Peter N. Stearns, (2001), The Encyclopedia of world history, (New York), p.1067 from Google Books.|Maite Nkoana-Mashabane, (2010), Minister Maite Nkoana-Mashabane' Lecture Address at the Tshwane University of Technology (Nelspruit Campus) on the topic "Balancing National, Regional, Continental and International Interests - where does the Republic of South Africa draw the line through its Foreign Policy?" 10 September 2010, from the Department of International Cooperation and Relations, [online], Available at www.dfa.gov.za [Accessed 19 November 2010]
1 December 1987
Julius Nyerere president of the Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM), a party that succeeded the TANU, addressed delegates attending the African National Congress (ANC) conference in the Tanzanian city of Arusha. Significantly, Arusha is the city where Nyerere issued the Arusha Declaration in 1967 which inaugurated the UJamaa Movement. UJamaa advocated for an independent, socialist programme based on a concept derived from a variant of African socialism. Nyerere called for an end to National Party (NP) rule in South Africa and encouraged the struggle against apartheid to continue. In his speech he stated that: "Throughout these long years the struggle has been waged inside South Africa, by the people of South Africa. It has waxed and waned. There have been many setbacks, until sometimes the faint-hearted despaired and occasionally even the courageous retreated for a time into sullen resignation. But never was the flame of resistance extinguished." Nyerere played an important role in the struggle against apartheid by condemning the apartheid government in various international forums. Furthermore, in 1975 the Tanzanian government donated a sisal farm of five thousand hectares of land to the ANC in Morogoro. The land was developed and the Solomon Mahlangu Freedom College SOMAFCO was constructed. Alongside Nyerere, Oliver Tambo delivered the opening and the closing speeches of the Arusha Conference. The Conference ran from 1 December to 4 December 1987, and concluded with a declaration by the ANC, condemning apartheid as a crime against humanity. The Declaration condemned military aggression by the South African government towards other Southern African states.