Dr. A.B. Xuma is elected President-General of the African National Congress (ANC).
Walter Sisulu joins the African National Congress.
The population of Pageview is largely Indian and the area starts developing an Indian character. Mosques, temples and churches are established and the 14th Street shopping Mecca becomes popular.
Prof. Z. K. Matthews joins the African National Congress (ANC).
Cissie Gool becomes the president of the Non-European United Front (NEUF).
The Transvaal African Teachers Association's (TATA) Rand branch launches a teachers' salary campaign.
Hilda Bernstein joins the Communist Party of South Africa (CPSA) while Josie Palmer becomes a member of the party's Johannesburg Committee.
The Asiatic Land and Trading (Transvaal) Act is passed. It extends the 1939 law for two years but makes some concessions based on the Feetham Commission report, providing some security for the richer Indians. Some areas are exempted from the provisions of the Gold Law in Johannesburg, Krugersdorp, Klerksdorp and Roodepoort. It allows land to be transferred to Asians in the Malay location of Johannesburg and the Nigel Bazaar. NB.
January, A meeting is held between the Nationalist Bloc, Transvaal Indian Congress (TIC) leadership and the Indian Agent-General, Sir Benegal Rama Rau, to unite the Indian political factions in the Transvaal. However, the meeting ends in failure. NB.
February, The decision of the Natal Indian Association (NIA) executive to cooperate with the Lawrence Committee named after the minister of the Interior, H.G. Lawrence, in controlling the purchases of property by Indians in Durban, is ratified by the NIA's general body. This decision to cooperate with the Committee is largely thanks to the persuasive influence of the efforts of the Indian Agent-General, Sir Benegal Rama Rau, who stresses that the Committee will provide an opportunity to discuss Indian housing problems and the need for proper amenities in the predominantly Indian-occupied areas, as well as the need for good alternate residential areas for the Indian middle class.
4 February, The depleted Natal Indian Congress under the leadership of A.I. Kajee group declares that the Natal Indian Congress (NIC) is still in existence and that the procedures followed during the amalgamation of the NIC with the Colonial Born and Settlers Indian Association (CBSIA) are wrong. The depleted NIC strongly opposes the decision of the Natal Indian Association (NIA) to cooperate with the Lawrence Committee, arguing that it constitutes Indian acceptance of voluntary segregation. However, this stance is ironic, since Kajee in 1936 gave a similar assurance to the Natal Municipal Association.
14 March, The Lawrence Committee holds its inaugural meeting in Durban. The Committee consists of Mr R. Ellis-Brown (the Mayor of Durban), H.G. Capell, T. Kinloch, W.E. Knight, D.G. Shepstone and J.M. Harris as representatives of the Durban City Council; and six representatives of the Natal Indian Association (NIA), namely A. Christopher, Godfrey, A.S. Kajee, P.B. Singh, Sorabjee Rustomjee and P.R. Pather. The Indian Agent-General, Sir Benegal Rama Rau, also attends the inaugural meeting.
15 May, The Indian Penetration Commission, under the chairmanship of Justice F.N. Broome, is appointed to investigate and report on the extent of Indian residential and trading penetration of predominantly White areas in the Transvaal and Natal since 1 January, 1927.
June, Following a decision taken at a mass meeting of the Natal Indian Association (NIA) on 9 June, the Indian Service Corps is formed to provide transport, medical, hygiene and ambulance services in support of the South African Second World War effort.
The depleted Natal Indian Congress (also known as the A.I. Kajee group), with E.M. Paruk as president, holds a general meeting in Durban. The meeting is attended by 1,400 peop
9 June, The leadership of the Natal Indian Association (NIA), backed by the Indian Agent-General, Sir Benegal Rama Rau, declares its support for the Union Government war effort, but demands that there should be full equality between White, Black, Indian and Coloured troops in the armed services and that democratic rights be extended.
July, The Executive Committees of the All African Convention (AAC) and the African National Congress (ANC) meet and pass a resolution regarding World War II. They sympathise with the British Commonwealth and urge the South African government to give full recognition to the Africans participating in the war.
