Nelson Mandela Timeline 1960-1969

Nelson Mandela Timeline 1800-2013

Nelson Mandela Timeline 1960-1969

1960
Sometimes called the 10th Xhosa war, the political campaigns of the popular Black resistance in the 1960s were proof that the British conquest, upon which the White minority state was built, was not viewed as irreversible.
21 March, The Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) mounts its anti-pass campaign. Police at Sharpeville open fire on peaceful protesters killing sixty-nine and injuring 180. In the Western Cape, police open fire and kill two people. The PAC retaliates by calling a work stoppage that lasts for two weeks. Ninety five percent of the workforce goes on strike. PAC youth take control of the Cape Town townships of Langa and Nyanga, setting up roadblocks and distributing food. 30 000 residents of Black townships of Cape Town march on Caledon Square, led by Philip Kgosana, but the march is thwarted when Kgosana is tricked into calling it off on the promise of top level negotiators. The state calls in the military and the marines, the townships are cordoned off and the situation is brought under Nationalist control. A state of emergency is declared, thousands are arrested throughout the country and the African National Congress (ANC) and PAC are declared banned organisations. Mandela is among those imprisoned.
December, Mandela attends an underground meeting of the central committee of the SACP national conference in Johannesburg.
1961
The African National Congress (ANC) and the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) establish religious and welfare front organisations. ANC and South African Communist Party (SACP) members set up the armed wing, Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK). There is a strict undertaking that life will not be endangered, only installations will be attacked. A central high command, with regional commands, is set up under the direction of Mandela. The first explosion occurs on 16 December in Durban, followed by explosions in Johannesburg and Cape Town. The president general of the ANC, Chief Albert Luthuli, is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize a week before the first explosion. Zindziswa is born to Nelson and Winnie Mandela .
26 June, While underground, Nelson Mandela writes a letter in which he states the famous words, "The struggle is my life. I will continue fighting for freedom until the end of my days."
1962
There are Poqo uprisings in the Cape resulting in vicious killings, particularly of Whites.
January, Mandela is smuggled out of the country. He attends the Pan-African Freedom Conference in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, which is hosted by Oliver Tambo, and addresses the Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie. Mandela canvasses support in north and west African countries, meets Col. Boumedienne of Algeria, Commander in Chief of the army of National Liberation, and undergoes training in demolition and mortar firing and attends army lectures. He meets Julius Nyerere, Kenneth Kaunda and Oginga Odinga, the opposition leader in Kenya. He flies to Britain where he meets Hugh Gaitskell and Jo Grimond, Labour and Liberal Party leaders. Winnie Mandela is banned for two years. Mandela returns to South Africa, and is met at the border and driven to Johannesburg. The Congress of Democrats is banned. Mandela visits Chief Albert Luthuli on his return to Johannesburg, disguised as a chauffeur.
5 August, Mandela is arrested, 17 months after going underground, near Howick after a tip-off by informers.
7 November, Mandela is sentenced to 5 years imprisonment for incitement to strike and leaving the country without a passport. He is held for 6months in Pretoria prison and then transferred to Robben Island .
1963
January, Police raid Lilliesleaf farm in Rivonia outside Johannesburg and arrest the nucleus of Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK) leadership. Albertina Sisulu and Caroline Motsoaledi are detained. Zwelakhe Sisulu, not yet sixteen is arrested for not possessing a pass.
9 October, Nelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu, Govan Mbeki, Ahmed Kathrada, Rusty Bernstein, Denis Goldberg, James Kantor, Andrew Mlangeni, Elias Motsoaledi, Raymond Mhlaba and Bob Hepple, the Rivonia trialists, are charged with sabotage and attempting to overthrow the state violently. In the Cape members of a breakaway group from the Non-European Unity Movement. Neville Alexander, Don Davis, Marcus Solomons, Elizabeth van der Heyden, Fikile Bam, Ian Leslie van den Heyden, Lionel Davis, Dorothy Alexander, Dulcie September, Doris van der Heyden and Gordon Hendricks are brought to trial in Cape Town.
1964
April, Winnie Mandela is given permission to attend the Rivonia Trial on condition she does not dress or behave in a manner to cause "incidents".
12 June, Nelson Mandela and all the other accused, except Rusty Bernstein , are found guilty of sabotage and sentenced to life imprisonment. Dennis Goldberg is held in Pretoria.
August, Winnie Mandela and Albertina Sisulu are given permission to visit Robben Island, but are forbidden to travel together as they are both banned.
September, Babla Saloojee dies after been thrown from the seventh floor of John Vorster Square, Johannesburg Police headquarters.
October, Winnie Mandela lays a charge of assault against the police. The incident occurred while she was at the police station bringing food for ninety-day detainee Paul Joseph. Chief Albert Luthuli calls on Britain and the United States of America to apply sanctions against South Africa.
1965
Mandela is allowed his first visit. Bram Fischer goes underground.
1966
Bram Fischer is sentenced to life imprisonment for sabotage. Andimba Ja Toivo of SWAPO joins Mandela on Robben Island. Winnie Mandela makes her second visit to Robben Island. Sabata, nephew of the Tembu Chief Jongintaba Dalindyebo, dies. It was to the latter that Henry Mandela entrusted his young son, Nelson Mandela. Kaiser Dalunonga Matanzima, a relative of Nelson Mandela, becomes Chief Minister of the apartheid homeland of Transkei.
1967
April, Mandela, Neville Alexander, Eddie Davis and Laloo Chiba are charged under section 99(1) of the Prison Regulations for being "idle, careless and negligent at work." The charges are later dropped.
July, Chief Albert Luthuli is knocked down and killed by a train while taking his routine walk on a familiar route at Groutville.
September, Mandela is allowed four visits a year. His son Makgatho makes his first visit to prison and sees his father for the first time in 4 years.
1968
September, Mandela's mother, Nonqaphi Nosekeni Mandela, dies of a heart attack. Winnie Mandela and Paramount chief Dalindyebo of Tembuland apply for Mandela to attend funeral, but permission is refused.
20 December, Winnie Mandela gets permission to visit Mandela.
1969
May, Winnie Mandela is arrested with 21 others and detained for 5 months. She is interrogated and tortured. A group of British anti-apartheid activists plan to rescue Mandela from Robben Island, but the Bureau of State Security (BoSS) infiltrates the group and the plan is aborted.
July, Mandela is informed of the death of his son, Tembi. Winnie Mandela and her co-accused are acquitted after 491 days in solitary confinement.
October, Winnie Mandela is served with a five year banning order and placed under house arrest.