Posted by Leander on May 21, 2013

Introduction

The June 16 1976 Uprising that began in Soweto and spread countrywide profoundly changed the socio-political landscape in South Africa. Events that triggered the uprising can be traced back to policies of the Apartheid government that resulted in the introduction of the Bantu Education Act in 1953. The rise of the Black Consciousness Movement (BCM) and the formation of South African Students Organisation (SASO) raised the political consciousness of many students while others joined the wave of anti-Apartheid sentiment within the student community. When the language of Afrikaans alongside English was made compulsory as a medium of instruction in schools in 1974, black students began mobilizing themselves. On 16 June 1976 between 3000 and 10 000 students mobilized by the South African Students Movement's Action Committee supported by the BCM marched peacefully to demonstrate and protest against the government’s directive. The march was meant to culminate at a rally in Orlando Stadium.

On their pathway they were met by heavily armed police who fired teargas and later live ammunition on demonstrating students. This resulted in a widespread revolt that turned into an uprising against the government. While the uprising began in Soweto, it spread across the country and carried on until the following year.

The aftermath of the events of June 16 1976 had dire consequences for the Apartheid government. Images of the police firing on peacefully demonstrating students led an international revulsion against South Africa as its brutality was exposed. Meanwhile, the weakened and exiled liberation movements received new recruits fleeing political persecution at home giving impetus to the struggle against Apartheid. 

Bantu Education Policy

Bantu Education Policy

The word ‘Bantu’ in the term Bantu education is highly charged politically and has derogatory connotations. The Bantu Educational system was designed to ‘train and fit’ Africans for their role in the newly (1948) evolving apartheid society. Education was viewed as a part of the overall apartheid system including ‘homelands’, urban restrictions, pass laws and job reservation. This role was one of labourer, worker, and servant only. As H.F Verwoerd, the architect of the Bantu Education Act (1953), conceived it:

“There is no place for [the African] in the European community above the level of certain forms of labour. It is of no avail for him to receive a training which has as its aim, absorption in the European community”

Pre-apartheid education of Africans

It is mistaken however, to understand that there was no pre-apartheid educational marginalization of black South Africans. Long before the historic 1948 white elections that gave the Nationalist Party power, there was a system of segregated and unequal education in the country. While white schooling was free, compulsory and expanding, black education was sorely neglected. Financial underprovision and an urban influx led to gravely insufficient schooling facilities, teachers and educational materials as well as student absenteeism or non-enrolment. A 1936 Inquiry identified problems, only to have almost nothing done about these needs.

Bantu education and the racist compartmentalizing of education.

In 1949 the government appointed the Eiselen Commission with the task of considering African education provision. The Commission recommended 'resorting to radical measures' for the 'effective reform of the Bantu school system'.

In 1953, prior to the apartheid government's Bantu Education Act, 90% of black South African schools were state-aided mission schools. The Act demanded that all such schools register with the state, and removed control of African education from the churches and provincial authorities. This control was centralized in the Bantu Education Department, a body dedicated to keeping it separate and inferior. Almost all the mission schools closed down. The Roman Catholic Church was largely alone in its attempt to keep its schools going without state aid. The 1953 Act also separated the financing of education for Africans from general state spending and linked it to direct tax paid by Africans themselves, with the result that far less was spent on black children than on white children.

In 1954--5 black teachers and students protested against Bantu Education. The African Education Movement was formed to provide alternative education. For a few years, cultural clubs operated as informal schools, but by 1960 they had closed down.

The Extension of University Education Act, Act 45 of 1959, put an end to black students attending white universities (mainly the universities of Cape Town and Witwatersrand). Separating tertiary institutions according to race, this Act set up separate 'tribal colleges' for black university students. The so-called 'bush' Universities such as Fort Hare, Vista, Venda, Western Cape were formed. Blacks could no longer freely attend white universities. Again, there were strong protests.

Expenditure on Bantu Education increased from the late 1960s, once the apartheid Nationalist government saw the need for a trained African labour force. Through this, more African children attended school than under the old missionary system of education, albeit grossly deprived of facilities in comparison with the education of other races, especially whites.

Nationally, pupil:teacher ratios went up from 46:1 in 1955 to 58:1 in 1967. Overcrowded classrooms were used on a rota basis. There was also a lack of teachers, and many of those who did teach were underqualified. In 1961, only 10 per cent of black teachers held a matriculation certificate [last year of high school]. Black education was essentially retrogressing, with teachers being less qualified than their students.

The Coloured Person's Education Act of 1963 put control of 'coloured' education under the Department of Coloured Affairs. 'Coloured' schools also had to be registered with the government. 'Coloured' education was made compulsory, but was now effectively separated from white schooling.

The 1965 Indian Education Act was passed to separate and control Indian education, which was placed under the Department of Indian Affairs. In 1976, the SAIC took over certain educational functions. Indian education was also made compulsory.

Because of the government's 'homelands' policy, no new high schools were built in Soweto between 1962 and 1971 -- students were meant to move to their relevant homeland to attend the newly built schools there. Then in 1972 the government gave in to pressure from business to improve the Bantu Education system to meet business's need for a better trained black workforce. 40 new schools were built in Soweto. Between 1972 and 1976 the number of pupils at secondary schools increased from 12,656 to 34,656. One in five Soweto children were attending secondary school.

Oppression through inferior education and the 1976 Soweto uprising

An increase in secondary school attendance had a significant effect on youth culture. Previously, many young people spent the time between leaving primary school and obtaining a job (if they were lucky) in gangs, which generally lacked any political consciousness. But now secondary school students were developing their own. In 1969 the black South African Student Organization (SASO) was formed.

Though Bantu Education was designed to deprive Africans and isolate them from 'subversive' ideas, indignation at being given such 'gutter' education became a major focus for resistance, most notably in the 1976 Soweto uprising. In the wake of this effective and clear protest, some reform attempts were made, but it was a case of too little, too late. Major disparities in racially separate education provision continued into the 1990s.

When high-school students in Soweto started protesting for better education on 16 June 1976, police responded with teargas and live bullets. It is commemorated today by a South African national holiday, Youth day, which honors all the young people who lost their lives in the struggle against Apartheid and Bantu Education.

In the 1980s very little education at all took place in the Bantu Education system, which was the target of almost continuous protest. The legacy of decades of inferior education (underdevelopment, poor self-image, economic depression, unemployment, crime, etc.) has lasted far beyond the introduction of a single educational system in 1994 with the first democratic elections, and the creation of the Government of National Unity.

