From the book: Passive Resistance 1946 - A Selection of Documents compiled by E.S. Reddy & Fatima Meer


Drs Naicker and Dadoo in India, Pakistan and Cairo

Karachi, Saturday: Dr G.M. Naicker and Dr Y.M. Dadoo, the South African Indian leaders, arrived here yesterday and will leave Delhi on Monday.

In a statement issued yesterday, they said. General Smuts, by attitude, encouraged racial antagonism to grow to such an extent that South African Europeans were conducting a nation-wide boycott campaign against Indian traders.

They also alleged that General Smuts was attempting to divide Indian community by offering £2 000 000 for civic amenities for Indians and by proposing to set up an Indian Advisory Board of Indians and Europeans to advise the Government on matters concerning health education, social services and housing.

Soon after their arrival at Cairo on Wednesday, Dr Naicker and Dadoo were received in audience by His Excellency, Azzam the Secretary-General of the League of Arab States, to whom they conveyed the deep and heartfelt thanks of the Indian and non- European people of South Africa for the support the Arab States had 'in at UNO.

In acknowledging the thanks, Azzam Pasha requested them to convey the following message to the Indian and non-European people of South Africa. When Dr Naicker and Dr Dadoo were in Cairo they were handed a cable which the Arab League had received from Johannesburg.

This cable is purported to have been sent by Dr Mahomed Munshi and Mr. Ebrahim Dadabhay, President and Secretary of the South African Muslim League. This cable reads:

"To Arab League, Cairo: Drs Naicker and Yusuf Dadoo are "communists and are supporters of Zionists' demands for a Jewish State of Palestine and are against Arab League. They are leaving for India via Cairo this Tuesday. Please beware; personally we have nothing against them but Muslim interests demand that we should caution you. Senders: Dr Mahomed Munshi and Mr. Ebrahim Dadabhay, President and Secretary of the S.A. Muslim League."

In statement issued by the Transvaal Passive Resistance Council the Council states that no such organisation as the "S.A. League" exists. "This mischievous cable, full of blatant lies, was completely disregarded by the Arab League. Instead, Drs Naicker and Dadoo were received in audience by His Excellency, Azzam Pasha, who has sent an encouraging message to South African Indians through them," says the statement.

Diary of India visit

New Delhi: Dr Y.M. Dadoo and Dr G.M. Naicker, the leaders of the Indians in South Africa, today met Mr. Gandhi in the Bihar Province, where they discussed with him, problems to the Indians in South Africa.

They are reported to have sought the Mahatma's advice connection with the campaign by Indians in South Africa against legislation concerning Indians in the Union.

Dr Dadoo told Renter's correspondent that he and Dr Naicker would meet Mr. Gandhi again to continue their talks after they attended the Asian Relations Conference in Delhi.

Both Dr Dadoo and Dr Naicker have already met Pandit Nehru, Vice-President of the Interim Government, and they expect to have second meeting with him. They also hope to meet Mr. M. A. Jinnah the President of the Moslem League.

Last Weeks Summary: Tuesday, 18 March

Arrived in New Delhi: Dr Dadoo and Dr Naicker arrived in New Delhi on Tuesday, 18 March, They were met at the airport by Mrs. Sarojini Naidoo, Dr Appodorai, Dr Lanka Sundaram Mehta, Pandit Kunzru and Dr. Jivray Gandhi.

Wednesday, 19 March

Met Nehru: on Wednesday, 19 March, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, who explained the altitude of the Government of India in regard to the South African Government and decision, received the doctors of the United Nations on the South African Indian question.

Met Gandhi and Mrs. V. Pandit: They left the same day for Massuahri to see Mahatma Gandhi.

At Lucknow they met Mrs. Vijayalakshmi Pandit. Guests of Bihar Government: the same day also the Hon.Sinha, Prime Minister of Bihar, and the Hon. Dr Sayed Mahmud, the Minister of Development received them.

Thursday, 20 March

Visited Riot areas: On Thursday 20 March, Dr Dadoo and Dr Naicker, after several hours discussion with Mahatma Gandhi, toured riot areas of Bihar in the company of Khan Ghaffar Khan and Gandhiji. Evening prayer attended by 30 000: The same evening they were present at an evening prayer meeting which was attended by 30 000 people.

