The Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) won the first free elections in Zimbabwe. Robert Mugabe, president of ZANU since 1977, became the prime minister. Joshua Nkomo and his Patriotic Front-ZAPU (PF-ZAPU) party trailed Mugabe's ZANU-PF by 20-57seats in the new 100-seat parliament. Mugabe formed a Government of National Unity by drawing its members from all major political parties of the fifteen-year conflict. Nkomo was offered the ceremonial post of president, but declined. PF-ZAPU under Nkomo retained a stronghold in the province of Matabeleland. The effects of this election would make both ZAPU and ZANU into tribally-based parties, ZANU with backing from the Shona majority, and ZAPU the Ndebele minority.

BBC News,"1980: Mugabe to lead independent Zimbabwe",From: BBC News,[Online],Available at:,[Accessed on:05 February 2014]|Bute, E.L. & Harmer, H.J.P. (1997). The Black Handbook, London: Cassell.