Strikes in the Schools

Strikes in the Schools

Presumably, not all students of the earlier generation 'worshipped the school authorities'! The first, recorded stoppages of lessons, (always called strikes in the South African newspapers), and the first riots in African schools occurred in 1920. In February, students at the Kilnerton training centre went on a hunger strike 'for more food'... read on

Cape Schools Join the Revolt

The school students in Cape Town reacted to the news they heard of events in Soweto. A teacher at one of the Coloured schools was later to write: 'We haven't done much by way of teaching since the Soweto riots first began. Kids were restless, tense and confused. 'There is no similar record of what the African children thought, but it is known that they were aware of the extra police patrols that were set up in the townships following June 16. After the first shootings in Cape Town, a teacher at one of the schools recounted... read on

The NUSAS Issue

Throughout the 1960's black students campaigned for the right to affiliate to the National Union of South African Students (NUSAS) and just as steadfastly, the move was vetoed by the campus authorities. NUSAS was also keen to welcome the colleges into their fold. Not only would this make it the largest student organisation in the country, but it would also bring into the liberal ''old all student opponents of the government's apartheid policy.... read on

Down with Afrikaans

Countdown to conflict: The main cause of the protests that started in African schools in the Transvaal at the beginning of 1975 was a directive from the Bantu Education Department that Afrikaans had to be used on an equal basis with English as one of the languages of instruction in the department's secondary schools... read on

The introduction of Afrikaans alongside English as a medium of instruction is considered the immediate cause of the Soweto uprising, but there are a various factors behind the 1976 student unrest. These factors can certainly be traced back to the Bantu Education Act introduced by the Apartheid government in 1953. The Act introduced a new Department of Bantu Education which was integrated into the Department of Native Affairs under Dr Hendrik F. Verwoerd. The provisions of the Bantu Education Act and some policy statements made by the Bantu Education Department were directly responsible for the uprisings. Dr Verwoerd, who engineered the Bantu Education Act, announced that “Natives (blacks) must be taught from an early age that equality with Europeans (whites) is not for them”.

Although the Bantu Education Act made it easier for more children to attend school in Soweto than it had been with the missionary system of education, there was a great deal of discontent about the lack of facilities. Throughout the country there was a dire shortage of classrooms for Black children. There was also a lack of teachers and many of the teachers were under-qualified. Nationally, pupil-to-teacher ratios went up from 46:1 in 1955 to 58:1 in 1967. Because of the lack of proper classrooms and the crippling government homeland policy, students were forced to return to “their homelands” to attend the newly built schools there.

The government was spending far more on White education than on Black education; R644 was spent annually for each White student, while only R42 was budgeted for a Black school child. In 1976 there were 257 505 pupils enrolled in Form 1 at high schools which had a capacity for only 38 000 students.

To alleviate the situation pupils who had passed their standard six examinations were requested to repeat the standard. This was met with great resentment by the students and their parents. Although the situation did not lead to an immediate revolt, it certainly served to build up tensions prior to the 1976 student uprising.

In 1975 the government was phasing out Standard Eight (or Junior Certificate (JC)). By then, Standard Six had already been phased out and many students graduating from Primary Schools were being sent to the emerging Junior Secondary Schools. It was in these Junior Secondary schools that the 50-50 language rule was to be applied.

The issue that caused massive discontent and made resentment boil over into the 1976 uprising was a decree issued by the Bantu Education Department. Deputy Minister Andries Treurnicht sent instructions to the School Boards, inspectors and principals to the effect that Afrikaans should be put on an equal basis with English as a medium of instruction in all schools. These instructions drew immediate negative reaction from various quarters of the community. The first body to react was the Tswana School Boards, which comprised school boards from Meadowlands, Dobsonville and other areas in Soweto. The minutes of the meeting of the Tswana School Board held on 20 January 1976 read:

 "The circuit inspector told the board that the Secretary for Bantu Education has stated that all direct taxes paid by the Black population of South Africa are being sent to the various homelands for educational purposes there. 

"In urban areas the education of a Black child is being paid for by the White population, that is English and Afrikaans speaking groups. Therefore the Secretary for Bantu Education has the responsibility of satisfying the English and Afrikaans-speaking people. Consequently, as the only way of satisfying both groups, the medium of instruction in all schools shall be on a 50-50 basis.... In future, if schools teach through a medium not prescribed by the department for a particular subject, examination question papers will only be set in the medium with no option of the other language".

Teachers also raised objections to the government announcement. Some Black teachers, who were members of the African Teachers Association of South Africa, complained that they were not fluent in Afrikaans. The students initially organised themselves into local cultural groups and youth clubs. At school there was a significant number of branches of the Students Christian Movements (SCMs), which were largely apolitical in character. SASM penetrated these formations between 1974 and 1976. And when conditions ripened for the outbreak of protests, SASM formed an Action Committee on 13 June 1976, which was later renamed the Soweto Student Representative Council (SSRC). They were conscientised and influenced by national organisations such as the Black Peoples' Convention (BPC), South African Student Organisations (SASO)and by the Black Consciousness philosophy. They rejected the idea of being taught in the language of the oppressor.

The uprising took place at a time when liberation movements were banned throughout the country and South Africa was in the grip of apartheid. The protest started off peacefully in Soweto but it turned violent when the police opened fire on unarmed students. By the third day the unrest had gained momentum and spread to townships around Soweto and other parts of the country. The class of 1976 bravely took to the streets and overturned the whole notion that workers were the only essential force to challenge the apartheid regime. Indeed, they succeeded where their parents had failed. They not only occupied city centres but also closed schools and alcohol outlets.

June 16 Soweto Youth Uprising

June 16 Soweto Youth Uprising

The introduction of Afrikaans alongside English as a medium of instruction is considered the immediate cause of the Soweto uprising, but there are a various factors behind the 1976 student unrest. These factors can certainly be traced back to the Bantu Education Act introduced by the Apartheid government in 1953. The Act introduced a new Department of Bantu Education which was integrated into the Department of Native Affairs under Dr Hendrik F. Verwoerd. The provisions of the Bantu Education Act and some policy statements made by the Bantu Education Department were directly responsible for the uprisings. Dr Verwoerd, who engineered the Bantu Education Act, announced that “Natives (blacks) must be taught from an early age that equality with Europeans (whites) is not for them”.

Although the Bantu Education Act made it easier for more children to attend school in Soweto than it had been with the missionary system of education, there was a great deal of discontent about the lack of facilities. Throughout the country there was a dire shortage of classrooms for Black children. There was also a lack of teachers and many of the teachers were under-qualified. Nationally, pupil-to-teacher ratios went up from 46:1 in 1955 to 58:1 in 1967. Because of the lack of proper classrooms and the crippling government homeland policy, students were forced to return to “their homelands” to attend the newly built schools there.

The government was spending far more on White education than on Black education; R644 was spent annually for each White student, while only R42 was budgeted for a Black school child. In 1976 there were 257 505 pupils enrolled in Form 1 at high schools which had a capacity for only 38 000 students.

To alleviate the situation pupils who had passed their standard six examinations were requested to repeat the standard. This was met with great resentment by the students and their parents. Although the situation did not lead to an immediate revolt, it certainly served to build up tensions prior to the 1976 student uprising.

In 1975 the government was phasing out Standard Eight (or Junior Certificate (JC)). By then, Standard Six had already been phased out and many students graduating from Primary Schools were being sent to the emerging Junior Secondary Schools. It was in these Junior Secondary schools that the 50-50 language rule was to be applied.

The issue that caused massive discontent and made resentment boil over into the 1976 uprising was a decree issued by the Bantu Education Department. Deputy Minister Andries Treurnicht sent instructions to the School Boards, inspectors and principals to the effect that Afrikaans should be put on an equal basis with English as a medium of instruction in all schools. These instructions drew immediate negative reaction from various quarters of the community. The first body to react was the Tswana School Boards, which comprised school boards from Meadowlands, Dobsonville and other areas in Soweto. The minutes of the meeting of the Tswana School Board held on 20 January 1976 read:

 "The circuit inspector told the board that the Secretary for Bantu Education has stated that all direct taxes paid by the Black population of South Africa are being sent to the various homelands for educational purposes there. 

