Durban is South Africa’s third-largest City and one of the fastest-growing urban Areas in the World. It's Port is the busiest in South Africa and also one of the 10 largest in the World. Durban is blessed with humid weather and a warm current in the Ocean, making it the 'perfect holiday paradise!' This was the smallest of the four traditional Provinces, in the South Eastern part, of South Africa. However in 1996, under South Africa’s, new Democratic Constitution the Homelands were dismantled and South Africa consolidated into what is today’s nine Provinces. Thus making the Province of Gauteng the smallest.
The Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama discovered along the Coast what is now, Durban. This event occurred on Christmas Day, in 1497. (This was why the Area was named:'Terra Natalis', which is the Portuguese word for Christmas.) The British settlement at Port Natal grew rapidly because in 1835, Captain A.F. Gardiner secured a treaty with Dingane. This treaty ceded the Southern half of Natal to the British. This apparently, empty interior was only entered into by the Voortrekkers,in October 1837. (This was name given to the Afrikaners, who had left the British-ruled, Cape Colony)
The Local 'Rickshaws' on Durban Beachfront Image Source
The Heritage of Durban continued into the 1700's when
The Beachfront is bordered by holiday accommodation and 5 Star Hotels and luxury apartments, all of which have an idyllic view of the Indian Ocean. Watersports such as surfing, bodyboarding, sailing and scuba diving are obvious, given Durban's proximity to the warm Indian Ocean. Rugby, soccer and cricket are also very popular with Durban boasting a World class Stadium, for all major sports. It is the promise of gorgeous stretches of golden sands, separated by artificial piers, sub-tropical sunshine and the warm waters of the Indian Ocean, together with the reputation as a surfer’s haven that draws thousands of people Year upon Year. Add to this the array and fusion of international-class, ultra-modern and colonial-style accommodation that lines Durban’s beachfront. Most of this beautiful part of the World was once a Coastal Dune Forest System and there are still parts of it preserved in the Mangrove Swamps, and the Umgeni Bird Park, bears testimony to the number of birds attracted to the Area.
Much of Durban’s big business has moved out to more modern business complexes and what was once Umhlanga Rocks Village, with a sprinkling of Cottages, Hotels and Guest Houses is today; a thriving Suburb and the playground of young and old who come here for the pristine Beaches, Hotels and sophisticated Shopping Malls. The Umhlanga Lagoon Nature Reserve, with the surviving Stone Age sea shell discovered at its lagoon mouth, provides a number of stunning trails and coastal forest boardwalks and the unique 'Hawaan' Forest and its coastal Wetlands, Grasslands and dune Forest is a beautiful place to visit!
The Heritage of Durban continued after Colonists came into contact with Bantu-speaking Chiefdoms, some 800 km East of Cape Town. A Century of intermittent warfare ensued during which the Colonists gained ascendancy over the isiXhosa-speaking chiefdoms. In 1795, the British occupied the Cape as a strategic base against the French, controlling the sea route to the East.
In the 1820s, the celebrated Zulu leader- Shaka, established sway over a vast area of South-East Africa. As splinter Zulu groups conquered and absorbed communities in their path, the region experienced a fundamental disruption. Substantial states, such as Moshoeshoe’s Lesotho and other Sotho-Tswana chiefdoms were established.
This temporary disruption of life on the Highveld served to facilitate the expansion Northwards of the original Dutch settlers’ descendants- the Boer Voortrekkers, from the 1830's.
https://www.sa-venues.com/attractionskzn/durban-beachfront.php American Board of commissioners for foreign missions. 1886. Zulu Mission: a Condensed Sketch. 1835-1886. Boston: American Board,. 1891. Historical Sketch of the Missions of the American Board in Africa. Boston: American Board.|Baumann, LG. 2006. A Short History of the Biscuit Industry in South Africa. Durban: The Author.|Benbo: Bureau for Economic Research. 1975. KwaZulu. Pretoria: BENBO.|Brown, Karen H. 1989. From Transportation to Tourism: The Durban Ricksha Puller and His Dress. SAAAH, Conference, Durban 17 July 1989.|Bryant, AT. 1967. The Zulu People. Pietermaritzburg: Shuter and Shooter.|Campbell, John. 1815. Travels in South Africa. London: Black and Parry.|Champion, George. 1838. Missionary Herald, 1838. American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions.
