This topic investigates the ways in which the politics and culture of the Boer Republics clashed with the modernising thrust of the Uitlanders on the rapidly growing Reef in the late 19th century. The topic ends with the Union settlement in 1910. The Union laid the foundation for white co-operation at the expense of black South Africans (in terms of franchise and land). It resulted in the consolidation of white rule, and thereby paved the way for a system of racial capitalism. The Land Act was the precursor to Apartheid land settlement, which resulted in forced removals, with their social and economic consequences.