"In urban areas the education of a Black child is being paid for by the White population, that is English and Afrikaans speaking groups. Therefore the Secretary for Bantu Education has the responsibility of satisfying the English and Afrikaans-speaking people. Consequently, as the only way of satisfying both groups, the medium of instruction in all schools shall be on a 50-50 basis.... In future, if schools teach through a medium not prescribed by the department for a particular subject, examination question papers will only be set in the medium with no option of the other language".

Teachers also raised objections to the government announcement. Some Black teachers, who were members of the African Teachers Association of South Africa, complained that they were not fluent in Afrikaans. The students initially organised themselves into local cultural groups and youth clubs. At school there was a significant number of branches of the Students Christian Movements (SCMs), which were largely apolitical in character. SASM penetrated these formations between 1974 and 1976. And when conditions ripened for the outbreak of protests, SASM formed an Action Committee on 13 June 1976, which was later renamed the Soweto Student Representative Council (SSRC). They were conscientised and influenced by national organisations such as the Black Peoples' Convention (BPC), South African Student Organisations (SASO)and by the Black Consciousness philosophy. They rejected the idea of being taught in the language of the oppressor.

The uprising took place at a time when liberation movements were banned throughout the country and South Africa was in the grip of apartheid. The protest started off peacefully in Soweto but it turned violent when the police opened fire on unarmed students. By the third day the unrest had gained momentum and spread to townships around Soweto and other parts of the country. The class of 1976 bravely took to the streets and overturned the whole notion that workers were the only essential force to challenge the apartheid regime. Indeed, they succeeded where their parents had failed. They not only occupied city centres but also closed schools and alcohol outlets.

Timeline of June 16

Timeline of June 16

It is hard to get a clear picture of what exactly happened on the day of June 16th. Most of the information comes from eyewitness accounts of students who participated, journalists who were on the scene, as well as the police reports on the events. As with all history, a lot depends on the perspective of the person telling the story as well as those who have subsequently written about it. Some accounts directly contradict each other. We are not endeavouring to write an objective account but are providing a platform for people to tell their own stories which we hope will form an accurate portrayal of events. Please send us an e-mail us and tell us if any of the information is factually incorrect.

07:00

Not all the children who were to participate in the march on June 16 knew about it on the morning of the 16th. For many it was an ordinary school day. But, by this time, students were feeling very frustrated and dissatisfied with the Bantu education system in general and the introduction of Afrikaans as a medium of instruction. It was exam time for the senior students and many were scared that they would fail the exams if they would have to write in Afrikaans.

Nonetheless the march that was planned by the Action Committee of the Soweto Students Representative Council (SSRC) was well organised and was to be conducted in a peaceful way. The leaders of the original march, mainly came from two high schools, Naledi High in Naledi and Morris Isaacson in Mofolo. Sfiso Ndlovo argues, however, that the main centre of organisational activity was Phefeni Junior Secondary, close to Vilakazi Street in Orlando. Phefeni was certainly close to the railway station from which many students got off their trains to join the march. The plan was that students from Naledi High were to march from their direction and pick up students from the schools on their way. The Morris Isaacson students were to march from their school doing the same until they met at a central point where they would proceed peacefully together to the Orlando Stadium. Other schools also were part of the original plan but it is not clear that the students at all those schools were fully aware of the march.

07:30

The first students to gather together were at Naledi High. The mood was high spirited and jovial. At assembly the principal gave support to the children and wished them good luck. The first chairperson of the Action Committee, Tepello Motopanyane addressed them and informed them that discipline and a peaceful march were to be the order of the day.

Meanwhile, at Morris Isaacson students also gathered. They were also addressed by one of the leaders of the Action Committee, Tsietsi Mashinini, and then set out.

On the way they passed by other schools, where some were waiting and those who were not were recruited on the spot to join.

"We were singing and it was jovial, the mood, exciting and with the placards we started going."

- Dan Moyane Morris Isaacson High School

"The first time we heard of it was during our short break. Our leaders informed the principal that students from Morris Isaacson were marching. We then joined one of the groups and marched."

- Sam Khosa Ibhongo secondary School

In the end there were 11 columns of students marching to Orlando Stadium to meet at the central point of "Uncle Toms" Municipal hall. Before this point, there had been some minor skirmishes with police but it was here that police stopped them, barricading their path. Other schools had been stopped by the police earlier on and had dispersed but managed to join later. It is hard to determine how many students there were, estimates range from 1 000 to 10 000.

09:00

The march was halted and some people helped Tietsi Mashinini climb up onto a tractor so that everyone could see him when he addressed the crowd:

Brothers and Sisters, I appeal to you-keep calm and cool. We have just received a report that the police are coming. Don't taunt them, don't do anything to them. Be cool and calm. We are not fighting.

It was a tense moment for both the police and the students. Police reports stated that the situation was explosive and they retreated to await further reinforcements.

09:30

The students carried on marching until they got to what is now Hector Petersen Square, close to Orlando High School. The march came to a halt again. Different reports of what actually started the shooting have been put forward.

"Despite the tense atmosphere the students remained calm and well ordered.

Suddenly a white policeman lobbed a teargas canister into the front of the crowd. People ran out of the smoke dazed and coughing. The crowd retreated slightly but remained facing the police, waving placards and singing. A white policeman drew his revolver. Black journalists standing by the police heard a shot: "Look at him. He's going to shoot at the kids". A single shot ran out. There was a split seconds silence and pandemonium broke out. Children screamed. More shots were fired. At least four students fell and others ran screaming in all directions." Brooks & Brickhill Whirlwind before the storm, 1980

12:00

After the first massacre, the students fled in different directions. Anger at the senseless killings inspired retaliatory action. West Rand Administrative Buildings (WRAB) vehicles and buildings were set alight and burned to the ground, a white WRAB official was pulled out of his car and beaten to death, bottlestores were burned and looted. Other encounters with the police occurred where more students were killed especially in the vicinity of the Regina Mhundi church in Orlando and the Esso garage in Chiawelo. As students were stopped by the police in one area they moved their protest action to others. By the end of the day most of Soweto, including Diepkloof, which was relatively quiet during the morning, had felt the impact of the protest. For the students at some schools, this was the first they heard or saw. Schools were closed early at about 12:00 and many students walked out of school to a township on fire.

"It was past twelve, past twelve to one. Sister Joseph allowed us to go home, because now it was chaos around. So when we went home we could see that now cars were burning, especially the company cars, those from town, those owned by whites".

As more students were let out of school they joined those protesters that were closest to them. Some accounts see the events of the afternoon to be chaos or a "free for all" especially on the basis that bottlestores and beerhalls were raided and looted. The apartheid press certainly tried to portray it that way. It was clear that the events of the afternoon were not organised and an atmosphere of panic and defiance existed. However, others argue that the students attacked targets for political reasons and were disciplined in who and what they attacked. A white university student who was sympathetic was actually taken to safety by the schoolchildren themselves. It was overwhelmingly, WRAB structures and cars that were razed. One black owned business was attacked, the shop of Richard Maponya but this was deliberate. Maponya was a wealthy businessman who was despised by most people because "he exploits us and is a sell out".

