The official policy of the African National Congress was one of non-violence. However, after fifty years of non-violent struggle, Umkhonto we Sizwe (meaning Spear of the Nation) was founded in 1961 as the military wing of the African National Congress, open to all races and set up in conjunction with the South African Communist Party in order to strengthen the struggle by using armed forces (guerilla warfare). Dawn, published as a monthly journal by the Umkhonto we Sizwe, documented the guerilla attacks on strategic targets within the Republic, thereby undermining and disorganising defence and security networks; reported the Government armed forces' attacks carried out in the frontline states against supposed terrorist bases with their resultant political and military impact. These were accompanied by discussions on the complementary nature of non-violent struggle and armed tactics which highlighted the necessity for a broad front of attack on the apartheid government. Calls were made for participation and unity of all sectors of the oppressed population, including women and youth and demands were made for the release of ANC leaders and other political prisoners.