Friday, 21 March

Met Major-General Shah Nawaz: On Friday, 21 March, our leaders had a long discussion with Major-General Shah Nawaz, of the Indian National Army. Khan Ghaffar Khan supports Passive Resistance; Dadoo and Naicker this evening had the pleasure of being requested by Khan Ghaffar Khan to convey to the Indian people of non his fullest support for the Passive Resistance struggle.

Saturday 22 March

Met Chinese and Vietnamese: On Saturday, 22 March, Doctors "and Naicker returned to New Delhi where they met the Chinese, Vietnamese Burmese and Ceylonese delegations to the Inter-Asian Conference.

Sunday 23 March

Attended Asian Conference: On Sunday, 23 March, they attended the Inter-Asian Conference.

Bombay Reception to Dadoo and Naicker

Bombay: Drs Naicker and Dadoo on Monday addressed a mass meeting of 20 000 Bombay workers under the auspices of the Trade Unions. The representatives of Girni Kamgar Union, the Firestone Workers Union, and the Steel to garlanded the leaders

The Bombay Committee of the Communist Party in India promised full support to the heroic struggle of the Indian people.

Encouraging messages of support and promises of assistance were given by the Bombay City Moslem League.

Drs Dadoo and Naicker on Friday gave Press interviews and in the afternoon, had discussions with Sir Homi Mody, prominent Bombay industrialist and liberal leader.

A reception given by the Moslem Journalists' Association' presided over by Dr Abdul Hamid Kazi, member of the All-India Moslem League Council and Working Committee member of the Provincial Moslem League.

Dr Kazi assured the South African Indian leaders of support for the present heroic struggle of the South African Indians and promised constant support of the Moslem Press and organisations, and as far as the South African Indian struggle was concerned, all the parties in India were unanimous in their support.

That evening they were entertained to dinner by Mr. Chagla at his residence.

Mr. B.G. Kher, Prime Minister of Bombay, at an afternoon tea party given by him and the Bombay Provincial Government Cabinet and Secretariat in honour of Drs Dadoo and Naicker, said:

"I send my greetings to my countrymen in South Africa" Mr. Morarjee Desai, Minister in the Bombay Presidency Government Drs Dadoo and Naicker, addressed a meeting of Congress Socialists where a resolution of solidarity was passed.

The Provincial Congress Committee gave a reception Hall on Sunday, where S.K. Patel, Provincial Congress President presided and said India was on the threshold of independence and would soon be in a position to give greater assistance and to South African Indians.

Mr. S.K. Patel accepted the fact that Indians had South African nationality but India reserved the right to support their kith and kin.

The Imperial Citizenship Association, under the Presidency of Sir Chimanlal Setalvad, gave a reception in honour of the South African Indian leaders.

At all meetings, Drs Dadoo and Naicker explained the disruptionist tactics adopted by Mr. A.I. Kajee. Mr. Kajee's attitude was fully explained and received wide publicity in the local press. Local opinion is that Mr. Kajee's tactics mean not only a stab in the back for the Passive resistance Movement in South Africa, but also a stab in the back for India's stand on the question of discrimination.

"Resistance has cost £100 000"

While outlining the present struggle, Dr Naicker drew a touching Picture of the trails and tribulations that the people of South Africa are undergoing in defence of their right to live as human beings, states a report in the Kenya paper, The Colonial Times. 1 700 people had so far been imprisoned and of these no less than 300 women had courted imprisonment, besides a few progressive Europeans. European hooliganism also found full expression when white goonda attacked shamelessly, peaceful resistors and molested women. The movement had cost so far £100 000 and he pleaded for moral as well as financial port from all those who sympathised with the movement.

Indian Women Excluded

The "representation" referred to by Mr. Nicholls and which is provided for in the Asiatic Land Tenure and Indian Representation Act, 1946, is

* Two Indian representatives are to be elected to the Natal Provincial Council to represent 228 119 Indians;

* Indians to elect three Europeans to represent them in the House at Assembly consisting of 156 members;

* Two European Senators will represent Indians in the Senate.

The Government will appoint one of these and the other elected by Indians;

* Qualifications for Indian voters under the Act are:

* The voter must be a male; minimum age qualification of 21 years; Union national; Standard VI educations either an annual income of at least £84 or ownership of immovable property valued at not less than £250,free from mortgage.

The elections in all the above cases will be on a communal basis, separate from the European voters role. Indian women, whatever their qualifications, are totally excluded as voters though European women posses the vote on the same basis as their men.