There probably was an element of free for all in the looting of bottlestores. Many students came home with booze and a lot of people enjoyed the results of the plunder. But people had long seen alcohol as a method used by the apartheid government to try and make black people apathetic. Most of the beerhalls were built by the municipality. People were shouting "less liquor, better education". There were probably different motivations at play in the raids of the bottlestores. In any political protest there are those that are more politically motivated and disciplined than others, to see it as one or the other is to misunderstand the nature of political mass action.

Fires continued blazing into the night. At 21:00 Armoured Police cars later known as Hippos started moving into Soweto. Official figures were that 23 people had been killed, but some reports estimated that it was at least 200. It is hard to know how many people had been killed because of police efforts to cover up the number of people who died.

Events on June 17

Events on June 17

The second day... was marked by uncontrollable fury and burning hostility...Police also assumed another attitude. They shot at random, and at anyone who would raise a fist and shout "Power", into their face

Many others joined the original protesters. Not everyone had heard about Hector Petersen and the others who were killed yet, but the word was spreading.

The following day I pick up stones. I joined the struggle....On the 16th I just came home and stay...because we formed the slogan "an injury to one is an injury to all" So we were supposed to be there.

- Solomon Marikele Rhulane Senior Primary

The heavily biased Cilliers Report for this day sums up the events. Schools, trains, buses, delivery vehicles, West Rand Administrative Buildings (WRAB) buildings, cars of business people, all were targeted. The fury and frustration that had been simmering amongst township youth had free reign. There was enormous police presence on the morning of the 17th 1500 police armed with sten guns, automatic rifles, and hand machine carbines had taken up strategic positions in the township. Helicopters flew overhead. The army was on standby. The police force had never developed other methods of crowd control other than the use of live bullets. The police shot at people indiscriminately and casualties were even higher than the day before.

The violent reaction of the police only made the children angrier.

At a press conference Mr. Manie Mulder announced that nearly all the WRAB buildings in Soweto had been destroyed. This amounted to 21 offices being burnt down, 10 being plundered, 3 schools burnt as well as unknown numbers of municipal halls, beerhalls, bottlestores.

The Rand had lost value overnight. Thousands of workers had refused to go to work. It was indeed a crisis for the Apartheid government. It was also a serious loss of face in light of US Secretary of State, Henry Kissingers impending visit to South Africa.

Demonstartion during Henry Kissinger's visit... Kiss-inja (a dog) Soweto, September, 1976

To add to this, 300 predominantly white Wits students marched through the city centre to protest the killing of schoolchildren. As they marched through the streets they were joined by many black workers.

At this point the political leadership of the Soweto Students Representative Council (SSRC), SASM and other organisations were desperately trying to take leadership of the protest and to channel the anger of the youth and to give the movement political direction. The ANC in exile called for immediate international action and the intensification of economic sanctions. The protest action also spread to other townships around Soweto. In Thembisa, students organised a solidarity march, which, although heavily guarded did not result in violence. In Kagiso, police tried to stop a gathering of students and adults; the result was a forced retreat and the destruction of WRAB buildings, vehicles and schools. When the police returned with reinforcements, they shot indiscriminately into the crowd, killing at least five people.

Events on June 18

Events on June 18

On the third day of the Uprising 18th June, the situation in Soweto was still volatile. Outside butchery in Moroka there were some fatalities. Fires were blazing in many Soweto townships, like Zola, Ikwezi, Moletsane, Naledi and Tladi. Administrative buildings, wine stores and beer halls, which were hated by the young people, were also set on fire. Buses and cars running through Soweto were burned. Police intensified their terror in trying to return the situation to normality in the township. However this angered the insurgents young people and brought them up against heavily armed police. They used stones to counter armoured police cars, helicopters and guns. At about 10 a.m the chairman of the West Rand Administrative Board (WRAB) Manie Mulder was in Soweto to asses the situation. He was escorted by a large police vans. All the WRAB owned cars that had escaped being burned were taken out of Soweto after Mulder's visit. The columns of cars drove past Orlando police station into the direction of Johannesburg.

But in general the action on this day had already moved to the East and West Rand and Alexandra townships as well as other parts of the country. The people in other parts of the country were not revolting to pledge their solidarity with the people of Soweto. They shared the same problem, the same sorrows and the same causes of resentment and rebellion. A general stawaway was organised in Alexandra Township and four people were killed when the police opened fire on marching residents. The government, which for the first time publicly addressed the issue, and justified the harsh measures taken by the police. There were some reports of students seizing weapons from police and using them to shoot back.

