3 December 1959
Britain and Egypt agree on independence for Sudan following years of colonial rule. The tale of these two countries’ rule over Sudan dates back the 19th century. In 1823, Egyptians founded Khartoum as their headquarters and developed Sudan's trade in ivory and slaves, while in the 1890s the British decided to gain control of Sudan. Following a series of campaigns between 1896 and 1898, an Anglo-Egyptian force under Herbert Kitchener destroyed the power of the Mahdists. Subsequently, agreements in 1899 established the condominium government of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. In 1930, the British Civil Secretary in Khartoum declared the "Southern Policy," officially stating that the north and south, because of their many cultural and religious differences, were to be governed as two separate regions.