Durban NIC branch holds meeting

Addressing the members of the Durban Central Branch of Natal Indian Congress at its Annual General Meeting, held at the Gandhi Library on Sunday last, Mr. A.I. Meer, General Secretary the Natal Indian Congress, who presided, said that they must take stock of the seriousness of the problems confronting them, because this was a critical stage in the history of Indian people.

"We must not become hysterical because of the anti propaganda spread by irresponsible Europeans who are seeking votes for the coming general election, but face the issues boldly added Mr. Meer.

Mr. J.N. Singh, Joint Secretary of the Natal Indian Congress who submitted the secretarial report, said that the main resolve of Congress during the period review had been the continue of the passive Resistance Campaign against the "Ghetto Act" and the mobilisation of the people behind this campaign.

"Side-by side with this, the Congress has attempted to take up such day-to day issues of the people that needed serious attention such as the problems of education, housing, civic amenities and social services." Referring to the work of the Branch Committee during the course of the year, meetings were convened on six occasions. The average attendance was about eight out of a possible 32. Through 'he lack of interest of Committee members, much of the work of the committee was hampered and curtailed.

1 718 Resisters Jailed

Eight male Passive Resisters appeared in court on Wednesday morning for trespassing on Corporation land at the corner of Gale Street and Umbilo Road, Durban, the previous night. Excluding this batch, the total number of Passive Resisters who have now been imprisoned is 1 718, the Secretary of the Passive Resistance Council states, He explained that since the decision of the United Nations organisation, 241 Resisters had been imprisoned, including 67 from the Transvaal. The policy of the Passive Resistance Council since UNO decision was to send a few resisters weekly instead of daily, to court imprisonment.

New NIC Officials

The following are the new Congress officials elected by secret ballot at the Conference on Sunday last:

President: Dr G.M. Naicker; General Secretary: Mr. A.I. Meer; Joint Treasurers: Messrs A.E. Sheik and Molanlall Parekh; Vice-presidents Dr B.T. Chetty, Mr. Jhalbhoy Rustomjee, Mr. R. Naidoo, Dr K. Goonam, Ms A. Choudree, G. Ponen, N. Hargovan, S.M. Mayet, S.T Mida and Manila! Gandhi; Executive Committee: Messrs I.M. Bawa _M.D. Naidoo, Debi Singh, J.N. Singh, A. E. Patel, E.I. Moolla, M. P. Naicker, N.S. Devshi, H. Naran.

Report on Provincial Conference of NIC

Over one hundred delegates representing 29 branches attended the first Provincial Conference of the Natal Indian Congress, in of the new Federal Constitution under which the NIC is now functioning.

The Conference was held at the Kathiawad Hindu Seva Samaj Hall over Saturday and Sunday last.

On Saturday, the Conference discussed the Secretary's report the report of the Passive Resistance Council and the financial statements of the Resistance Council and the NIC.

Practically the whole Sunday was devoted to amendment the constitution.

Mr. Sorabjee Rustomjee, who came as a fraternal delegate the Transvaal Indian Congress, said that it was embarrassing him to stand before a Natal audience and speak for the Transvaal for he was more a Natalian than a Transvaal.

Referring to the publication of the correspondence which had passed between Mr. Nehru and General Smuts, Mr. Rustomjee said that the Indian people were proud of the stand which India had taken.

Miss L. Winston, a fraternal delegate from the Durban a District Communist Party, expressed the Communist Party's best wishes for the success of the Conference in its fight against the evils of the Colour Bar.

Mr. J.N. Singh, reporting for the Credentials Committee said that although the delegates for Stanger were present, Stanger did not have a duly constituted branch, and the Credentials committee had decided to accept them because Stanger had made considerable contribution to the funds of the NIC and the Passive Resistance Movement.

It was now for the full conference to discuss the matter.

Mr. M.D. Naidoo moved that Stanger be represented on THE Conference .

Mr. I.M. Bawa queried this procedure, for, he said, it conflicted directly with the constitution.

Dr B.T. Chetty, the chairman, then ruled the proposal out of order and fraternal delegates could only represent that Stanger could only be represented by fraternal delegates.

