Stephanus Johannes Paulus Kruger

Paul Kruger Timeline 1825-1904

Historical Context to Paul Kruger

Paul Kruger is born to Casper Jan Hendrik Kruger and Elsie Francina Steyn
Paul Kruger's father situated on the Caledon river
The Krugers become Voortrekkers, the young Paul Kruger becomes witness to the battle of Vegkop against Mzilikazi.
Paul Kruger's parents cross the Vaal river and establish the first Transvaal town, Potchefstroom.
Paul Kruger marries Maria du Plessis. Kruger is granted the Waterkloof farm near Rustenburg.
Paul Kruger moves to Ohrigstad in the eastern Transvaal.
Paul Kruger's wife, Maria du Plessis dies.
Paul Kruger marries his first wife's cousin, Gezina Susanna Frederika Wilhelmina du Plessis.
Paul Kruger collects signatures to object to the appointment of a military leader by the volksraad.
Paul Kruger becomes field-cornet of his area, an important position in the young Transvaal republic.September- instructed Pretorius to negotiate with the British to recognise the independence of Transvaal Voortrekkers.
Paul Kruger joins expedition against the Tswana chief, Setshele.
March, Paul Kruger helped reconcile Pretorius and Potgieter.
Paul Kruger takes part in the campaign against Mankopane and Mokopane.
Paul Kruger helpes draw up the constitution.
Paul Kruger serves as advisor to the first president of the Transvaal republic, M.W. Pretorius.
Paul Kruger Persuaded M.W. Pretorius to maintain authority of the republic against Schoeman.During the president's illness, he acted as president.
June 18, Paul Kruger visits the Basuto chief and concludes a peace treaty.
Gereformeerde Kerk in South Africa is formed and Paul Kruger becomes one of the first members.
Paul Kruger is appointed as commander-general.
A clash between Viljoen's people's army and Paul Kruger's state army occurs. Paul Kruger travels to the Zulu boundary with Pretotius to help arrange a new boundary with Mpande.
The Basuto murder several Transvaal citizens travelling back from Natal.
Paul Kruger is forced to retire from Soutpansberg.
Paul Kruger forces peace treaty upon Mapela after defeating him.
Paul Kruger accompanies a government commission that successfully settled the boundary dispute with OFS
Paul Kruger stops supporting Pretorius after a dispute over Pretorus' conduct over the disputed diamond fields.
Paul Kruger requests a honourable discharge from the position of commander - general.
Paul Kruger is nominated an unofficial member of the executive council of the volksraad.
Paul Kruger refused to lead the expedition to defeat Sekhukhune, the Pedi chief. The campaign was a failure.
Paul Kruger is persuaded to stand in the election as he had support of the conservatives that wished to get rid of the Burgers.
April 12, Theophilus Shepstone annexes the Transvaal, as a result the election was not held.
July, Paul Kruger and Jorissen become part of a delegation to Lord Carnarvon, the colonial secretary. Kruger was to suggest a referendum, the mission was a failure because of Shepstone's report to his government.
April, Paul Kruger is sent to London to put before the British state secretary public petitions against annexation.
Paul Kruger has a meeting with the Cape governor, Sir Bartle Frere to convince him to convey the wishes of the Boers in the Transvaal to London.
December, A meeting held at Wonderfontein to challenge the British administration in Pretoria, a milestone in Kruger's career as he was considered a possible president.
April, Paul Kruger and Joubert travel to the Cape to campaign for support and to put pressure on Cape Afrikaner parliamentarians to reject the Cape draft act that envisioned federation. The mission is a success and Kruger is confident that Gladstone would cancel the annexation.However, his refusal to even grant self-rule, leads to great dissapointment.
December, The Volksraad was called to Paardekraal, south-west of Pretoria, on the advice of Paul Kruger. Here the government of the republic was placed and it consisted of Kruger, P.J. Joubert and M.W. Pretorius. Kruger's base was to be in Heidelberg and armed forces took up position on the Natal border, while others surrounded the British garrison in the Transvaal. Kruger realised that the British forces would be more powerful thus decided to continue with negotiations.
Paul Kruger write a letter to request that a British royal commission be set up to make an honest investigation. He promise that fighting would stop if this happens. When the Anglo-Boer War I is successfully concluded, a triumph in Kruger's career, the republic is reinsated.