29 July, The recruitment for the Indian Service Corps (mechanical and transport section) begins under Colonel Morris. In a later confidential report, Colonel Morris highly praises the efforts of the Natal Indian Association (NIA), and especially that of A. Christopher, P.R. Pather, S.R. Naidoo and S. Rustomjee, each of whom had spent ten hours daily in assisting the recruiting programme.
20 September, The Indian Agent-General, Sir Benegal Rama Rau, reluctantly admits that the recruitment drive under Indians in Natal for the South African Indian Service Corps (established to provide transport, medical, hygiene and ambulance services in support of the South African Second World War II effort) has been a failure mainly due to the anti-war activities of the Nationalist Bloc in Natal.
December, The All African Convention convenes with sixty delegates. The delegates include Rheinallt Jones, who is elected to the senate representing Africans in the Transvaal in 1937.
Professor Davidson Don Tengo (D.D.T.) Jabavu refuses to give his opinion regarding World War II.
Council for Non-European Trade Unions is founded.
ANC calls for racial unity in a statement made by its president Dr. A.B. Xuma in Inkululeko.
The African Mine Workers' Union is formed.
The ANC congress resolves to review its position on women membership.
Soon after I.B. Tabata's criticism of the AAC, Dr. Alfred Bitini (A.B.) Xuma, vice president of AAC, in his presidential address states that the African National Congress (ANC) bears part of the blame of the AAC's weakness. He further mentions that the AAC has burdened itself with a federal constitution, meetings every three years and has made no attempt to establish any branches of the main organisation.
April, The African National Congress Youth League (ANCYL) is formally constituted in Johannesburg.
8 July, The ANC deputation comprising of Dr A.B. Xuma, President General, Mr. S.P. Matseke and Mr. R.V. Selope Thema, who was later replaced by Mr. E Mofutsanyane because of his inability to join with other members of the deputation, meets with the Minister of Justice. Report Click here
26 July, The ANC in Transvaal issues a flyer Mass Meeting, Africans Shot in Cold Blood, calling a meeting at Newtown Market Square Johannesburg.
December, I.B. Tabata at the All African Convention (AAC) special session criticises the Natives Representative Council. He calls it the White representatives of Africans in parliament, who plead for Africans in the same way that any White liberal, churchman or Joint Council pleads. Tabata describes the AAC as an organisation without strong leadership.
Sonia Bunting joins the Communist Party of South Africa.
Professor Davidson Don Tengo (D.D.T.) Jabavu criticises the format that the All African Convention uses for the election of its leadership.
March, The ANC deputation meets with the Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Native Affairs Colonel Denez Reitz to discuss African concerns ranging from the question of Army Services and African Representation during World War II, Land, Education, Wages and Recognition and Registration of African Trade Unions, the Native Administration Act and the Pass Laws.
18 June, Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki is born in Idutywa district in the Transkei.Thabo is the second child of Govan Mbeki and Ma Mofokeng.
11 November, The newly appointed member of the Native Representative Council, Paul R. Mosaka, writes a letter to the ANC president Dr A.B. Xuma.
December, The United Party Government starts relaxing influx control measures.
20 December - 22 December, The ANC conference held in Bloemfontein approves the formation of a youth wing and adopts the "Atlantic Charter from the Standpoint of Africans within the Union of South Africa" and Bill of Rights documents. Click here for the resolution.
The ANC draws up a Bill of Rights based on the Atlantic Charter drafted by Churchill and Roosevelt.
The ANC Women's League is formed as women are officially admitted as ANC members. Charlotte Maxeke is elected President, Ida Mntwana and Mrs Xuma officers.
Hilda Bernstein becomes Johannesburg City Councillor, only Communist elected to public office.
23 February, Fietas area in Johannesburg is officially named Pageview in honour of the then Mayor of Johannesburg, Mr. J.J. Page.
March, A long document titled Congress Youth League Manifesto is issued by the Johannesburg Provisional Preparatory Committee.
The Indian Reciprocity Act is passed in New Delhi by the Central Legislative Assembly. It imposes the same restrictions on South African Europeans in India as imposed on South African Indians in South Africa.
