The oldest of the independent homelands, Transkei, gained complete independence as an autonomous republic under the policy of separate development. At its opening session the Transkei National Assembly elected Paramount Chief Botha J. Sigcau as the Transkei's first President and Kaizer Matanzima as Prime Minister. The new republic did not incorporate the apartheid ideology into its constitution, but became a multiracial state in which all citizens had the franchise. The Republic of Transkei was not recognised beyond South African borders. The General Assembly of the United Nations rejected the declaration of independence as invalid, and called upon all governments to deny any form of recognition to Transkei and other Bantustans.

Highlights in history on this date.[online], available at: [accessed 22 October 2009]|

A Handful of Armies. [online], available at: [accessed 22 October 2009]|

Muller, C.F.J. (ed)(1981). Five Hundred years: a history of South Africa; 3rd rev. ed., Pretoria: Academica, p. 524.