June 16 Soweto Youth Uprising casualties

June 16 Soweto Youth Uprising casualties

Name Place of death Age Date Cause of death Adams, Sandra Joyce Kew Town 15 16.9.76 Shot in front of head (ricochet) on 3rd floor balcony Adriaanse, Noel John Hanover Park 13 2.9.76 Shot through left side of head Africa, Pieter Montagu 24 11.9.76 White Supply. Details of death under investigation Albern, Bazil Elsie's River 16 9.9.76 Shot to side of abdomen Allie, Abduraghman Ravensmead   7.9.76 Shot in chest from front Appolis, Christopher Menenberg 16 10.9.76 Shot in head from front, Jordaan Road August, Victor L. Gugulethu   31.12.76 Reported missing during December disturbances Bakubaku, Golden Nyanga   26.12.76 Killed by migrant workers Balnardo, Gary Sandy Grassy Park 19 16.9.76 Shot through buttock and chest from front, at Head Road. Barnes, Isaac Bonteheuwel 16 25.8.76 Shot in chest from front Barnes, Sydney Gugulethu 32 26.8.76 Beaten to death by group of migrant workers Barron, James Soweto   26.12.76 Shot through the head Bezuidenhout, Isaac Mosselbay   14.9.76 Burried Bota, Michael Nyanga East   26.12.76 Shot dead Botha, William Nyanga   26.12.76 Killed by migrant workers Botha, Neville, J.G. Retreat 20 8.9.76 Shot in stomach from front Buba, Lawrence Philippi 14 9.9.76 Shot in chest from front Buthelezi, Leonard Soweto 39 4.8.76 Gunshot wounds to the head and body Buthelezi, Joyce   16 26.12.76 Shotgun wounds to chest and head when police fired on students at Sekano-Ntoane High School Carolissen, Gasant Hanover Park 21 2.9.76 Shot in chest from front Carolissen, Ronald C. Stellenbosch 22 9.9.76   Cezala, Bonekeli     31.12.76 Reported missing in December disturbances Cloete, Joseph E.   30 9.9.76 Shot in cheek and abdomen from front and in back and neck from behind Cook,, Faried Manenberg 16 9.9.76 Shot in neck from behind Cooke, Rodney Bontehewel 24 25.8.76 Shot in chest from front Dajee, Bhanudey Retreat 37 8.9.76 Shot in lungs and heart Daniels, Patrick J Elsises' River 24 9.9.76 Shot in back of head Daniels, John Retreat 35 8.9.76 Shot in left side of chest Daniels, Kammips Cleetesville 33 7.9.76 Shot dead Davids, John Menenberg 16 9.9.76 Shot in head from behind, in Thomas Avenue Davids, Mogamat Rushaad Athlone 24 27.12.76 Shot in back Dlanza, Dennis Bantu Langa 22 27.12.76 Shot in Langa Dondi, T.S.B. Gugulethu   16.9.76 Shot Domtsa, Mellville N.   46 26.12.76 Shot dead Dube, Yvonne Paarl East 45 9.9.76 Inquest revealed that she died after seven pellets from a shotgun had been fired at her. The magistrate found that no body could be held responsible for her death. She had been among a group of people throwing stones. Dunga, Gidliza Epton   1.12.76 Shot dead Dithipe, Elifas Kagiso   31.12.76   Dladla, Baby Soweto 28 14.6.76 Shot through the head Dlamini, Emmanuel Soweto   26.12.76   Edelstein, Melville Leonard Soweto   16.6.76   Eesterhuizen, Johannes Hendrik Soweto   26.12.76   Elliot, Charles Manenberg 16 9.9.76 Shot in abdomen from font Essop, Dawood Bonteheuwel 30 25.8.76 Shot in back Ferguson, Herry A.J.D Hanover Park 30 2.9.76 Shot through lungs from behind Finch, Alfred A. Retreat 15 9.9.76 Shot in right side of chest from front Fish, Edward Ravensmead 25 7.9.76 Shot in right side of chest and abdomen from front Fisher, Ivy Langa 32 12.8.76 Shot in right side of head Follie, Enoch Soweto   18.6.76 Shot above the heart Garnie, R.W. Alexandra   26.12.76 Shot in right shoulder Gasnola, Suleman Lansdowene 17 9.9.76 Shot in chest from side Gcwabe, Abel Daniso Gugulethu   1.11.76 Shot dead Genu, Fetras Gugulethu 18 12.8.76 Shot in chest from front Gincana, Atwell     18.6.76   Gishi, Jackson   67 27.12.76 Under investigation Gobile, Christopher Gugulethu 26 21.8.76 Shot in abdomen from front Godwe, Jeffery Soweto   18.6.76   Gonxeka, Sidney Z. Langa 18 28.12.76 Shot dead Gule, Petrus  Soweto  15 26.8.76  Gunshot wound of head Gumata, Jumba Soweto 26 26.12.76   Gushamn, Mhlangabezi E Gugulethu 28 11.8.76 Shot in head from front Guwa, Nelson Gugulethu 48 26.12.76 Axed to death by migrant workers Harris, Ronald Silvertown 25 16.9.76 Shot in chest from front Hlakula, Stanley Mlamli Gugulethu 26 27.12.76 Shot dead Hoogaardt, Spasiena Hugenot, Paarl 15 9.9.76 Shotss Hlatshwayo, Joyce Soweto   26.12.76   Hlongwane, Johannes Soweto 43 12.9.76   Hlongwane, Petros Soweto 29 25.7.76   Hlokwane, N.C. Alexandra   26.12.76 Crushed by bus Isaacs, Colin Retreat 31 9.9.76 Shot in neck from behind Isaacs, John Manenberg 15 9.9.76 Shot Jacobs, Shaheed Distirct Six 15 3.9.76 Shot through side of neck and chest at corner of Sackville and Vincent Streets, Cape Town. Jacobs, Mervyn Elsies' River 16 8.9.76 Shot in back Jacobs, John Manenberg 15 9.9.76 Shot in arm and chest from left at Green Dolphin Bottle Store, Jordaan Road. Jelems, Government Nyanga   27.12.76 Shot and axed to death Johnson, Erol Manenberg   4.2.77 Shot in stomach Jonas, Lawrence Nyanga 26 26.12.76 Killed by migrant workers Kahn, Nazeem Manenberg   16.9.76 Shot in chest and abdomen from an angle Kalakahla, Samson Fantu Soweto 26 25.8.76   Kalane, George Soweto 15 26.12.76   Kamesi, Andries Gugulethu 25 11.8.76 Shot in head from front Kamfer, Christiaan B. Ravensmead 16 7.9.76 Shot in chest from front Khalipha, Richard Nyanga 4months 15.1.77 Cause of death unknown Khan, Naziem Manenberg 15 16.9.76   Kleinschmidt, Amgeline Elsis' River 31 8.9.76 Shot in back of head Komani, Brian Nyanga 27 26.12.76 Shot dead Kumalo, Joseph Gugulethu 22 3.9.76 Shot in abdomen from front Kwisomba, Harry Gugulethu 30 26.12,76 Shot to death Kambule, Eliakim Sutu   50   Multiple injuries to body Kekane, Andries Mamelodi   31,12,76   Kekane, Shadrack Soweto   26.12.76   Keokame, Marshall Soweto   16.6.76   Kgampe, Philemon Soweto   26.12.76   Kgapule, Edward Soweto   26.12.77   Kgate, Sydney   46   Shot dead Kgoadi, Gustov Soweto   26.12.76   Kgokong, Linda Daveyton   31.12.76   Kgongoana, Ariel "Pro" Soweto   16.6.76   Kgupisi, Herbert Soweto   26.12.76   Khaje, Sydney Kabelo Soweto 47 26.12.76 Shot Khambule, Godfrey Soweto 12 24.8.76 Gun shot wounds when police fired at crowd Khoza, John Mamelodi   31.12.76   Khumalo, Columbus Soweto   26.12.76   Khumalo, Daniel Soweto 24 19.6.76 Multiple injuries to body. Khumalo, Nehemiah M. Soweto 24 21.6.76 Stabbed above the heart. Koalana, Doctor Soweto   26.12.76   Koalana, Willy Soweto   26.12.76   Kobedi, Kabelo Soweto   25.6.76   Koloane, David D.   16 24.8/76 Gunshot wound. Police alleged at inquest that he attacked a policeman with an axe Kolonga, David Mamelodi   31.12.76   Kubeka, Johannes Soweto 24 16.7.76 Gunshot wounds to left leg. Died of haemorrhage Khubeka, Hilton Soweto 19 17.6.76   Khubeka, Robert Soweto 24 26.12.76 Stab wounds Khubeka, Zabulon Soweto 47 22.8.76   Kumalo, Zolile Soweto       Kunene, Edward