James Maci, from the Maci Tribal Area, Harding District, Natal [KwaZulu-Natal] was banished on 12 October 1959 to the Kalkspruit Native Trust Farm No. 812, Pietersburg district [Northern Transvaal, now Polokwane, Limpopo Province] because of disturbances in rural Natal.

In 1962, he was at tthe Trust Farm Chloe, near gaMatlala, Pietersburg district. The document motivating his banishment noted that inJune 1959, ‘a meeting was held to explain the rehabilitation measures to the community but the meeting was broken up by the actions of a few women.  These women were arrested and not long after a protest was organised to calling for the release of the detained women. The protest moved through the town of Harding, Natal, burning down the veld and blocking roads. The white population of the town armed themselves, and bloodshed was only avoided through the firm action of the police.’ 

While there was no evidence that Chief Maci was behind these events, it was asserted by the state that this was ‘obvious’ and that people were afraid of giving evidence against him. It was admitted that similar resistance was widespread in Natal; however, events in Harding were directly related to Chief Maci. It was therefore in the interest of the common good to banish him from the area.Separated from four wives and thirteen children, some of his children could not be kept on in school. Maci worked as a labourer for £4 [R8] a month, and his health became extremely poor in banishment.

James Maci’s banishment order was withdrawn on 10 February 1971.


• Contribution by Professor S. Badat on Banishment, Rhodes University, 2012. From the book, Forgotten People - Political Banishment under Apartheid by Professor S. Badat.

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