22 April, The Pegging Act goes to Senate.
May, The Asiatic Trading and Occupation of Land (Natal and Transvaal) Act (the Pegging Act) becomes law.
June, I.B. Tabata issues a statement calling all Africans, Coloureds and Indians, to attend an AAC conference in December 1943. The invitation is extended to other races as a show of unity against the oppressive White government.
July, The All African Convention (AAC) of the Western Province drafts a manifesto.
6 July, I.B. Tabata requests Professor Davidson Don Tengo (D.D.T.) Jabavu to attend a meeting of the AAC Western Province in Cape Town to discuss the manifesto.
11 July, The All African Convention (AAC) of Western Province meeting takes place.
August, The AAC manifesto is redrafted as a Call to Unity.
September, Professor Davidson Don Tengo (D. D. T.) Jabavu sends a copy of the manifesto to Rheinallt Jones.
Paul Mosaka, the youngest member of the Native Representative Council and Johannesburg businessman, forms the African Democratic Party with like-minded Africans including Dan Koza, Self Mampuru and G.R. Kuzwayo.
November, Rumours that Dr Alfred Bitini (A.B.) Xuma is to quit the All African Convention (AAC) are rife.
December, Seventy-two delegates, including Indians and Coloureds, attend the All African Convention (AAC). It coincides with the first meeting of the Non-European Unity Movement (NEUM). The meeting of these two organisations takes place in Bloemfontein and is chaired by Professor Davidson Don Tengo (D. D. T.) Jabavu.
13 December - 14 December, The Atlantic Charter Committee led by African National Congress (ANC) leader Dr Xuma, meets in Bloemfontein and draw up a memorandum titled The Atlantic Charter From the standpoint of Africans within the Union of South Africa. In this memorandum the articles of the Charter are discussed one by one and observations are made about each article.
16 December, The ANC annual conference adopts a new constitution. It also presents the African Claims in South Africa.
Mosaka appears in the Johannesburg Magistrate Court after he made speeches considered inflammatory in character by the South African Police. He also accused the government of being a Nazi Government at the African Democratic party meetings.
Chief Albert Luthuli joins the African National Congress.
Josie Palmer works with the National Anti-Pass Council.
Nelson Mandela joins the African National Congress at 25.
March, The ANCYL provisional committee issues the Congress Youth League Manifesto.
2 April, The ANCYL Transvaal branch is established in Johannesburg as the next step towards the formation of a national structure.
7 May, Natal Provincial Select Committee introduces a new Ordinance called the Residential Property Regulation Draft Ordinance, one of four ordinances designed to relegate Indians to certain specific areas.
The other three ordinances are:
The Natal Housing Board Ordinance;
The Provincial Local Authorities Expropriation Ordinance; and the
The Town Planning Ordinance.
All four ordinances are passed.
7 July, The All African Convention (AAC) meets in Johannesburg.
August, The Native Representatives Council passes a resolution that the government's segregation policy is the root of all distrust among races; that the policy is thus not conducive to peaceful relations between Black and White, and not in the best interest of South Africa.
10 September, A mass youth conference is held in Johannesburg to formally launch the national structure of the ANCYL. The first National Executive members are Anton Lembede president, Oliver Tambo Secretary, Walter Sisulu treasurer, A.P. Mda organiser and Nelson Mandela and David Bopape as additional members.
The ANCYL provisional committee issues a flyer Trumpet Call to Youth announcing a meeting.
Albert Luthuli is elected to the Executive Committee of the Natal Provincial Division of the African National Congress
Mark Hlubi and Peter Abrahams represent the ANC at the Pan African Congress in Manchester. While in Manchester they meet prominent African politicians, including Kwame Nkrumah from Gold Coast (now Ghana), Dr Azikiwe from Nigeria, Jomo Kenyatta from Kenya and Kamazu Banda from Nyasaland (now Malawi). This is a critical event in exposing African scholars to ideas and strategies on seeking independence for African colonies using the Black Consciousness ideology. The theme of the congress envisages an end to colonial rule and political independence.
February, The ANCYL national president, A.M. Lembede, issues an article called Some Basic Principles of African Nationalism in Inyaniso.
