William Tyabashe, Vincent Mbamama Hlamandana andMagade Madapu, all from the Tsolo District [Eastern Province, now Eastern Cape], wereissued with banishment orders on 16 June 1960.  They were all banished to Driefontein Native Trust Farm, Vryburg District, Northern Cape [now North West Province].  

Their banishment order noted that since 1957 there had been occasions of arson and violence in several locations in the Tsolo district, and that this culminated in the burning down of approximately193 huts, one death and several injuries between 30 April and 3 May 1960.  Investigations into these events reportedly showed that these actions were undertaken by a group that called itself the “Makulu Team.”

The “Makulu Team” opposed the Bantu Affairs Department (BAD) and its rehabilitation measures, propagated the removal of all white magistrates and all chiefs, and called for the appointment of Chief Albert Luthuli to reign over South Africa.  The “Makulu Team,” it was alleged, reigned through terror, had great influence on the local population and everyone was afraid of them.

The names of the key leaders Hlamandana, Madapu and Tyabashe were obtained through particularly secretive ways, and their banishment was critical to restore peace to the area.  The “Makhulu Team” broke up in 1962 through the arrest of members, banishments and the state of emergency.

Compared to other banished people, Hlamandana, Madapu and Tyabashe spent relatively short periods in banishment

William Tyabashe’s order was withdrawn on 7 September 1962 due to good conduct.


• Contribution by Professor S. Badat on Banishment, Rhodes University, 2012. From the book, Forgotten People - Political Banishment under Apartheid by Professor S. Badat

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