Pondoland is the traditional area of the Pondo people, one of the Xhosa speaking peoples. Pondoland area is situated on the South African coast of the Indian Ocean, in the Eastern Cape Province. The boundaries of Pondoland are the Mtamvuna River in the north, which is also the limit between the Eastern Cape Province and Natal (now kwaZulu-Natal Province) and the Mthatha River at the south. The Mzimvubu River divides the area into West Pondoland and East Pondoland. Pondoland lies between the Mthatha River and the Mtamvuna River in the north along a coastal strip that is at a maximum 50 kilometres wide. The area is surrounded by mountains whose main vegetation consisted of thornveld, grassland, as well as subtropical evergreen forests in the wet coastal valleys. Pondoland’s towns are Bizana, Port St Johns, Lusikisiki, Ngqeleni, Tabankulu and Lidobe. Pondoland was separated into seven districts. Eastern Pondoland consisted of four districts: Lusikisiki (Qaukeni) which was and is still regarded as the capital town of Eastern Pondoland, Flagstaff (Spareni), Bizana and Ntabankulu. Western Pondoland consisted of three districts of Ngqeleni, Libode, and Port St Johns (Nyandeni), the capital town of Western Pondoland.
• Hammond-Tooke, D. (1964). Chieftainship in Transkcian Political Development. The Journal of Modern African Studies, 2, 4, p513-529.Lodge, Tom. (1979). Poqo and rural resistancein the Transkei, 1960-1965. Collected Seminar Papers. Institute of Commonwealth Studies, 24. pp. 137-147. ISSN 0076-0773 https://sas-space.sas.ac.uk/4074/
• Kepe, T, and Ntsebeza, L. (2011). Rural Resistance in South Africa: the Mpondo Revolts after Fifty years. African Studies Centre. Brill. LEIDEN. BOSTON. Stapleton, T, J. (2001). Faku: Rulership and colonialism in the mpondo kingdom (c. 1780 – 1867. Wilfrid Laurier University Press.
• Theal, George, MacCall. (1837). History of South Afrcia from 1873 to 1883, twelve eventful years, with continuation of the history Galekaland, Tembuland, Pondoland, Bathshuanaland until the annexation of those territories of Cape Colony, and the Zululand until its annexation of Natal (1919), London, Allen.
• Wood, G. (1993). “The Horsemen are coming”: Rethinking the Pondoland Rebellion, Rhodes University: Contree 33.
Dear friends of SAHO
South African History Online (SAHO) needs your support.
SAHO is one of the most visited websites in South Africa with over 6 million unique users a year. Our goal is to fulfill our mandate and continue to build, and make accessible, a new people’s history of South Africa and Africa.
Please help us deliver this by contributing upwards of $1.00 a month for the next 12 months.