1967. Journal of the Rev George Champion, American Missionary in Zululand 1835-9. Cape Town: Struik.|Davenport, TRH, and Hunt, KS. 1974. The Right to the Land. Cape Town: Philip.|Davies, RJ. 1963. The Growth of the Durban Metropolitan Area. The SA Geographical Journal, December 1963: 15-43. |Dawes, H Edmund. 1948. Landmarks of old Durban. Durban: The Author. |Delagorgue, Adulphe. c1847. Voyage dans L'Afrique Australe .... etc. Paris: Depot de Librairie.|Department of Economics, University of Natal. 1952. The Durban Housing Survey. Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press. |Duminy, Andrew, and GUEST, William. 1989. Natal and Zululand from Earliest Times to 1910. Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press. |Ebrahim, Sana el al. Undated. The History of the Grey Street Masjid. Unpublished student project, University of Natal, Durban. |Espitalier, TJ, and DAY, WAJ. 1943-1948. The locomotive in South Africa. Pretoria: SAR&H Magazine. |Frescura, Franco. 1979. The Birds are Back. College Lecture, University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg.
1981. Rural Shelter in Southern Africa. Johannesburg: Ravan Press.
1982a. Index of the Names of Mission Stations Established in the Southern African Region During the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries. Johannesburg: Transvaal Vernacular Architecture Society.
1982b. A Review of South African Squatter Settlements in the Late 1970s. Article in Architecture, Man, Environment. Editors E Tollman and EJ Haarhoff. Durban: University of Natal.
1992. Port Elizabeth ”“ An Abridged History of the Apartheid City. Port Elizabeth: IDASA.|Furneaux, R. 1963. The Zulu War. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.|Fynn, Henry Francis. 1969 The Diary of Henry Francis Fynn. Pietermaritzburg: Shuter and Shooter.|Freund, B (1995) Insider and Outsiders: The Indian Working Class of Durban, 1910 ”“1990. Heinemann: Portsmouth|Francis Farewell picture: Bulpin, T.V. (1985). Reader’s Digest Illustrated Guide to Southern Africa, Cape Town: Reader’s Digest Association South Africa, pg 87. |Freund, B (1995) Insider and Outsiders: The Indian Working Class of Durban, 1910 ”“1990. Heinemann: Portsmouth|Horrel, M (1956) Group Areas Act: Its Effect on Human Beings. South African Institute of Race Relations: Johannesburg|Galbraith, JS. 1963. Reluctant Empire. California: Berkeley.|Gardiner, Allen F. 1836. Narrative of a Journey to the Zoolu Country in South Africa. London: Crofts.|Government of the Union of South Africa. 1927. Native Administration Act No 38 of 1927. Pretoria: Government Printer.|Guy, Jeff. 1982. The Destruction of the Zulu Kingdom. Johannesburg: Ravan Press.|Haarhoff, Errol J. 1982. Informal Settlement, Dependant Urbanisation and Marginalisation in South Africa - Spatial Perspectives on the Settlement Process and Policy Options with Special Reference to Natal/KwaZulu. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Natal, Durban.|Hagen, HS, and NAYLOR, SP. 1984. Railway Stamps of South Africa. Johannesburg: Philatelic Federation of Southern Africa.|Harford, Henry. 1978. Zulu War Journal. Pietermaritzburg: Shuter and Shooter.|Hattersley,l Alan F. 1950. The British Settlement of Natal. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.|Henderson, WPM. 1904. Durban: Fifty Years’ Municipal History. Durban: Robinson & Co. |Henning,C.G. 1993.The Indentured Indian in Natal 1860-1917.Promilla and Company Publishers.|Horrel, M (1956) Group Areas Act: Its Effect on Human Beings. South African Institute of Race Relations: Johannesburg|Illustrated london news, The. 12 January 1878, 29.|Illustrated london news, The. 23 August 1879. 75(2097).|Ireland, Rev William. c1865. Historical Sketch of the Zulu Mission in South Africa as also of the Gaboon Mission in Western Africa. Boston: American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions.|Isaacs, Nathaniel. 1970. Travels and Adventure in Eastern Africa: Natal. Cape Town: Struik.