagrant defiance of the authority of the United Nations and requests the Security Council to take action on its enforcement.
May, President Banda of Malawi visits South Africa.
3 May, An official announcement by the government of Lesotho indicates that preparations for anti-South African political refugees to be flown from Lesotho across South Africa to other African states to the north have reached an advanced stage. South Africa signs a multilateral Convention on the International Hydrographic Organisation.
15 May, South Africa signs multilateral treaty on the extension of the International Wheat Agreement.
19 May, The United Nations General Assembly adopts a resolution establishing an 11-member United Nations Council for South West Africa to administer the Territory and to enter immediately into contact with South Africa to lay down procedures for its transfer. The resolution is supported by 85 votes, two against (Portugal and South Africa) and 30 abstentions, including the USSR, the United States, Great Britain and France.
31 May, Senator J.F. Naudê becomes Acting State President, following the incapacitation of Dr T.E. Donges. He is sworn in on 1 June 1967.
6 June, The Physical Planning and Utilization of Resources Bill is enacted.
9 June, The Defence Amendment Bill, designed to make military service compulsory for practically all white young men, is passed with the support of the opposition.
14 June, South Africa signs a treaty with Great Britain on the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income.
21 June, The General Laws Amendment Bill or ‘Terrorism Bill’ which makes terrorism a separate offence to be equated with treason is gazetted. Under its terms terrorism is defined as including acts committed with intent to endanger the maintenance of law and order and conspiracy or incitement to this end. It is made retrospective to 27 June 1962.
22 June, South Africa:Signs treaty with Norway on a scientific project.
27 June, Terrorism Act No 83: According to Horrell (1978: 473), this Act signals the beginning of the struggle against ‘Red arms’ as opposed to purely ‘Red ideology’. It authorises indefinite detention without trial on the authority of any policeman of (or above) the rank of lieutenant colonel. The definition of terrorism is very broad and includes most criminal acts. No time limit is specified for detention; it may be continued until detainees give satisfactorily replies to all questions. Fortnightly visits by magistrates are provided for ‘if circumstances permit’. No other visitors are permitted. The Act is made operative retrospectively to 27 June 1962 and also applies to South West Africa retrospectively (Horrell 1978: 445). It differs from the 90-day and 180-day detention laws in that the public is not entitled to information relating to the identity and number of people detained under the Terrorism Act (Dugard 1978: 118).Commenced: 27 June 1962All sections except section 7 repealed by section 33 of the Internal Security and Intimidation Amendment Act 138 of 1991.
27 June, Terrorism Act No 83: According to Horrell (1978: 473), this Act signals the beginning of the struggle against ‘Red arms’ as opposed to purely ‘Red ideology’. It authorises indefinite detention without trial on the authority of any policeman of (or above) the rank of lieutenant colonel. The definition of terrorism is very broad and includes most criminal acts. No time limit is specified for detention; it may be continued until detainees give satisfactorily replies to all questions. Fortnightly visits by magistrates are provided for ‘if circumstances permit’. No other visitors are permitted. The Act is made operative retrospectively to 27 June 1962 and also applies to South West Africa retrospectively (Horrell 1978: 445). It differs from the 90-day and 180-day detention laws in that the public is not entitled to information relating to the identity and number of people detained under the Terrorism Act (Dugard 1978: 118).Commenced: 27 June 1962All sections except section 7 repealed by section 33 of the Internal Security and Intimidation Amendment Act 138 of 1991.
July, 37 Africans are charged in Pretoria under the Terrorism Act. The State alleges that the accused engaged in terrorist activity in South West Africa between June 1962 and May 1967. Defence contends that the Terrorist Act cannot apply to South West Africa, which is mandated territory but this argument is rejected by the court.The Portuguese Foreign Minister, Dr A.F. Nogueira visits South Africa for talks with B.J. Vorster concerning regional co-operation.
Steve Biko participates in the National Union of South African Students (NUSAS) Congress as a Wentworth Delegate. The congress sees bitter reactions from Black students when Rhodes University, the host institution, prohibits mixed accommodation and eating facilities at the conference site. A group of Black students (led by Steve Biko) begins to seriously analyse their political predicament in National Union of South African Students (NUSAS)
17 July, South Africa extends its treaty with the United States on the civil uses of atomic energy of 8 July 1957.
21 July, Chief Albert Luthuli, Nobel Peace Prize winner and former President of the banned ANC is killed under suspicious circumstances while walking along a railway bridge. He was taking his routine and familiar walk near his home in Groutville.
23 July, 3 000 people gather in the church at Groutville to attend Luthuli’s memorial service and to see Mrs Nokukhanya Luthuli unveil the memorial stone which has been erected on his grave.
24 July, Fietas, Johannesburg: Mr. Mahomed Suliman Bhana is released and given a remission of ten days for good behaviour.
26 July, South Africa signs a treaty with Italy on the amendment of the air agreement of the 21 May 1956.
30 July, Dr Raymond Hoffenberg of Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town and senior lecturer at the University of Cape Town Medical School, is banned under the Suppression of Communism Act. No explanation is given. The order leads to immediate protests by University staff and students.
30 July - 31 July, The ’Luthuli Combat Detachment’, comprising ZAPU and ANC guerillas, crosses the Zambesi into Rhodesia at the start of the Wankie and Sipolilo conflict that last until late 1968.