Soweto 42 18.6.76 Stabbed twice on left side of chest Kunene, Norman   27 17.6.76 Shot Kwadi, Gunston Soweto 32 26.8.76 Gunshot wounds to head Kwinana, Gregory Soweto 38 17.6.76   Laaka, Erick   58 17.9.76 Multiple wounds to stomach Lebelo, Abiel Soweto 20 4.8.76 Shot and teargassed Leburu, John Soweto 23 18.6.76   Leburu, Nathaniel   39   Bullet through spinal cord Ledwaba, Jacob Soweto   26.12.76   Lee, Ralph, R Retreat 34 8.9.76 Shot in neck from front Leepo, Junior     19.1.77 Burnt to death by petrol bomb Lengwali, Patrick Soweto   11.1.77   Lengwathi, Patrick Themba Soweto   16.6.76 Shot Lepota, David     26.12.76   Leroke, Hermina  Soweto    26.12.77   Lesele, Tutu John Langa 45 11.8.76 Shot in calf, buttock and chest from behind Lesejane, Ashely  Moepong   31.12.76   Lesumi, J. Soweto   26.12.76 Assaulted by hostel inmates with choppers Letlaku, J. Soweto   26.12.76   Letleka, Dominic Soweto 4 18.6.76   Letsholo, Peter Soweto 21 25.8.76   Leukes, Owen Bonteheumwel 17   Reported in official police list as a casualty not resulting from police action. Limba, Cyril Ivan Manenberg 18 9.9.76 Shot in back and small of back at Vistula Tavern Bottle Store Linda, Petrus King Soweto 26 26.12.76 Killed by gunshot. Lloyd, Jan Soweto   26.12.76   Louw, Samuel Gugulethu 42 11.8.76 Shot in chest from front Lucas, Cornelius Mosselbay     Died prior to September 15 Lutiya, Wiseman Gugulethu 22 11.8.76 Shot in abdominal cavity Luphindo, Inspector Soweto 24 2.7.76   Lupiwane, Goowill Soweto 35 18.2.77 Fractured skull Luvatsha, Reginald Soweto   26.12.76   Luvatsha, Thembo Soweto   26.6.76 Bullet wounds below stomach Mabandla, Selby Soweto 58 26.12.76 Chopped on head when hostel dwellers attacked Soweto Residents Mabaso, Erick Soweto 18 26.12.76   Mabaso, Mathabeni Soweto   26.12.76   Mabaso, N Soweto   26.12.76 Shot Mabena, Peter Soweto   26.12.76 Stabbed Mabitsa, Steven   58 19.6.76 Stab wounds in chest - died during riots Maboya, Bennet Soweto   26.12.76   Maboya, Bernard Soweto   26.12.76   Mabuku, Glagys Soweto   26.12.76   Mabunda, Sam Boy Mamelodi   31.12.76   Mabuya, B. Soweto   26.12.76 Bullet wound to mouth and shoulder Mabuza, Patrick Soweto 24 17.9.76   Mabuza, Shadrack Mamelodi   31.12.76   Mabyka, Gladys Soweto 26 18.2.77   Madibo, P. Alexandra   26.12.76 Shot in left shoulder Madikane, Daniel Mamelodi   31.12.76   Madzivhandla, Patrick Soweto   26.12.76   Madupe, Johannes       Disappeared during June 1976 in Ga-Rankuwa. Police have no further records Maepa, Simon Soweto   26.12.76   Maga, Dane Alexandra   26.12.76 Bullet wound Magadani, Florence Soweto   26.12.76   Magagula, Petrus   49   Shot dead Mahapo, Godfrey Soweto   26.12.76   Mahasha, Daniel Soweto   26.12.77   Mahlaba, David Soweto 24 26.12.78   Mahlambi, Pauline Soweto   26.12.79 Bullet wound on thigh. Mahlaza, Raymond Soweto 24 17.6.76 Shot in hip Mahlinza, Maxwell Soweto 24 17.6.76 Shot in hip Mahopo, G. Soweto   26.12.76 Shot Mahurawe, Titus   13   Shot in the back. Maichetha, Walter Soweto 15 26.12.76   Mailangwe, Richard Soweto   26.12.76   Maipa, Simon Soweto   26.12.77   Majambela, Archibald Gugulethu 23 11.8.76 Shot in chest from front Majamba, Douglas Philippi 20 12.8.76 Shot in chest from front Majeka, Rebecca Langa 37 11.8.76 Shot through neck from behind Majoko, Daniel Soweto   26.12.78   Majola, Nongoentu Soweto 28 8.8.76 Shot dead by Railway police Majola, Boy Soweto   26.12.76   Majola, Titus Soweto 15 19.7.76   Makaluza, Ellen Gugulethu   26.12.76 Axed to death by migrant workers Makundayi, Monica Gugulethu 5 26.12.76 Shot dead Makate, Washington Soweto 26 25.8.76 Shotgun pellet wounds to both legs. Died of haemorrhage. Makari, Abraham Soweto 43 18.2.77 Stab wound Makate, Washington T Soweto   26.12.76 Shot through the neck. Makgabane, Peter Soweto   26.12.76   Makgetle, David Soweto   26.12.76   Makhabane, Petrus K. Soweto   26.12.76 Shot in chest and stomach Makhari, Abraham Soweto 33 26.12.76   Makhetha, Percy   15 26.12.76. Bullet wound Makhotla, Makhosi Soweto 41 7.9.76 Gunshot wounds to abdomen Malindisa, George Soweto 23 31.7.76   Mamogobo, Ezra   49 24.7.76 Head and body injuries Maneli, Gladwell, V. Gugulethu   2.1.77 Beaten to death by group of migrant workers Manale. Herbert Soweto   26.12.76   Manganyi, Victor Soweto   26.12.76   Manhayi, Arthur Soweto 24 24.8.76 Chopped to death, allegedly by hostel dwellers Mankayi, Benjamin Soweto 39 23.8.76 Stabbed during attack by hostel dweller. Mankayi, Gideon Soweto 39 24.8.76 Cut across the head with sharp instrument Maphalala, S. Soweto   27.8.76 Shot March, Phillip Soweto 16 20.6.76 Shot thrice through the head. Marney, Alfred Retreat 18 16.9.76 Shot in small of back Maseko, Sara Soweto 46 17.6.76 Fatal gunshot wounds to thighs. Died of haemorrhage Maseko, Sylvester Vusi Soweto 21 20.9.76 Gunshot wounds to the head. Masiba, Nkululo, S. Gugulethu 22 11.8.76 Shot in right shoulder from behind Masimango, Bernard Soweto   26.12.76   Masuku, Themba Soweto   26.12.76   Masenya, Grace Soweto   26.12.76   Mashaba, Johannes Soweto 22 26.12.76 Strangulation Mashiane, F.B. Soweto   26.8.76 Shot Mashinini, Morris Soweto   26.12.76   Mashombo, Ben Soweto   26.12.76   Masilela, Aby Soweto 24 26.12.76 Multiple injuries Masilo, Boas Sydney Soweto   26.12.76   Masilo, E.N. Soweto   24.8.76 Chopped by hostel residents Masinga, David Soweto 19 16.6.76   Masuiga, David Soweto 19 16.6.76   Mathabathe, Aaron Mamelodi   31.12.76   Mathagane, Elifas Mamelodi   31.12.76   Mathebula, Jacob Sydney Soweto 22 4.7.76 Shot through leg Mathebula, Josiah Soweto 54 26.12.76 Spinal cord injury Matheson, Reginald C. Retreat 18 8.9.76 Shot in back, neck and head from behind Mathobela, Johan Soweto 19 12.8.76   Matimela, Lazarus Mamelodi   31.12.76   Matlhaku, Samuel Soweto 66 26.6.76   Matome, Mackenzie Soweto   26.12.76   Matsabu, Abel Jan Soweto   26.12.76   Matsapola, E. Soweto   26.12.76 Two bullet wounds Matsepe, Jeffrey Soweto   26.12.76   Matsunyane, James Sello Soweto   26.12.76 Shot in the back, the bullet went through the body Mavimbela, Sipho Soweto   18.6.76 Shot through chest Matyeni, Wellington K.   21 31.12.76 Reported missing in December 1976 May, Nicholas Retreat 19 8.9.76 Shot in back Mazomba, Boy Charles   18 14.9.76 Gunshot wounds while allegedly sabotaging a railway line before he fled from constable who shot him. Mazwai, Zizwe Gugulethu 18 8.9.76 Went to visit friend at 6pm. 8.9.76. His was found in the mortuary the next day. Mbali, James   15 1.12.76 Shot dead Mbatha, Ames Mamelodi   31.12.76   Mbatha, Dumisani Isaac   16 25.9.76   Mbatha, Sipho Clement Soweto 22 24.10.76 Multiple shotgun wounds in chest and abdomen. Mbebe, Frank Soweto   26.12.76   Mbeki, Princess Soweto   17.9.76 Police fired on crowed of students at Sekano-Ntoane High School. Gunshot