16 March, The ANCYL Transvaal writes a letter to Ruth First, the Secretary of the Progressive Youth Council. The ANCYL is responding to First's letter dated 9th March of the same year.
1 June, Natives (Urban Areas) Consolidation Act No 25 is passed. The Act introduces influx control, applicable to Black males only. People who are deemed to be leading idle or dissolute live or who had committed certain specified offences, could be removed from an urban area.
27 October, The candidates of the Anti-Segregation Council, led by Dr G.M. Naicker, are elected at a public meeting of over 7,000 people in Durban as officials of the Natal Indian Congress. Dr. Naicker succeeds A.I. Kajee as President.
Albert Luthuli becomes the Natal representative on the Natives' Representative Council (NRC) following the death of Dr John Dube.
Dr Xuma attends the first session of the General Assembly of the United Nations in the hope to present the views of the ANC regarding the Smuts government's racial policies in the lobbies of the new international forum. The South African Indian Congress (SAIC) assists Xuma to come into contact with the Indian delegation at the UN.
The Natal Inter-Race Soccer Board is established with the help of Albert Luthuli.
January, The ANC president Dr Xuma cables to the United Nations, opposing the incorporation of South West Africa into the Union of South Africa. Xuma's effort is congratulated by Moses Kotane.
21 January, Prime Minister J.C. Smuts announces government's intention to introduce new legislation to replace the Pegging Act, due to expire on 31 March.
22 January, Natal Indian Congress (NIC) sends a cable to the government of India urging an appeal to the United Nations on behalf of the Indians in South Africa.
3 February, Natal Indian Congress (NIC) calls a mass meeting to protest against the proposed Asiatic Bill. A resolution condemning the bill, rejecting communal franchise, proposing a round table conference of South Africa with India, and advocating effective mass resistance is passed.
8 February - 12 February, A conference of The South African Indian Congress (SAIC), held in Cape Town, unanimously resolves to oppose the proposed legislation by proceeding immediately to prepare the Indian people of South Africa for concerted and prolonged resistance. During the conference a large deputation of sixty Indians calls on the Prime Minister, Field Marshal Smuts, on 11 February and urges him to postpone the legislation, pending a round table conference with India.
20 February, A Day of Prayer, called by Natal Indian Congress (NIC), is observed very widely. Indian businesses are closed at 1 p.m. and many Indians take a resistance pledge.
March, A South African Indian Congress (SAIC) delegation led by Sorabjee Rustomjee visits India. It meets Gandhiji and other leaders, and is received by the Viceroy. The Working Committee of the Indian National Congress declares its full support to the South African Indians in their struggle.
3 March, South African Indian Congress delegation meets Mahatma Gandhi in Poona.
12 March, The South African Indian Congress (SAIC) delegation (Sorabjee Rustomjee, SR. Naidoo, A.A. Mirza and A.S.M. Kajee) is received by the Viceroy, Lord Wavell, in Delhi.
15 March, The Asiatic Land Tenure and Indian Representation Bill is introduced in the House of Assembly.
18 March, Mahatma Gandhi sends a telegram to Field Marshal Smuts asking him to withdraw the Asiatic Bill. He also issues a press statement describing the Bill as a challenge to Asia and Africa.
24 March, The Executive Committee of the South African Indian Congress (SAIC), at its meeting held in Cape Town, decides to instruct the Natal and the Transvaal Indian Congresses to proceed immediately to plan and prepare the details of a concerted and prolonged resistance.
31 March, 6000 Indians march in Durban to protest against the Asiatic Bill, and support the South African Indian Congress resolution for Passive Resistance. Dr G.M. Naicker, President of the Natal Indian Congress (NIC), addresses the demonstrators. H.I.E. Dhlomo of the ANC and L.A. Smith of the African People Organisation (APO) speaks at the meeting and declares the support of the African and Coloured people to the Indians in their struggle.
16 April, A leader of the House in the Central Legislative Assembly of India, Ramaswami Mudaliar, announces that the government of India would initiate steps to bring the issue of the oppression of Indians in South Africa before the United Nations.
21 April, The Transvaal Indian Congress (TIC) at a mass meeting held in Johannesburg, decides to set up the Transvaal Passive Resistance Council with fifteen members, under the chairmanship of Dr Y.M. Dadoo.