1 August, South Africa signs a treaty with Malawi relating to the employment and documentation of Malawi nationals in South Africa.
4 August, The Defence Amendment Act comes into force, under which every young white male will be liable for military service. The amendments are based on making all medically fit citizens, except for those who join the permanent force, the South African police, the railways or prison services, liable for military training. Expenditure on citizen forces and commando training will increase by almost R1m in 1968 to an estimated figure of about R30m.
11 August, Vorster says in Koffiefontein, Orange Free State, that the restrictions imposed on Dr Hoffenberg are because of his promotion of the aims and objects of communism.
13 August, Umkhonto and ZAPU guerillas engage Rhodesian forces in Wankie (now Hwange) Game Reserve, near border of Zambia and Botswana.
18 August, ANC and ZAPU announced military alliance.
September, B.J. Vorster became Prime Minister and launches his “outward policy”.
1 September, Labour Laws Amendment Act No 4:Amends South African labour laws for Transkei.Commenced: 1 September 1967
8 September, It is officially disclosed that South African police are in Rhodesia actively helping in the fight against nationalist guerrillas. This follows an attempt by several hundred guerrillas to invade South and South West Africa from Zambia, at the urging of the Liberation Committee of the OAU in Kampala in July 1967.Prime Minister B.J.. Vorster announces the arrest of a fully trained KGB agent, Yuri N. Loginov, in Johannesburg, while on a special mission to South Africa. His arrest arouses widespread interest among Western intelligence services.
10 September, At the opening of the Malawi Congress Party (MCP) annual congress at Mzuzu, President Banda announces that formal diplomatic relations will be established between Malawi and South Africa at legation level by 1 January 1968.Speaking at a special news conference the Rhodesian Prime Minister, Ian Smith, welcomes the participation of the South African Police in Rhodesian anti-terrorist operations.
23 September, Addressing a National Party rally at Volksrust, the Prime Minister, B.J. Vorster says that South Africa’s fight against foreign-trained terrorists will continue in any area where South Africa is allowed to fight. He defends South Africa’s decision to send police to Rhodesia.
27 September, South Africa signs treaty with Lesotho on air services.
October, Helen Joseph, placed under house arrest for five years in 1962, is similarly restricted for a further five years.
6 October, A Bill is introduced into the Lesotho parliament providing for the extradition of fugitives from the Republic of South Africa.
8 October, South Africa signs multilateral treaty on the principles governing the activities of states in the exploration and use of outer space.
17 October, South Africa signs multilateral treaty on the conservation of Atlantic tunas (with final act and resolution adopted by the conference of plenipotentiaries).
21 October, Rhodesian Prime Minister, Ian Smith, arrives in Pretoria by military aircraft, accompanied by his Minister of Law and Order, D. Lardner-Burke, for talks with Vorster. Rhodesian constitutional questions and Rhodesia’s relationship with Britain are discussed.
25 October, South Africa signs amendment to multilateral treaty on the safety of life at sea.
November, The Chairman of the Resources and Planning Council visits Malawi and endorses President Banda’s plan to build a new capital in Lilongwe. To this end South Africa agrees to provide finance for the first building phase.
8 November, South Africa signs treaty with Austria on the state of the Commonwealth War Cemetery at Klagenfurt.
13 November, South Africa signs treaty with Belgium on air services.
15 November, South Africa signs treaty with Great Britain on consular privileges.
17 November, The Malawian Ministry of External Affairs announces that the first Malawi Chargé d’Affaires in South Africa will be P. Richardson. He will take up his post on 11 December 1967 and present his credentials the following day.
21 November, South Africa signs treaty with Great Britain on the temporary suspension of the margin of preference on tin plate.
December, Dr Christiaan Barnard makes medical history by transplanting the first human heart into a man dying of a terminal heart ailment.
3 December, The Minister of Defence, P.W. Botha, announces a reshuffle of senior defence force posts to increase the efficiency of the country’s Defence Department, the Defence Production Board and the Defence Organisation. Consequently Lieutenant-General C.A. Fraser, at present Chief of the Army, becomes Joint Commander, Combat Forces, in which capacity he will take command in times of war or emergency, of the fighting formations of Army and Air Force elements.
11 December, J.F. Wenzel presents his credentials to President Banda as South Africa’s first Chargé d’Affaires and head of legation in Malawi.
13 December, At the 21st session of the United Nations, South Africa’s apartheid policies are condemned as ‘a crime against humanity’.
14 December, Britain continues its ban on arms supplies to South Africa.
30 December, The Foreign Minister, Dr Hilgard Muller apologises to Zambia for the actions of the 5 members of the South African police detained on the Victoria Falls Bridge by the Zambian authorities on 29 December 1967. They are released on 12 January 1968.
31 December, Prime Minister B. J. Vorster warns that the government will re-assess the Simonstown agreement during 1968. This reaction follows the British government’s decision to maintain the South African arms embargo.
Attempts at opening the “Eastern Front” in Zimbabwe are made, after fierce encounters; ANC-ZAPU units are forced to withdraw to Zambian territory.
