Existing scholarship on African National Congress (ANC) underground organisation suffers from an over-reliance on documentary resources, which has tended to conceal its texture, complexity and detail. This article covers an early part of that experience, reinterpreting some literature on the ANC’s M-Plan as well as using oral evidence to throw light on its meaning and impact. The historiography is given a different interpretation mainly because this contribution places more weight on the Plan than is usually given. Its impact was far wider than most scholars suggest. In particular, it formed the basis for establishing the ANC underground immediately after its banning...read more.