Dr Naicker addresses NIC Conference

"We are not here to make extravagant demands or to seek any privileges that are not our due," declared Dr G.M. Naicker, in the course of his presidential address to the opening session of the first Conference of the Natal Indian Congress under the Federal Constitution on Friday evening. Dr Naicker proceeded:

"India approves of our struggle and is against any form of surrender or talk of surrender. Every political party in India pledges us its full support. We were inspired not only by India's great leaders and national organisations to continue unswervingly along our path, but also by the fighting spirit of the masses of India, who, everywhere, greeted us with spontaneous enthusiasm and encouraged us to fight with increased vigour. Whatever internal difference may exist in India, we found that the people and leaders were unanimous about their compatriots in South Africa. We were also fortunate enough to be able to have discussions with representatives from almost every country in Asia, and all assured us of their keen interest and active support. Both Indian and Asian leaders recognised that we in South Africa were not only fighting for our just rights, but also to preserve the national honour and dignity of all Africans and Asians. It would be wrong, of course, to give the impression that we demand our liberty by one swoop of the pen. That is not so. What we ask is first the unconditional repeal of the Ghetto Act. Secondly, a program of Progressive removal of all the laws that place the Indians in an inferior position. To summarise: We stand for a Round Table Conference to be held within the framework of the UN's resolution. We are not anti-European. We are the friends of all the peoples of this country."

Message by Dr Y.M. Dadoo on the First Anniversary of Passive

Resistance, 13 June 1947

13 June 1947 marks the first anniversary of the passive resistance struggle against the Asiatic Land Tenure and Indian Representation Act the policy of colour discrimination that this Act embodies. It has been a year in which the Indian people in this country have covered themselves with glory and honour by their example courage and determination and by their deeds of heroism and sacrifice They have added yet another glorious chapter of man struggling for freedom from time immemorial. Faced with the deadly onslaught of the government on its already rapidly dwindling rights and privilege the Indian community resolved to resist and suffer rather than submit to ignominy and dishonour. The only asset the Indian people possessed was faith in the strength of their united stand, their preparedness to sacrifice and their ability to withstand the rigours of a struggle

On this anniversary we record with pride the part played by Indian women in response to the call of resistance. They man together with their menfolk with courage and determination to racialism in South Africa. They have raised the struggle to greater and nobler heights. From India has come a unanimous support' us and our struggle has made the question of racial oppression South Africa a world question with the United Nations, representing world democratic opinion, declaring by majority vote in our favour.

In South Africa we have not acted as an isolated community. A year of resistance has seen non-European cooperation nearer than ever before. We have entered into a period of active cooperation between the oppressed people for basic human rights.

The forward march of the Indian people and that of oppressed people in South Africa will go on. On this first anniversary of our great resistance movement let us pay tribute to those men and women resisters who have made possible the successes have achieved. Let us pay tribute to those brave Indian traders when faced with the boycott movement and all the perils that went with the boycott consequent racial propaganda, stood firm with courage fortitude. Let us pay tribute to the African, coloured and progressive European organisations that have stood with us.

Let us on this anniversary pledge to continue our noblest under the leadership of the Natal and the Transvaal Indian Congresses let us reject totally the disruptive moves of the reactionaries; let us go forward in full cooperation with all non-European section progressive Europeans for a democratic South Africa.

We Shall Resist!

Message by Dr G.M. Naicker on the First Anniversary of Passive Resistance, 13 June 1947

A year ago we began our unequal struggle against the arrogant racialist government for democratic rights almost alone. A glorious chapter in the history of the Indian people has been written by the heroic sacrifices, massive enthusiasm and invincible spirit of our men and women from all walks of life. Today we are happy in the thought that in our struggle, which is the spearhead of the battle for fundamental human rights in the Continent of Africa, we have with us the United Nations, Great India, Greater Asia, and the progressive people of the world.

Here, in South Africa, we have as allies the oppressed African and coloured masses with a band of courageous breed of men and women of the ruling class solidly behind us.

Together we march for freedom. If the Indian people show the same indomitable spirit, the cold-blooded courage and the enthusiasm they have shown in the last twelve months then liberty is assured and victory is ours.

NIC strengthens its Organisation

Tremendous changes in the organisation of the Natal Indian Congress have been made with an eye to providing the Indian community with a political body worthy of a provincial character, Mr. A.I. Meer, General Secretary of the NIC, told The Leader.

The following eight departments have been created to make of the Congress, an efficient up-to-date political body: Information, finance, Housing Expropriation, Labour and Unemployment, Education, Commerce, Industry and Agriculture, Social Services and Civic Amenities and Organisation.