|Jackson, A (2006). ‘Cato Manor’ from Facts about Durban [online], available at: www.fad.co.za [accessed October 2010]|Jackson, Allan. 2003 Facts about Durban. Durban: FAD Publishing.|Jamal, Riaz Cassim. 1987. A Study of the West Street Mosque in Durban. Unpublished BA(Hons) Treatise, Department of Islamic Studies, University of Durban-Westville, Durban.|Johnson, Herbert. 1902. Editorial news, Natal Diocesian Magazine, June 1902. Pietermaritzburg: Davis & Sons.|Johnston, Peter. 1990. The Durban Chronicle. Unpublished manuscript, Durban Urban Strategy Department. |Kearney, Brian. 1973. Architecture in Natal: from 1824-1893. Cape Town: Balkema.|Lynsky, Rory. 1982. They Built a City. Durban: CED|Macmillan, Allister. 1936. Durban, Past and Present. Durban: The Author. |Malherbe, Janie. 1965. Port Natal. Cape Town: Howard Timmins.|Mchunu, Mxolisi. 2010. Zulu Manhood, Domestic Work and the Kitchen Suit. Unpublished draft paper circulated by the Author.|Meer, F. 1969.Protrait of Indian South Africans. Non House Publishers. South Africa. |Morrison, Ian. 1987. Durban: A Pictorial History. Cape Town: Struik.|Noronha. M. The Indian Population in Durban. 2000.[online]. Available at :www.soccerphile.com/indian durban.[Accessed 20 August 2010].|Pillay, Guru. Editor. 2002. Come to the Point. Durban: Point Indian Remembrance Committee.|Posel, Ros. 1985. The Durban Ricksha Pullers’ “Strikes” of 1918 and 1930. Journal of Natal and Zulu History, Vol VIII, 1985:85-106.
1989. “Continental Women” and Durban’s “Social Evil”, 1899-1905. Journal of Natal and Zulu History, Vol XII, 1989:1-14.
1990-1991. Amahashi: Durban’s Ricksha Pullers. Journal of Natal and Zulu History, Vol XIII, 1989:51-70.|Rosenthal, Eric. 1973. Encyclopaedia of Southern Africa. London: Warne.|Rosenthal, Eric, and BLUM, Eliezer. 1969. Runner and Mailcoach, Johannesburg: Purnell.|Russel, George. 1899. The History of Old Durban. Durban: Davis & Sons. |Southern Domain Online Travel Guides.Durban Indian Quarter.[online]. Available at: www.southafrica-travel.net. [Accessed 24 October 2010]. |South African Institute of Race Relations( SAIRR). 1943. Indian life and labour in Natal. SAIRR.|Seymour, Wilfred Massingham. 1982. Customary Law in Southern Africa. Cape Town: Juta.|Shuter, CF. 1963. Englishman’s Inn. Cape Town: Howard Timmins. |Smail, JL. 1969. With Shield and Assegay. Cape Town: Howard Timmins.
1979. From the Land of the Zulu Kings. Durban: AJ Pope. |Smith, Andrew. 1975. Andrew Smith's Journal of his Expedition into the Interior of South Africa: 1834-36. Cape Town: Balkema.|South African Railways and Harbours. 1964. Statement Showing, in Chronological Order, the Date of Opening and the Mileage of Each Section of Railway. Pretoria: SAR&H. |South African Shipping News and Fishing Industry Review. 1982. Marine Casualties: Southern African Waters, 1552 to 1913. Cape Town: 37(12): 18-51..|Standard Encyclopaedia of Southern Africa. 1970. Cape Town: NASOU.|Stavem, O. 1918. The Norwegian Missionary Society: A Short Review of its Work Among the Zulus. Stavanger: Norwegian Missionary Society.|Tourism-Natal. Local Festivals.2003.[online]. Available at: www.warthog.co.za/dedt/tourism/durban/culture/festivals.htm [Accessed 22 September 2010]. |Trappisten Mission Mariannhill. 1907. Das Trappisten-Missionkloster Mariannhill. Freiloung in Breisgau: Herdersche Verlagshandlung.|Vahed. G.H. 1995. The Making of Indian Identity in Durban (1914-1949). Ph.D. University of Indiana.|Umar,R. 2010.1860 Settlers looking back at 150 years. Daily News, 13 October 2010, supplement.|Umar,R. 2010. 1860 Settlers looking back at 150 years. Daily News,15 October 201, supplement |Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau |Warneck, Gustav. 1888. Modern Missions and Culture : Their Mutual Relations. Edinburgh: Gemmell.|Wilson, Monica and Thompson, Leonard. 1969. The Oxford History of South Africa: South Africa to 1870. London: Oxford University Press. https://www.gov.za/about-sa/history (accessed 06/09/2023)