August, The Pretoria convention is signed and the Vierkleur is flown once again.
For the first time in ten years, an election is held and Paul Kruger wins.
May 9, Paul Kruger is sworn in as president and he subsequently announce a policy that is base on Christian principles.Introduce concession policy as he finds the country in financial difficulty. He also introduce a new education policy that is more acceptable to the public.Kruger leaves for England again to persuade the British government to revise the Pretoria convention, as means of establishing a rail link with the east coast.
July 27, The old convention is replaced with a new one, the London convention. Hollanders grant permission for the construction of the Delagoa bay railway and the establishment of trade ties with European powers.
October, Paul Kruger allows the proclamation of authority by the republic over an area that fell within Bechuanaland, a British protectorate at the time.
Paul Kruger reaches a compromise with Sir Charles Warren to avoid a possible war over territory with the British.
Proclaimation of the first gold fields in the Witwatersrand. Soon there is an increase in the number of foreigners residing in the Transvaal, creating a political problem for Paul Kruger.
Paul Kruger is re-elected as president, making it possible for him to extend his limitations on the political representation of the Uitlander (Foreigners)
Paul Kruger persuades volksraad to pass a legislation to create a second volksraad with limited authority, where the uitlanders would have representation.
Paul Kruger's proposal for a second volksraad is put into effect, this of course remains an Uitlanders grievance against the Kruger government.
March, Paul Kruger is publicly insulted during a visit to Johannesburg.He subsequently, guarantees Britain that he has no ambitions to the north, however he states his interest in Swaziland, to the east.
First train steams into JOHANNESBURG
Presidential elections, Paul Kruger wins.
May, Paul Kruger sworn in as president for the third time.
October, First train reaches Pretoria from the east.
Jameson raid.
Chamberlain invites Paul Kruger to London to discuss the safety of the Transvaal.
January, J.G. Kotze, the chief justice challenges the legality of the volksraad.
February, Paul Kruger obtains special right to dismiss judges who claimed testing right. Kruger regarded chief justice Kotze's stand as an infringement of the authority of the volksraad.
After a lengthy correspondence, Paul Kruger dismissed chief justice Kotze
May, Paul Kruger is sworn in as president after a crushing victory in the election
September, The Orange Free State president, Dr. W.J. Steyn visited Pretoria, resulting in a treaty between the his province and the Transvaal.
Lord Milner uses the Uitlander movement as means of denouncing the Kruger administration.
May, Lord Milner recommended British intervention to Chamberlain.
May - June, Conference is held in Bloemfontein, both Paul Kruger and Lord Milner are invited by president Dr.W. Steyn to attend. Milner insists that immediate steps need to be taken to grant the uitlanders a vote on a basis of five-year residency. Kruger is not willing to fix the residential qualification to less than seven years. The conference never reaches a conclusion.
September 9, Paul Kruger decides, with support from Jan Smuts that it would be better to take military action, this leads to the dispatch of an ultimatum to Britain.
May 7, Paul Kruger addresses the volksraad for the last time before being forced to travel on the Delagoa line to Machadodorp, where he lives on his train carriage.
September 11, Accompanied by his private secretary, Paul Kruger crosses the Komatipoort border
October 19, Paul Kruger goes on board the Dutch cruiser, De Gelderland that is diverted from sea by queen Wilhelmina of Holland.
November 22, Paul Kruger reaches Marseilles and embarks on a voyage to create enthusiasm for the Boer cause, however, he does not manage to get any concrete government support for the boer cause.
July, Paul Kruger's wife, Gezina Susanna Frederika Wilhelmina dies in Pretoria.
May, A peace treaty is signed. Paul Kruger moves to Mentone, on the French Riviera
October, Paul Kruger moves to warmer climate of Mentone
May 24, Paul Kruger establishes himself in a villa at Clarens on lake Geneva
July 14, Paul Kruger dies from cardiac failure, after a period of illness.He is buried next to his wife,Gezina Susanna Frederika Wilhelmina in Pretoria.

Last updated : 29-Jan-2016

This article was produced for South African History Online on 03-Apr-2011