Separate Representation of Voters Amendment Act No 50:The Coloured Persons Representative Council is formed with 40 elected members and 20 nominated members. It has legislative powers to make laws affecting Coloureds on finance, local government, education, community welfare and pensions, rural settlements and agriculture. No bill can be introduced without the approval of the Minister of Coloured Relations, nor could a bill be passed without the approval of the white Cabinet (Dugard 1978: 98).Assent gained: 27 March 1968; commencement date not foundRepealed by section 101(1) of the Republic of South Africa Constitution Act No 110 of 1983.
Prohibition of Political Interference Act No 51:Prohibited non-racial political parties (sections 1 & 2) and foreign financing of political parties (section 3). The Act was later renamed the ‘Prohibition of Foreign Financing of Political Parties Act’ by the 1985 Constitutional Affairs Amendment Act. Sections 1 and 2 relating to the ban on non-racial political parties repealed by the same Act (No 104) of 1985.Section 3 repealed by Abolition of Restrictions on Free Political Activity Act No 206 of 1993.
Sarah Carneson goes into exile in the UK where she works for the Trade Union Movement. Florence Matomela is released from prison and banned.Dorothy Nyembe is arrested again, detained and tortured
1968
3 January, The State President-elect, Dr Theophilus Ebenaeser Dönges, dies after a long illness.
The Conservative Party agrees with the Republican and National parties to accept the principle of coalition at this stage, with the ultimate aim of amalgamation.
30 January, South Africa signs a modification to the annexure of the air agreement of 19 October 1959 with Switzerland.
1 February, J.J Fouché is nominated and unanimously elected President following the death of Dr T.E. Dönges.
4 February, The Prime Minister of Lesotho, Chief Jonathan, is reported to be prepared to co-operate with the South African government.
7 February - 8 February, Fouchë, the newly-elected President, resigns from the Cabinet and institutes changes in the government. D.C.H. Uys becomes the newly designated Minister of Agriculture and of Water Affairs and M.C.G.J. van Rensburg takes over the Posts and Telegraphs portfolio.
9 February, Mr. Justice Ludorf, presiding judge in the Pretoria terrorist trial, imposes sentences on the 30 accused of conspiring to overthrow the South West Africa administration. All are sentenced to imprisonment, 19 to life, 9 to twenty years, and 2 to five years.
15 February, The International Olympics Committee (IOC) decides to re-admit South Africa to the Olympic Games. The government has made five relevant concessions and the country is expected to participate in the Mexico City Olympics late in 1968.
16 February, The Commission, headed by S.L. Muller, appointed to study political interference and representation of population groups publishes its report. Its recommendations, which feature in subsequent legislation, are debated in the House of Assembly in late February and early March 1968.
22 February, The Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Amendment Bill is adopted despite the opposition of the United and Progressive Parties.
26 February, The South African Indian Council Bill, dealing with affairs of the Indian people in South Africa, is passed with the support of the Opposition. It establishes the Council as a statutory body with 25 nominated members. No Indian ‘homeland’ is to be established.
28 February, The Ivory Coast Foreign Minister urges African nations to seek dialogue with South Africa.
12 March, P.W. Botha, the Minister of Defence, reports to the Senate on the progress of the Arms Industry and defines the main aims of South Africa’s defence policy.
14 March, The United Nations Security Council censures South Africa for its flagrant defiance of Council Resolution 245 (1968) calling for the freeing of the dependents in the South West Africa ‘Terrorism’ trial and demands that South Africa release and repatriate them.
20 March, South Africa signs agreement with France relating to the certificates of airworthiness for imported aircraft.
21 March, South Africa signs treaty with Malawi on air transport.
26 March, Three Bills dealing with the future of the Coloured population are introduced: the Prohibition of Improper Interference Bill; the Separate Representation of Voters Amendment Bill, and the Representative Council Amendment Bill. All are adopted during 1968.
South African Indian Council Act No 31:Establishes a Council consisting of 25 members appointed by the Minister of Indian Affairs. The number was increased to 30 members, of whom 15 were appointed by the Minister and 15 indirectly through electoral colleges in the provinces (Dugard 1978: 100). Unlike the Coloured Persons Representative Council, the South African Indian Council was not granted legislative powers.Commenced: 26 March 1968Repealed by section 23 of the Republic of South Africa Constitution Act No 110 of 1983.
27 March, South Africa signs agreement with France with regard to the launching of the eole balloons.
Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Amendment Act No 21:Invalidates any marriage entered into outside South Africa between a male citizen and a woman of another racial group (Dugard 1978: 69).Commenced: 27 March 1968 Repealed by the Immorality and Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Amendment Act No 72 of 1985.
28 March, Raymond Hoffenberg leaves South Africa on an exit permit, without possibility of return, to take up a research and consultant’s post in London offered to him by the British Medical Council. Later, on 23 April 1968, Prime Minister Vorster reiterates that he fully agrees with the restrictions placed upon him in South Africa.
3 April, Prime Minister B.J. Vorster announces that the 5 ‘non-White’ University Colleges - those of Fort Hare, Zululand and the North, of the Western Cape and of Durban-Westville - will be released from their association with the University of South Africa,. They will be called universities and will, subject to certain conditions, be free to provide for their own teaching and conduct of examinations.