May, The ANCYL president Lembede publishes an article in Inkundla ya Bantu.
11 May, The first meeting of the Joint Passive Resistance Council of Natal and Transvaal is held in Durban.
23 May, Indian government asks its High Commissioner in South Africa, Ramrao Madhavrao Deshmukh, to return to Indian for consultations. He sails for India the next day.
2 June, Asiatic Land Tenure and Indian Representation Bill, called by Indians the Ghetto Act, receives the assent of the Governor-General and becomes a law.
3 June, Natal Indian Congress (NIC) meets in emergency session in Durban and decides on a hartal on 13 June, which is a designated Resistance Day to mark the beginning of the Passive Resistance against the Ghetto Act.
4 June, Dr G.M. Naicker, President of the Natal Indian Congress (NIC), warns that any Indian who accept membership in the Land Tenure Advisory Board would be ostracised.
13 June, Y.M. Dadoo and Dr. G.M. Naicker lead Indian Passive Resistance campaign against the Asiatic Land Tenure and Indian Representation Act, enacted by the Smuts government.
15 June, Indians observe complete hartal throughout the country. Mass meetings are held in many cities and towns. A mass meeting of over 15 000 people at the Red Square in Durban is addressed by Dr G.M. Naicker. After the meeting, a procession marches to the corner of Gale Street and Umbilo Road where the first batch of seventeen Passive Resisters (including seven women) pitches five tents on a piece of vacant municipal land in defiance of the Ghetto Act.
16 June, White hooligans attacks the resistance camp, while police stand by. Passive Resisters continue to occupy the camp despite the threat of violence.
17 June, More than a hundred Whites raid the resistance camp, pull down tents and smash camp stretchers. Some Resisters are injured in the scuffle, including women from the Transvaal. Police again take no action.
18 June, Dr Dadoo flies to Durban to study the situation as White hooligans continue to harass Passive Resisters.
19 June, White hooligans attack Indians in and around the camp. Thousands of Indians visit the camp to show admiration for the Resisters and hundreds enrol as Resisters all over South Africa.
21 June, Speaking at a prayer meeting in New Delhi, Mahatma Gandhi calls on the South African government to stop the hooliganism of the Whites against Passive Resisters.
22 June, The Indian government requests that the question of the treatment of Indians in the Union of South Africa be included in the agenda of the second part of the first session of the General Assembly of the United Nations.
Passive Resisters, led by Dr G.M. Naicker, appear in the Durban magistrate court. All Passive Resisters, except Dr Naicker and M.D. Naidoo, are cautioned and discharged. Dr Naicker and Mr. Naidoo are summoned to appear in court on 22 July.
November, Professor Z.K. Matthews issues a pamphlet called Reasons Why the Native Representative Council in the Union of South Africa Adjourned. Click here to read the pamphlet.
14 December - 15 December, ANC holds its annual conference.
17 December, ANC annual conference asks its National Executive Committee to consider the possibilities of closer cooperation with the national organisations of other non-Europeans in the common struggle.
January, The government seizes the passport of Dr Dadoo, and rejects an application by Dr Naicker for a passport. They (Dadoo and Naicker) are obliged to postpone their plans to leave for India on 9 February. There are many protests and even pro-government newspapers criticise government's action.
March, Dr Dadoo and Dr Naicker are granted passports after intervention by Mahatma Gandhi and the Indian government, which had invited them to the Asian Relations Conference.
9 March, Representatives of the African National Congress (ANC), Natal Indian Congress (NIC) and Transvaal Indian Congress (TIC) meet in Johannesburg. The Presidents of the three Congresses, Dr Xuma, Dr Naicker and Dr Dadoo, sign a joint declaration of cooperation (The Three Doctors' Pact).
11 March, Dr Dadoo and Dr G.M. Naicker leave South Africa to visit India. After a stop-over in Cairo where they meet the Secretary-General of the Arab League, they arrive in India on 18 March.