wounds. Mbele, Aaron Soweto   26.12.76 Struck by bullet. Mbele, Simon Soweto   24.10.76 Died of bullet wounds in the head and chest. Mbengwane, Stanley Soweto 28 26.12.76   McDeci, Richard Manenberg 35 9.9.76 Shot in back Mchunu, Moses Soweto 12 26.12.76 Gross mutilation of the head. Mda, John Soweto 32 17.6.76 Gunshot wounds to chest and lungs Mdayi, Dambile, S. Langa 24 11.8.76 Shot in chest from front Menwe, Peter Soweto   26.12.76   Mevana, David Soweto   26.12.76 Shot through sternum Meyer, Karel Sheerwood Park 45 9.9.76 Shot in right buttock from behind Mhlanga, Samuel Soweto 17 26.12.76 Fractured skull Mhlongo, Felix Alexandra   18.6.76 Shot - wounded in lung, heart and spinal column Miller, Lord Soweto   26.12.76   Mithi, Lily Soweto   26.12.76   Mjamba, Douglas Gugulethu 20 12.8.76   Mkafulo, Cajulo Langa 36 11.8.76 Shot through back and heart from behind Mkhize, Tusokwakhe Soweto   26.12.76   Mkhotlana, Elias Moletsane 43 26.12.76   Mkhwanazi, Israel Soweto 26 26.12.76 Stab wounds Mkhwanazi, Lindiwe Soweto   26.12.76   Mkwanzi, L Soweto   26.12.76 Shot Mlangeni, Lea Soweto   26.12.76   Mlangeni, Mbopha Soweto 18 14.9.76   Mlilo, Amos   30 24.8.76 Police told inquest court that he could have been a victim of hostel dwellers in Soweto. Mlotshwa, Derrick   23 14.9.76 Multiple bullet wounds to chest Mmutle, Dennis Soweto   26.12.76 Bullet wound through the side Mncedisi, Mazwi Gugulethu 16 9.9.76 Left for soccer practice on 9.9.76. His body was found in the mortuary the next day. Mncube, Gideon Soweto 20 15.7.76   Mnculwane, Mantombi Soweto   26.12.76 Shot Mngemane, Morris Soweto 18 20.6.76 Five bullet wounds. Mngoma, Tenson Soweto   26.12.76   Mngomezulu, Simon Soweto 29 18.6.76   Moatlhudi, Agnes Soweto 10 26.12.76   Moatse, Titus Soweto 15 19.7.76   Modisane, Samuel Oupa Soweto 19 24.8.76 Bullet wound through the heart. Was found dead in the street not far from his house. He was hit by some pellets when the crowd dispersed. Modise, Peter   60   Head injuries Modise, J. Dobsonville   26.12.76 Shot in the stomach Modukanele, Isaac Rasebata Alexandra   26.12.76 Shot Modukanele, Jacob Soweto   26.12.76   Moerane, Jacob Soweto 23 19.6.76 Burnt under vehicle Mofokeng, R.A. Soweto   17.6.76 Stabbed with bottle Mogapi, Samuel   4 5.3.77 Shot in head Mogapi, Stephen     26.12.76   Mogola, Johannes Soweto   26.12.76   Mogotsi, Nchimane Philemon Soweto   26.12.76   Mofokeng, Raymond Soweto 14 25.8.76 Gunshot wounds to chest and neck Mohamme, J. Soweto   24.8.76 Stabbed in the stomach, face sliced off Mohapi, Steven Soweto 58 18.2.77 Head injuries Mohapi, Jacob   16 23.9.76 Died of bullet wounds to lung Mohlabane, Mphele Soweto   26.12.76   Mohwaduba, Simon Mabopane   31.12.76   Mokgatle, Mohatle Moses Soweto 47 26.12.76 Stab wounds Mokobi, Cornelius   24 30.8.76 Found dead with shotgun wound in chest Mokoena, Moremane   14   Two bullet wounds to chest and leg Mokoena, Amos Soweto   26.12.76   Mokoena, Moses Soweto   26.12.76   Mokoena, Vincent Soweto   26.12.76   Molapo. Lobian Soweto   26,12,76   Molefe, John Soweto 19 25.6.76   Molefe, Peter Soweto 21 26.12.76   Moleko. Hendrick Soweto   18.6.76 Shot in the stomach Moloi, Joseph Karabo   16 29.9.76 Bullet through stomach Moloi, Philadelphia   17   Shot dead Mononyane, Joseph S. Soweto   18.6.76   Montjane, Elijah Soweto   26.12.76   Mooketsi, Johan Soweto   26.12.76   Morolong, Bruce     31.12.76 Reported missing after December disturbances Morolong, J.P. Soweto   23.9.76 Stabbed and beaten to death Moses, Phillip Ravensmead 41 7.9.76 Shot in stomach from front Mosie, Ezekiel, Z. X. Langa 18 12.8.76 Shot in head from front in front of Langa Police Station Mothutsane, Petrus   25 25.8.76 Gunshot wound to chest Motsweni, Daniel Nethan Soweto   25.9.76 Gunshot wounds Mphetha, Lawrence Soweto   26.12.76   Mphithi, Joseph Soweto       Mpinga, Joseph Soweto 34 25.9.76   Mpusula, Simon Soweto   26.12.76   Mshelwane, Lawrence Soweto 27 26.12.76 Gunshot wounds to abdomen Mshudulu, Welili R Gugulethu 23 11.8.76 Shot in chest from front Mrwebi, Daniel Gugulethu 23 12.8.76 Shot in stomach from front Msimanga, Mbekiseni Soweto   26.12.76   Mteto, Temba Gugulethu 21 31.8.76   Mthembo, John Soweto   26.12.76   Mthembu, Reuben Soweto 19 26.12.76   Mthemba, Mzinane   27 14.9.756 Body was found after crowd dispersed Mthombeni, M. Soweto   26.12.76 Attacked by thugs Mtshadi, Simon Soweto   26.12.76   Mubuya, Bennett Soweto   26.12.76   Mukel, Dennis Soweto   26.12.76   Muller, Jurie Elsies' River 16 9.9.76 Shot in side of head and upper body Mutlane, Herman   42   Bullet wound through head Mvukuse, Rebson, T Gugulethu   17.9.76 Shot Mzwamadoda, M.B.A. Langa 35 11.8.76 Shot in right shoulder from behind Mzila, Hezia Soweto   26.12.76   Mziwoke, Jan Lloyd   35 18.6.76 Gunshot wound to chest Nabuka, Ambrose Soweto   26.12.76   Nare, Michael Mamelodi   31.12.76   Ncube, Daniel Soweto   26.12.76 Bullet wound to hip Ndau, Herbert Soweto   26.12.76   Ndebele, Zuzele Soweto   26.12.76   Ndibongo, Michael Soweto   26.12.76   Ndingane, Mzimkhulu Gugulethu 11 14.9.76 Shot in stomach from front Ndlela, Hector Soweto 20 26.12.76   Ndlovu, H.J. Soweto   26.12.76 Bullet wound to forehead Ndlovu, Jimmy Soweto   26.12.76   Ndlovu, Lesley Hastings Soweto 17 16.6.76   Ndlovu, Obed Soweto 16 26.12.76   Ndlovu, Timothy Soweto 36 18.6.76   Ndou, Herber Soweto   26.12.76   Nduna, Sifanelo K. Langa 38 11.8.76 Shot in small of back and loin from behind Ndunga, Nicholas S. Gugulethu 22 11.8.76 Shot in chest from front at bottle store Ndzube, Norman B. Gugulethu   4.12.76 Shot dead Ngaba, Wellington Soweto   26.12.76 Shot Ngabi, Joseph M. Camps Bay 22 11.8.76 Shot dead Ngcobo, Oben Soweto 17 26.12.76   Nqcobo, Thuthuka   16 15.9.76 Gunshot wounds Nqcobo, Eric   16   Shot in head Ngemane, Morris Soweto   26.12.76   Ngobeni, Harry Soweto 26 26.12.76   Ngobeni, Johannes Mabopane   31,12,76   Ngoma, Tennyson Soweto   26.12.76   Ngubene, Aaron Soweto   26.12.76   Ngubene, Vusimuzi Soweto 34 26.12.76   Ngwenya, Amon Vusi Soweto   26.12.76   Ngwenya, Stanley Soweto 34 17.6.76   Nhlapo, Timothy Soweto 31 26.12.76   Nixkey, Basil W. Manenberg 41 9.9.76 Shot in back at Green Dolphin Bottle Store Nkabinde, Fanyana Soweto 17 26.12.76 Stab wounds to chest and heart Nkambule, David Soweto   26.12.76   Nkangana, Zacharia Nyanga 18 26.12.76 Shot dead Nkata, Samuel Soweto   26.12.76   Nkofu, Mnyane, Jacob Soweto   26,12,76   Nkomo, Eric Soweto 17 26.12.76   Nkonyane, Norurau Soweto 34 10.8.76   Nkosi, Jacob Pretoria, Mamelodi   31.12.76   Nkosi, Monica Soweto 6 1.8.76   Nkosi, Patrick Soweto 20 23.8.76 Bullet wound through neck. Shot when fled from arrest Nkuta, Gordon Soweto 19 25.7.76   Nkutha, H.P. Alexandra   26.12.76 Shot Response to the June 16 Soweto Youth Uprising by organisations in exile