5 April, The Minister of Defence, P.W. Botha, tells the House of Assembly that countries aiding and inciting terrorism and guerrilla warfare against South Africa could provoke retaliation against them. This is interpreted as a warning to Zambia that ‘terrorist’ bases there could be attacked by South Africa.The United Nations Council for South West Africa leaves New York for London on its way to SWA, in an attempt to discharge the functions and responsibilities entrusted to it by the Assembly.
8 April, The Minister of Finance states that South Africa is not bound to any particular market and will therefore sell its gold wherever it is to its best long-term interest.
10 April, J.J Fouché is inducted as President in Cape Town.
18 April, The United Nations Council for South West Africa decides to return to New York from Dar-es-Salaam following problems over the chartering of aircraft and the denial of landing clearance in South West Africa.
22 April - 13 May, The International Conference on Human Rights is held in Teheran. A resolution is adopted condemning the South African government for its apartheid policy.
30 April, The bill establishing five universities for Blacks, releasing their association with the University of South Africa, comes into force.
May, South Africa appoints a military attaché to the South African Legation in Malawi.
4 May, In terms of the Armaments Development and Production Bill, the Armaments Development and Production Corporation of South Africa (ARMSCOR) will take over and expand the undertakings of the Armaments Board, establish new undertakings, and assist other companies in the production of armaments.
8 May, The South African government decides to finance the first phase of the construction of a new railway line between Southern Malawi and Mozambique. The contract for the construction is awarded to a South African consortium.
20 May, South Africa signs agreement with France relating to the certificates of airworthiness for imported aircraft.
21 May, The Coloured Persons Representative Council Amendment Bill is adopted after is final reading in the Senate, with the support of the Opposition. It provides for the enlargement of the existing Council, to one of 40 elected and 20 nominated members, giving it a limited measure of jurisdiction over Coloured affairs (education, pensions and local government). Its budget is set at about R50 million per annum.The Prohibition of Improper Interference Bill passes it final stages in Parliament, against the votes of the Opposition. It prohibits multiracial membership of political parties, participation in the affairs of political parties belonging to one racial group by members of another group or acceptance by political parties of funds from abroad. The Separate Representation of Voters Amendment Bill is passed, which extends the term of office of white representatives for Coloured affairs until 1971 and provides that such representation will then end.
1 June, The government announces, in a White Paper, plans to reorganize the administration of South West Africa which will give Pretoria considerably more authority over the affairs of the Territory. The White Paper stresses the complete legality of the proposed new arrangement.
5 June, South Africa signs multilateral treaty on wheat trade.
17 June, The United Nations General Assembly proclaims that South West Africa shall henceforth be known as ‘Namibia’ and condemns South Africa for its refusal to withdraw from the territory.
26 June, Following official meetings held in Sweden (15-19 June) and later in Britain, the United Nations Special Committee on the Policies of Apartheid appeals for factual and statistical information to be given about countries still supplying arms to South Africa, and proposes that freedom fighters in South Africa be recognised as prisoners-of-war under the Geneva Convention.
28 June, South Africa signs an amendment to the air transport agreement of 23 May 1947 with the United States.
July, At the Annual NUSAS (National Union of South African Students) Congress, Steve Biko and some of his fellow medical students begin to draw Black students into a candid discussion on their second-class role within the union. Later, Biko begins to actively promote the idea of an all-Black university movement at a University Christian Movement (UCM) meeting in Stutterheim.
1 July, South Africa:Signs multilateral treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons.
3 July, Dangerous Weapons Act No 71: Prohibits the possession of weapons which could cause bodily injury if used in an assault. The Minister of Justice is empowered to prohibit the possession, manufacture or supply of such objects. Commenced: 3 July 1968Presently in force(as amended by the Dangerous Weapons Amendment Act No 156 of 1993).
4 July - 19 July, At a meeting of the World Council of Churches in Sweden, the Revd A.H. Zulu, Bishop of Zululand and Swaziland, Church of the Province of South Africa (Anglican) is elected as one of the presidents.
9 July - 15 July, University Christian Movement (UCM) Second Annual Conference is held at Stutterheim, attended by 150 students (very few of whom were White) also by faculty members and chaplains.
11 July, South Africa ratifies a treaty with Switzerland on the avoidance of double taxation with respect to taxes on income.
17 July, The Minister of Health, Dr A. Hertzog, says there can be no exception to the government’s policy of differential salaries for the various race groups.
18 July, The Minister of Finance attacks the United States and other former ‘gold pool’ countries for attempting to reduce the monetary role of gold.
23 July, The new French ambassador to South Africa, Baron Philippe de Luze, presents his credentials to President Fouché.
9 August, Prime Minister Vorster reorganizes his cabinet in order to strengthen the ‘verligte’ enlightened elements in the government. Four new cabinet ministers are appointed: Community Development and Public Works (Blaar Coetzee); Interior and Police (S.L. Muller); Water Affairs and Forestry (S.P. Botha), Information, Social Welfare, Pensions and Immigration (C.P. Mulder).
12 August, Over 5 000 soldiers supported by tanks, armoured cars and air force units begin manoeuvres in an exercise code named Operation Subasa designed to test the ability of South African Defence Force to deal with terrorist activities.
