The Ciskei was established under the Bantu Authorities Act of 1951 as an 'independent republic'. The creation of Ciskei was in line with apartheid policies of the South African government. The Ciskei and the Transkei were two designated "states" for the Xhosa speaking people in the Eastern Cape. In 1981 it was granted "independence" under the presidency of Lennox Sebe. In March 1990, Sebe was toppled by the military and replaced by Brigadier Joshua Oupa Gqozo. After South Africa's first democratic elections Ciskei was re-incorporated into South Africa.