Liebenberg, B.J. & Spies, S.B. (eds) (1993). South Africa in the 20th Century, Pretoria: Van Schaik Academic, pp. 533-540.|South African Institute of Race Relations. (1990). Race Relations Survey 1989/90, Johannesburg: South African Institute of Race Relations, p. 221|United Nations, (1991),Namibia UNTAG Historical Background, from United Nations Organisation [online], available at www.un.org [Accessed: 19 November 2013]
21 November 1989
The Citizen reported that the remaining 1 500 South African troops in South West Africa (Namibia) had been withdrawn during November. While the Namibian political parties and the South African Government were negotiating as to how Namibia would be governed after its independence, war in Ovamboland and Angola continued to rage during the 1980s. After the battle at Cuito Cuanavale in 1988, a turning point in the history of southern Africa, the stalemate condition led all parties to rethink their positions. South Africa and Cuba agreed to the withdrawal of all foreign troops from Angola and the South West African People's Organisation (SWAPO) undertook to keep its soldiers north of the 16th parallel - that meant at least 200 km north of the Namibian border. This agreement paved the way for Namibia's independence and the withdrawal of South African troops from Namibia. About 30 000 exiles returned to Namibia during 1989 and after several hiccups were overcome the necessary preparations were made for the election of a Constituent Assembly, which would drew up a constitution. On 21 March 1990 the country gained independence from South Africa as the Republic of Namibia, with Swapo leader Sam Nujoma elected as president.