14 August, Widespread student protests are held against the banning by the government of the appointment of an African lecturer, A. Mafeje, to a post in the Department of Social Anthropology at the University of Cape Town. Prime Minister Vorster subsequently threatens to take action against student protests if the University authorities do not do so in reasonable time.
16 August, Prime Minister Vorster says that the number of diplomats from African and Asian countries can be expected to increase as South Africa’s policies become better understood. His task is to ensure that southern Africa remains free from the threat of communism.
20 August, A special conference of National Party office-bearers in Pretoria endorses Prime Minister Vorster’s policies concerning the admission of black diplomats, cooperation between English and Afrikaans speaking South Africans and sport, in which racial segregation will be maintained.
September, The Minister of National Education, Senator Jan de Klerk, announces the appointment of a Commission of Inquiry into Universities in the Republic, under the chairmanship of Justice J. van Wyk de Vries, with the mission of investigating all aspects of university life.
4 September, South Africa signs an extradition agreement with Swaziland.
9 September, A new nationalist party in Dar-es-Salaam, the National Liberation Front of South Africa (NALFSA), is formed to direct the freedom struggle inside South Africa. It applies for recognition by the OAU’s African Liberation Committee.
17 September, Prime Minister Vorster criticises the decision to include a coloured cricketer, Basil d’Oliveira, in the British MCC team to tour South Africa in 1968. South African sports policy does not permit this, and the MCC is asked to cancel the tour.
22 September, A Commission of the South African Council of Churches publishes a report condemning apartheid as a false faith hostile to Christian belief.
24 September, South Africa signs a multilateral treaty on the authentic trilingual text of the Convention on International Civil Aviation.
25 September, The appeal of the 31 members of SWAPO against their conviction for acts of terrorism is to be heard by the full bench of the 11 judges of the Appellate Division of the Supreme Court in Bloemfontein. International concern is based on the argument that South Africa lacks jurisdiction over Namibia following the United Nations decision in 1966 to revoke its mandate over the territory.
8 October, South Africa signs a multilateral treaty on the principles governing the activities of states in the exploration and use of outer space.
9 October, Defence Minister Botha announces that a missile base for experimental tests and launchings is to be established on the Zululand coast about 150 miles north of Durban. This site will be of great strategic importance for the defence of the sub-continent.
12 October, The Secretary-General of the Supreme African Sports Council, J.G. Ganga, says he will admit White South Africans to the African Games provided that competitions in South Africa are held without racial discrimination.
21 October, An open letter is released by 12 leading clergymen from the Church of the Province of South Africa and other Protestant churches indicating that it is impossible for all political utterances from the pulpit to cease.South Africa signs an agreement with Japan on the double taxation on income derived from the exploitation of ships or aircraft in international traffic.
22 October, South Africa signs a treaty with Greece concerning the graves of members of the armed forces of the Commonwealth in Greek territory.
23 October, Following his victory at the general elections in which his party, the Transkei National Independent Party (TNIP) won twenty-eight of the forty-five seats, Chief Kaiser Matanzima reorganizes the Transkei cabinet.
27 October, The Minister of Police, S.L. Muller, speaking at a National Party meeting, warns that several hundred South African born Black ‘terrorists’ will try to infiltrate the country, and that at least 2 000 have been trained by liberation movements. Guerrilla activity is still taking place in the Caprivi Strip and 46 Africans in the area have been detained.
14 November, The Ciskei ‘homeland’ is established.
21 November, South Africa signs a treaty with Canada on the Canadian Pension Plan.
26 November, South Africa signs amendments to the multilateral treaty on safety of life at sea, 1960.
December, During the Christmas recess, a meeting takes place at Marianhill, and is attended by about 30 members of Black University Students’ Representative Councils. When analysing the National Union of South African Students (NUSAS) experience within this group, Steve Biko finds an encouraging receptiveness to his idea of an all-Black organisation. The name South African Students’ Organisation (SASO) is chosen and plans are laid for a formal inaugural conference.
2 December, The 23rd Assembly of the United Nations passes a resolution condemning the apartheid policies of the South African government on virtually identical terms to that adopted at the 22nd session.
The General Assembly requests all States and organisations “to suspend cultural, educational, sporting and other exchanges with the racist regime and with organisations or institutions in South Africa which practice apartheid”.
12 December, The Tswana Territorial Authority is established.South Africa signs an International Sugar Agreement.
14 December, A move to expel South Africa from UNCTAD (The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development) is defeated in the United Nations General Assembly.
17 December, The first rocket to be wholly developed and manufactured in South Africa is successfully launched from the new rocket launching range at St. Lucia Bay on the east coast. The Minister of Defence asserts that the rockets are defensive not offensive weapons.
21 December, A three-month campaign to register coloured voters ends with only approximately half of the total of 700 000 qualified voters registering.
1969
Representatives of the International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) and the American Lawyers’ Committee for Civil Rights under Law arrive in South Africa to investigate recent legislation that seems to contravene basic principles of law and to create a trend of increasing state power over the individual without giving access to courts to seek redress. Meetings are held with senior officials of the Ministries of Justice, of the Police and of the Interior.
Barney Pityana and 21 other students are expelled from the University of Fort Hare. The University of the North Students Representative Council holds a strike to offer solidarity to the expelled students.

The Black South African student Organization (SASO) is formed.