In order to drive home the urgency of the situation, the NIC has also arranged a propaganda campaign of 16 meetings all over Natal during the period 13 July to 17 August, culminating in a mass rally in Durban.

Mr. Meer said that a number of the Departments were already functioning. Expropriation was being dealt with; a memo on education had been prepared. The social and civic amenities department attending to the question of transport facilities.

Debi Singh reports on East Africa

Communalism was rife in Kenya and other East African term and is eating like a cancer into the life of the Indian people there.

Its direct cause was the communal representation exercised by the Indian people. The fact that Indians had to return Indian candidates instead of voting for common candidates, led to Hindus, Sikhs Moslems voting for men of their own community.

This observation on Indian life in East Africa was made Mr. Debi Singh, who has returned after a six weeks' tour of the East African territories in connection with the Passive Resistance Movement in South Africa. Mr. A.E. Shaikh, Joint Treasurer of the Natal Indian Congress, returned with Mr. Debi Singh. He reported Mr. Singh's observations.

Indians were allowed a certain number of seats on the Municipal and Legislative Councils - and when election time came along, Sikhs voted for Sikhs, Ismails for Ismails, Hindus for Hindus Moslems for Moslems. There was no question of the ability of a candidate. The position is so bad in Kenya that Mr. Singh described it is as dog fight among the Indians" The communism in East African begins in the primary schools which are invariably all of religious origin. The Sanathanists, Arya Samajists, Ismail, non-Ismaili Moslems, and Sikhs all have their own primary schools and children are thus brought up in an atmosphere which is charged with communism.

There is hardly any intermingling among the various Indians communities even in the field of sport and social organisations. Both sport and social life are run on communal lines. Mr. Shaikh said that every place they visited, they were given a rousing welcome.

They received good financial and moral support. Some Indians from East Africa even volunteered to come to South Africa to take part in the fight against the Ghetto Act. As far as the Indian was concerned, Kenya was just like South Africa in the application of Colour Bar

The other East African territories were fairly free from this irksome restriction. Referring to the economic condition of the Indian people in the East African territories, Mr. Debi Singh said that except far a few artisans and civil servants the Indians were almost all big commercial men and industrialists. They were engaged in sugar, sisal and cotton production. Attempts, he said, were being made to unite the three East African territories: Kenya, Tanganyika and Uganda. If this came about, the hard and fast Colour Bar of Kenya would envelope the more liberal spirit in the other two territories. At the moment the Indians in Kenya were engaged in fighting "Paper 210" dealing with immigration into Kenya. It was covertly directed against the Indian people.

Resistance to continue - Official

At a meeting of the Joint Passive Resistance Council held at the Gale Street Resistance Plot on Wednesday, the Council decided to continue with resistance, declaring, "There can be no rest for the Indian people. Our faith and confidence in the courage and determination of people remains as strong as ever. We shall occupy the Gale Street plot. We shall occupy other plots. We shall adopt other methods 'struggle. We shall continue to resist until our goal is reached."

In the course of a lengthy preamble to the decision, the Council -'''sys the position of the Indians since their advent to this country, reviews events over the last seventeen months of resistance.

Volunteer Corps changes name to Youth Congress

Johannesburg: The Transvaal Indian Youth Volunteer Corps has changed its name to the Transvaal Indian Youth Congress. This was the decision taken at a general meeting of the Corps held in Johannesburg last week. With this change of name and the adoption constitution, the Youth Congress will embark on a mass membership recruiting drive throughout the Transvaal Arrangements are already in hand for the formation of branches in the count' areas. The Secretary of the Youth Congress states that there haste a steady increase in the membership of the Congress during the past few weeks with applications coming in from far away towns in Transvaal. He has also appealed to others who are interested to communicate with him at the following address: 18 Barkley Arcade, 38 Mart' Street, Johannesburg. In a message on the occasion, Dr Ahmed Sader, who has recently returned from Europe where he served on the Executive of the International Union of Students and on the Council for the World Federation of Democratic Youth, said, "The Transvaal Indian Youth Volunteer Corps was born two years ago with a fighting tradition. It has contributed more than its share to the glorious Passive Resistance Movement. This tradition of struggle ensures its future and will stand it in good stead in the years ahead."