21 March, Dr Xuma issues a flyer To All Africans and Friends of Justice. Click here to read the Flyer.
23 March, A meeting of the African National Congress (ANC), African People's Organisation (APO), Natal Indian Congress (NIC) and Transvaal Indian Congress (TIC) is held in Johannesburg to discuss cooperation.
4 May, The Natal Indian Organisation (NIO) is formed by moderate Indians.
21 May, A delegation of the newly formed Natal Indian Organisation (NIO) meets Prime Minister J.C. Smuts.
27 May, Dr Dadoo and Dr Naicker return to South Africa from Indian.
June, Dr Dadoo opens the Conference of the African People's Organisation.
29 July, The ANCYL president, Anton Lembede, dies at the age of 33.
September, Donald Molteno, the representative for Africans in the Western Cape, writes to Professor Jabavu seeking clarity on the All African Convention (AAC) election boycott. In a confidential letter Jabavu writes back to Molteno stating that a decision to boycott the election was taken in 1944.
9 September, Ashwin Choudree and A.I. Meer, representing the Transvaal Indian Congress and the Natal Indian Congress, leave for New York to attend the session of the UN General Assembly.
December, The All African Convention (AAC) meeting fails to take place as initially arranged by the Executive of the AAC.
13 December, The Transvaal Indian Organisation is formed.
The Basic Policy of the ANCYL, which emphasises the new assertiveness of the Black protest politics after World War II, is issued.
ANC Women's League holds its first conference, with Ida Mtwana as President.
Albertina Sisulu joins the ANC Women's League.
Wycliffe Tsotsi replaces Professor Davidson Don Tengo (D. D. T.) Jabavu as president of the AAC.
29 January, At a conference of the Natal Indian Organisation (NIO), the Transvaal Indian Organisation (TIO) and the Cape Indian Congress, addressed by Prime Minister Jan Smuts, it is decided to form a South African Indian Organisation.
15 March, The South African Indian Organisation is formed at a conference in Durban.
28 May, The Nationalist Party under Dr D.F. Malan comes into power, and institutionalised Apartheid in South Africa.
June, I.B. Tabata writes to Nelson Mandela of the African National Congress Youth League (ANCYL) trying to win him over to the AAC.
July, Rev. J.A. Calata makes a presidential address at the ANC Provincial conference in Cape Town.
September, Mr. Sam Kahn wins election to Parliament as representative of Natives of the Western Constituency of the Cape by an overwhelming majority against a Nationalist and an independent opponent. He is the first Communist to be elected to Parliament.
October, Dr. A.B. Xuma calls a meeting of African leaders to end the rift between the ANC and the All-African Convention.
17 November, Tension between members of the All African Convention (AAC) arises. The AAC members at the joint conference with the African National Congress (ANC) cannot find common ground on issues pertaining to the running of the organisation. The AAC rejects the Call for African Unity proposal.
December, Professor Davidson Don Tengo (D. D. T.) Jabavu bows out of politics, thus paving the way for a younger generation. This is a small price to pay for his disloyalty to the pro-boycott principles of the All African Convention (AAC) and Non-European Unity Movement (NEUM).
16 December - 17 December, The Joint conference of the ANC and All Africa Convention is held in Batho Location Community Hall, Bloemfontein.
Fatima Meer establishes the Durban Districts Women's League.
20 January, The ANC Working Committee issues a statement signed by Dr Xuma on the Durban Riots.
6 February, The Joint meeting of African and Indian leaders from the ANC and SAIC held in Durban issues a statement for closer co-operation.
April, The All African Convention calls upon the ANC to support the policy of non-collaboration with government during their joint National Executive Committee meeting.
17 April, A second joint conference between the All African Convention (AAC) and the African National Congress is held. This conference also fails to form a union between the two organisations.
October, Robert M. Sobukwe gives an address on behalf of the Graduating Class at Fort Hare College.
15 December - 19 December, The ANC annual conference adopts a Programme of Action which abandons the traditional moderate approach of petitions and deputations in favour of mass action using the tactics of boycotts, strikes and civil disobedience. At this conference, Walter Sisulu is elected Secretary-General and Dr. J.S. Moroka replaces Dr. A.B. Xuma as President-General of the African National Congress. Click here to see the minutes of the conference.

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