Umkhonto we Sizwe, the ANC’s military wing, is officially opened to women members. Winnie Mandela is detained under the Terrorism Act and held in Solitary confinement for 17 months. Dorothy Nyembe and ten others are charged under the Suppression of Communism Act and found guilty of harbouring members of MK. She is sentenced to fifteen years imprisonment.Frances Baard is released, banned and restricted to Mabopane near Pretoria.Mamphela Ramphele is involved in student politics at the University of Natal Medical School. She joins SASO under leadership of Steve Biko.

Shanthivathie Naidoo is detained

The Apartheid regime cancels a match between White champions Highlands Park and Orlando Pirates in Mbabane. The racist Football Association of South Africa’s (FASA) reputation and international standing is seriously damaged as FIFA had sanctioned the match. The South African Soccer Federation forms a six-team professional league.

1969 - 1970
The establishment of the additional five areas that will function as Cabinets is announced. They are Basutho ha Bozwa (Southern Sotho); Lebowa Territorial Authority (North Sotho); Venda Territorial Authority; Machangana Territorial Authority (Shangana, Tsonga); Zulu Territorial Authority.
January, International Conference of Solidarity with the Peoples of Southern Africa and the Portuguese Colonies in Khartoum, organised by AAPSO and WPC.Only liberation movements friendly to Soviet Union were invited.
3 January, The Conservative Party agrees with the Republican and National parties to accept the principle of coalition at this stage, with the ultimate aim of amalgamation.
21 January, South Africa signs a treaty with Portugal (for Angola) on the first phase development of the water resources of the Cunene River Basin
1 February - 21 June, During the Parliamentary session the government introduces 129 Bills. These include measures intended to safeguard internal security. They arouse widespread objections from the Opposition and the legal profession.
2 February, Eduardo Mondlane is assassinated.
3 February, The Leader of the Opposition introduces a no-confidence motion, that the government policy of separate development has failed and he proposes the establishment of separate nation-states in a federal system, in which the white population group would retain its leadership.
7 February, The Prime Minister announces that white entrepreneurs will be given long-standing contracts in the ‘homelands’ to speed up economic development.
11 February, Four former National Party members join the newly formed Herstigte Nasionale Party.
12 February, The South Africa Act Amendment Bill, repealing the provisions of the South Africa Act of 1909 for the possible incorporation into South Africa of Rhodesia and the former High Commission Territories (Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland), is passed with the approval of the Opposition at its second reading.
18 February, John Vorster formally opens a new submarine cable between Cape Town and Lisbon.
22 February, The 15th Annual Conference of the Trade Union Council of South Africa (TUCSA)alters its constitution in such a way as to debar Africans from membership.
23 February, A new weekly air service between Johannesburg and New York, with an intermediate stop at Rio de Janeiro, is inaugurated in spite of the opposition of the UN Special Committee on Apartheid.
28 February, Minister of Justice Pelser says 42 persons are under house arrest in terms of the Suppression of Communism Act, eight of the orders being renewed for a further five years.
March, Helen Suzman introduces a private members’ motion on the subject of capital punishment asking for a commission of inquiry to examine the efficacy of the death penalty. No other Members of Parliament support the motion.
4 March, The Prime Minister declares in the Senate that the National Party will exercise its power to put into practice, as far as possible, the separation of the races.
10 March, The Rhodesian Prime Minister, Ian Smith, meets John Vorster for talks of a confidential nature.
18 March, Minister of Defence, P.W. Botha, attends the launching in France of the first of three Daphne class submarines being built for the South African Navy.
26 March, Ten African men and one woman receive prison sentences of from five to twenty years in the Pietermaritzburg Supreme Court.South Africa signs an air transport agreement with Austria.
April, Mandela’s letter to the Minister of Justice demands the release of poltical prisoners.
John Vorster says members of the South African Police Force will remain on Rhodesia’s borders as long as this is necessary in South Africa’s own security interests.A petition, bearing over 10 000 signatures, to restore academic freedom to universities is sent to the government.
1 April, Public Service Amendment Act No 86:Establishes the Bureau of State Security (BOSS) (Horrell 1978: 449).Commenced: 1 April 1969 Repealed by section 37 of the Public Service Act No 111 of 1984.
8 April, South Africa ratifies extradition treaty with Botswana.
9 April, The Abolition of Juries Bill, providing for the ending of trial by jury comes into force.
10 April - 16 April, A nation-wide student campaign is conducted to commemorate the 10th anniversary of the Extension of University Education Act which enforces racial segregation on universities.
16 April, The 5th Summit Conference of East and Central African States in Lusaka adopts a Manifesto on Southern Africa.
The Fifth Summit Conference of East and Central African States in Lusaka adopts a Manifesto on southern Africa.
23 April, The Prime Minister announces to the House of Assembly that the government held discussions with other nations to fill the power vacuum in the Indian Ocean after Britain’s proposed withdrawal in 1970.
24 April, Minister of Defence, P.W. Botha, submits a White Paper to Parliament providing for a 5 year defence plan, with an estimated expenditure of R1 647 000 000 (about GB£1,000,000,000).
30 April, Separate acts give five University Colleges for Blacks full university status although the Central government retains tight control.