"The transformation of the Corps into the Transvaal Indian Youth Congress is a step forward towards the organisation of the whole of the Indian Youth in the Transvaal. Today, more than ever it is necessary for all the Indian youth to become members Youth Congress and to form branches of Congress in country towards the achievement of it".

"The Indian youth must lead the struggle of the non-European for their democratic rights in South Africa. This is a glorious task and we must put our all towards the achievement of it."

"The battle will be hard and long but I have no doubt win through in the end. The youth of the world is organised in the World Federation of Democratic Youth. They want to meet us' help us. This we can only do if we are organised into a powerful Transvaal Indian Youth Congress."

Resistance to Date

The following facts about the Passive Resistance campaign were submitted to the Emergency Conference of the NIC on Sunday:

Having begun on 13 June 1946, the campaign was 17 months old on 13 November 1947. Total number of Resisters imprisoned to date: 1 926: - 1 588 men and 338 women. The Congress Conference of May 1947, decided to continue Passive Resistance. Since this Conference, 275 Resisters courted imprisonment. At Gale Street, Resisters have not been arrested since 11 November 1947. Total number of Resisters at Settlement: 27; women, 4.

Joint Statement of Dr G.M. Naicker and Dr Y.M. Dadoo - Pledge continuation of struggle, December 1947

The Joint Passive Resistance Council of the Natal and Transvaal Indian Congresses, having given careful consideration to the present Political situation affecting the Indian people of South Africa is of review that a restatement of the position is necessary in the light of recent developments. Since the advent of the Indians in this country the first positive struggle to stem the tide of unjust and anti-Indian racial laws was the passive resistance campaign of the 1906-1914 Period under Mahatma Gandhi. The intervening period of 32 years has been characterised by a futile policy of hat-in-hand negotiations in defence of the fast-dwindling rights of the Indian people; a policy which has enabled the Union government to introduce measure after Measure of racially discriminatory legislation culminating in the nationally ruinous "Ghetto Act" now strangulating Indian economic life, social Progress and political aspirations.

Last year saw the beginning of the second passive resistance struggle. For the last 17 months the Indian people of South Africa have waged with success a historic and heroic campaign. At the Gale Street plot they demonstrated their unalterable opposition to the Ghetto Act. The Union government gaoled nearly 2 000 men and women. Hooliganism, wholesale arrests, harsh terms of imprisonment and rinsed boycott of Indian traders failed to crush the spirit and will of the Indian people. The policy of repression has not availed the government. In its dilemma the government has now resorted to non-arrest tactics. At Gale Street, passive resistance has won a victory.

The intransigent attitude of the South African government has compelled India to sever diplomatic relations, to apply economic sanctions and to indict South Africa before the United Nations.

Last year the United Nations condemned South Africa's racial policies. She was asked to report to the 1947 session the steps taken to obviate the complaint. South Africa did not implement the decision.

That decision remains inviolate until upset by another two-thirds majority. This year the Assembly's decision, as expressed in the Indian resolution, though carried by a 31 votes to 19 majority lacks the force of a binding decision, owing to a procedural technicality; it nevertheless constitutes a majority opinion of the United Nation. It called upon South Africa to convene a Round Table Conference between itself and the governments of India and Pakistan. The Union government must, therefore, note:

(a) That world opinion has not changed. As in the 1946 session the 1947 session of the United Nations General Assemble exposed it to universal condemnation. Not one delegate was found who could defend racial persecution in South Africa.

(b) That the most practical method by which measures may inaugurated that could lead to a solution of the conflict remains a Round Table Conference between the governments of Indian Pakistan and South Africa.

(c) That the responsibility for convening such a conference now rests upon South Africa. Failure to discharge this responsibility may not only lead to more emphatic action by the next Assembly of the United Nations but also possibly invite measures even earlier by the 31 nations who voted for the resolution, and more particularly by the Asian peoples.

On the international plane and within South Africa, the struggle has made tremendous advances.

The non-European peoples of South Africa have seen demonstrated the significance of non-violent resistance against the power and of a State based on white supremacy. But the Ghetto Act remains the statute books of South Africa. Final victory has yet to be won.

There can be no rest for the Indian people. Our faith and confidence in the courage and determination of the people remains as slit ever. We shall occupy the Gale Street.

We shall occupy other areas. We shall adopt other methods struggle. We shall continue to resist till our goal is reached.