5 November 1965
On 5 November 1965 Rhodesian( now Zimbabwe) Prime Minister,Ian Douglas Smith, declared a state of emergency. This was prompted by the United Kingdom’s (UK) refusal to grant Zimbabwe independence after Tanganyika and Northern Rhodesia (now known as Zambia) and Malawi. The British government refused to yield to their demands without amendments to the colony's constitution, including a graduated extension of the franchise leading to eventual African rule. On 11 November, the Smith government issued a unilateral declaration of independence (UDI). The British government viewed UDI as illegal and imposed limited economic sanctions. These measures did not bring about the desired results.