May, The Morogoro conference called for an all-round struggle. Both armed struggle and mass political struggle must, it says, be used to defeat the enemy. But the armed struggle and the revival of mass struggle depends on building ANC underground structures within the country.
24 Africans appear in the Grahamstown Supreme Court on charges relating to sabotage. Twelve of the alleged Poqo members are acquitted, and twelve receive prison sentences.

A seven-day ANC consultative conference is held in Morogoro, Tanzania. The main aim is to bring about a qualitative change in the organisational content of movement in keeping with the new situation: namely a Revolutionary People’s War.An inaugural conference is held of the South African Students Organisation (SASO) at Turfloop University.

Winnie Mandela is arrested with 21 others and detained for five months. She is interrogated and tortured. A group of British anti-apartheid activists plan to rescue Mandela from Robben Island. Bureau of State Security (BOSS) later infiltrates the group and the plan is aborted.
5 May, P.W. Botha, the Minister of Defence, announces that an air-to-air projectile has been perfected by South Africa
13 May, The Minister of Justice announces that the former Pan-Africanist Congress leader,Robert M. Sobukwe, has been released from detention. He is permitted to live in Kimberley, subject to restrictions. Being banned under the Suppression of Communism Act, he may not be quoted.
15 May - 17 June, The Minister of Foreign Affairs, Dr Hilgard Muller Visits Portugal, and says that Portuguese and South African forces stand as a bulwark against the domination of the African continent by foreign powers.
16 May, For purposes of intense security legislation the South African Bureau of State Security is established (later referred to as BOSS).The Publications and Entertainments Amendment Bill gives the Publications Control Board powers to prohibit subsequent editions of any South African periodical if its contents are deemed to be undesirable.
30 May, Statistics of police action during the year 1 July 1967 - 30 June 1968 include 47 370 cases involving the safety of the state and good order; 45 230 persons have been prosecuted for such crimes or offences.
31 May, South Africa rectifies exchange of notes with France to air services treaty dated 31 January 1966.
4 June - 10 June, The Minister of Defence, P.W. Botha, accompanied by General Hiemstra, Lieutenant-General J.P. Verster, Chief of the Air Force and Lieutenant-General W.P. Louw, Chief of the Army, visits France. He denies that the visit involves the purchase of arms.
5 June, A Bill is tabled in Parliament banning henceforth any merger between newspapers published in South Africa, unless authorised by the relevant ministry. The government can veto the acquisition of a newspaper, or the majority interests in a newspaper, by anyone not possessing South African nationality, or by a group controlled by non-South Africans.
12 June, The leader of the Labour Party appeals to the voters to reject apartheid regulations.
23 June, 24 Africans from the Graaff-Reinet district appear in the Grahamstown Supreme Court on charges under the Sabotage Act. They are alleged to have conspired or incited others to kill Whites or police in the Graaff-Reinet district of the Cape Province between January 1966 and January 1967.
27 June, A Bill on Separation of Races is passed, which includes the provision that no person could be classified White if one of his parents is classified Coloured. It prohibits the hearing of third-party objections to race classification and empowers the Secretary for the Interior to change a person’s race classification.
30 June, A Bill affecting state security called the General Laws Amendment Bill is passed, despite rejection by the Opposition and severe criticism by the Bar and a number of judges. It contains far-reaching provisions and restrictions affecting the administration of justice and the disclosure of evidence. Security matters are now defined as including any matter relating to the Bureau of State Security (BOSS), and its relationship with any person. The government denies it is creating a dictatorial and despotic institution but this radical measure is seen as having far-reaching implications for the independence of the judiciary.
July, South African Students Organisation (SASO) is launched
1969 - 1970
July - February, A number of groups of Africans are tried for subversive activities. The group includes Winnie Mandela.
1 July, In preparation for the Council’s taking-over the responsibilities, the Department of Coloured Affairs is replaced by the Department of Coloured Relations.
The constitution of the South African Students’ Organisation (SASO) is adopted at the inaugural conference and Steve Biko is elected president. Other leading party members include: Barney Pityana,Harry Nengwekhulu, Hendrick Musi, Petrus Machaka, Manana Kgware, Aubrey Mokoape, J Goolam and Strini Moodley. Though the new organisation is committed to a philosophy of Black Consciousness, it does not reject the liberalism of National Union of South African Students (NUSAS) right away.
3 July, Twelve Africans on trial at the Supreme Court in Grahamstown, accused of having conspired to take over a town and kill Whites are acquitted on the charge, but are given prison sentences ranging from seven to one year’s Imprisonment for being members of the illegal organization, Poqo. Twelve others are acquitted.
10 July, The lengthy and expensive trial of Laurence Gandar and Benjamin Pogrund, of the Rand Daily Mail, on charges under the Prisons Act ends with both being found guilty but receiving light sentences. The press wins a moral victory, but the trial discourages editors from publishing reports on prison conditions.
1 August, The Minister of Bantu Administration and Development, M.C. Botha, outlines the government’s homelands policy, in Pretoria. He declares that Whites are trustees of the Blacks, but this trusteeship is not permanent, and he forsees the establishment of autonomous nations, coexisting peacefully on the basis of a practical interdependence.
6 August, South Africa signs the Agreement on Rescue and Return of Astronauts and Space Objects.
9 August, The French Minister of State for National Defence confirms the continued supply of French arms to South Africa, except for anti-guerrilla equipment.
12 August, The United Nations Security Council’s resolution calls on South Africa to withdraw its administration from Namibia immediately, and, in any case, before 4 October 1969. South Africa is condemned for refusing to comply with previous United Nations resolutions.
23 August, An alleged Soviet spy, Y.N. Loginov, who was arrested in 1967, is handed over to a non-communist country, West Germany.The Republican Party issues its election manifesto which does not oppose separate development but demands increased services to combat crime.
2 September, P.W. Botha, the Minister of Defence, announces the establishment of a third naval base at Saldana Bay, about 80 miles north of Cape Town.
5 September, John Vorster appoints a Commission of Inquiry under Justice HJ. Potgieter, of The Appellate Division of the Supreme Court to investigate South Africa’s security network, and to hear objections to its security legislation. Terms of reference include threats of conventional war, guerrilla war, terrorism and internal subversion; recommendations are to be submitted concerning the effectiveness of security and amendment to legislation.
10 September, 9 Africans are charged in the Pretoria Supreme Court with taking part in terrorist activities between 1966 and 1968 in the Elandsfontein district, Transvaal.
16 September, The Prime Minister announces that a general election will be held in April 1970.
19 September, Four agreements are signed in Lisbon connected with the construction of the Cahora Bassa Dam in Mozambique, the main one being between the governments of South Africa and Portugal.
24 September, At the first election of Coloured Persons’ Representative Council, the anti-Apartheid Labour Party gains a majority of 40 elective seats.South Africa ratifies a multilateral treaty on the rescue and return of astronauts and the return of objects launched into outer space.
30 September, The final results of the Coloured Persons’ Representative Council election are announced. The Labour Party gains a large majority of seats: Labour Party 26, Federal Party 11, Republican Party 1, National People’s Party 1, Conservative Party 0, Independents 1. Percentage poll 48.75%.
October, All known ‘verkramptes’ (ultra-conservatives) are expelled from the National Party, including Dr A. Hertzog, Jaap Marais, W.T. Marais and Louis Stofberg.Over 2 000 ‘verkrampte’ delegates gather in Pretoria to form a new party under the leadership of Dr Hertzog. Launched as Die Herstigte Nasionale Party (HNP) its programme emphasises ‘exclusive Afrikaner nationalism and true Christian principles’.
2 October, South Africa formally rejects a United Nations Security Council resolution calling upon it to give independence to Namibia and to withdraw its administration from that territory before October.
7 October, The government announces the 20 nominated members of the Coloured Persons’ Representative Council for the four provinces. These include 13 defeated candidates - all are supporters of separate development; thus the government ensures that the defeated Federal Party will command a majority in the new Council. All other contesting parties condemn the government’s action.
9 October, P.W. Botha announces the location of the first missile base for experimental tests.
16 October, The United Party declares that it will oppose the National Party’s policy and will moot a certain measure of self-government for the urban black.
19 October, The Progressive Party decides to fight the election in opposition to the government’s policy of separate development.
21 October, South Africa signs amendments to a multilateral treaty for the safety of life at sea (passed in 1960).
26 October, The United Nations Committee on Non-Self-Governing Territories adopts a resolution drawing the attention of the Security Council to the deteriorating situation in Namibia following Pretoria’s refusal to relinquish its hold over the mandated territory. The resolution is passed by 96 votes to two, with 6 abstentions (Britain, France, Australia, Botswana, Malawi and Ivory Coast).
31 October, The 24th General Assembly meeting of the United Nations condemns South Africa for its persistent refusal to withdraw from Namibia.
November, The Attorney-General of the Transvaal prosecutes Dr Hertzog and Jaap Marais under the Commissions Act of 1947 for allegations made concerning the finance allocated to BOSS.
20 November, The first session of the Coloured Persons’ Representative Council is officially opened in Bellville and immediately takes up the question of equal pay for Coloureds for equal work.
The General Assembly - in resolution 2505 (XXIV) - welcomed the Lusaka Manifesto on southern Africa and recommended it to the attention of all states and peoples.
21 November, South Africa votes against the lengthy resolutions regarding Southern Rhodesia’s independence, passed by the 24th General Assembly of the United Nations.The General Assembly of the United Nations condemns South Africa for its collaboration with Portugal and Southern Rhodesia and for the intervention of its forces against the peoples of Angola and Mozambique; and for its apartheid policies.
29 November, South Africa: Signs multilateral treaty on the intervention on the high seas in cases of oil pollution casualties.
1 December, The trial begins at the Supreme Court in Pretoria of 22 Africans, including Winnie Mandela, accused of pro-Communist and subversive activities, of instigating guerrilla warfare and of organising Africans in Communist countries. Winnie Mandela refuses to enter a plea. A British subject, Philip Gording, held incommunicado in prison since May 1969, appears as a state witness. He is given immunity from prosecution and is released on 8 December 1969.
11 December, South Africa, Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland sign a new customs agreement in Pretoria, to come into operation on 1 March 1970.
30 December, The International Monetary Fund announces that it will agree to purchase gold from South Africa subject to certain conditions. The price of $35 per oz. is agreed upon.