Response to the June 16 Soweto Youth Uprising by organisations in exile

June 16 marks the commemoration of National Youth Day in South Africa. This is the day the country reflects on the massacre of school children during the Soweto Uprising of 1976. The response of the organisations in exile can be understood in the context of the events that took place on the day. The students had organised a peaceful march against the Afrikaans Medium Decree, issued in 1974, which made it mandatory for Black schools to use the Afrikaans language as the medium of instruction in Mathematics, Social Sciences and Geography at the secondary school level. Punt Janson, the Deputy Minister of then Bantu Education, was quoted as saying: “I have not consulted the African people on the language issue and I’m not going to. An African might find that ‘the big boss’ spoke only Afrikaans or spoke only English. It would be to his advantage to know both languages.”

The policy was deeply unpopular since Afrikaans was regarded by some as the language of the oppressor. It was against this background that on 30 April 1976, students from the Orlando West Junior School in Soweto went on strike and boycotted classes. By 16 June, their rebellion spread to other schools in Soweto. Incidentally, the student-organised mass rally on this date turned violent, as the police responded with bullets to stones thrown by the angry students. Many students were shot. The official death toll was 23, but it could have been higher than 200 because the incident triggered widespread violence throughout South Africa, which claimed more lives. The first student to be shot on that fateful day was 15-year old Hastings Ndlovu. However, the killing in the same incident of Hector Pieterson, aged 12, and in particular the publication of his photograph taken by Sam Nzima, made him an international icon of the uprising. It became the major rallying point of the struggle against apartheid.

Military Response: Camps in exile

The incident triggered widespread violence not only in Soweto but also throughout South Africa. For the political organisations in exile, notably, the African National Congress(ANC) and Pan Africanist Congress(PAC), the Soweto unrest in June 1976 provided a golden opportunity both for recruitment and military training of young men and women. Many Black people felt in danger of being arrested by the police and further underground activities were launched as a result of this threat. Discreet recruitment operations culminated in many incensed students taking up arms against the government, and being sent for military training. Hence the mushrooming of military camps such as Mkhumbane in Temeke (Tanzania) outside the country, under the command and mentorship of Ntate Mashego and the Engineering camp in Angola. Recruits were advised on how to unlawfully cross the border(s) into Botswana, Swaziland, Angola, Mozambique and Tanzania, where they received military training. It is essential to note that the accession to power of the Mozambique Liberation Front (Frelimo) in Mozambique and the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) in Angola in 1975, together with the exodus of thousands of young people in the months following the Soweto uprising, created favourable conditions for the resumption of sabotage activity in South Africa, especially after the collapse of the ANC/Zimbabwe African Peoples Union (ZAPU) joint operation (i.e.the Wankie Campaign). These developments were followed by the infiltration of trained fighters back into South Africa, bombings of white installations and the subsequent arrest and trials of anti-apartheid activists.

Clearly, an issue that gave rise to a vast number of trials under security legislation was the massive recruitment of people and their transportation out of South Africa. While there is certainly some indication that this was already on the increase prior to June 1976, the revolts of 1976 gave an enormous boost to the activity of organisations recruiting members for military training. This is especially so in the case of the ANC, but there is also some evidence that PAC activity had been revitalised to some extent. As a result, there were many South Africans in ANC and PAC training camps. The period also witnessed a large number of trials against recruitment for military training. Those who were brought to trial for this offence seemed to reach a peak in 1977 and the first part of 1978. Many trained guerrilla fighters returned to South Africa, often wielding a large quantity of arms, explosives and ammunition. This group included the Black school children who fled or were recruited in the wake of the June 1976 rebellion. Their activities gave rise to a number of trials as exemplified by the case of Petrus Bushy Molefe, aged 22, who underwent training in East Germany, and was charged for sabotage and terrorism under the Sabotage and Terrorism Acts of June 1962 and June 1967 respectively. Related to this was the large quantity of arms and ammunition found by police in their attempts to uncover guerrillas in the urban areas and in clashes in the rural areas. It is important to note that most of the arms caches that were uncovered comprised weapons originating from the then Soviet Union, and the Eastern bloc countries, which suggests that the West was not prepared to lend similar support to the Southern African liberation movements.<

On 30 November 1976 a group of armed guerrillas clashed with the South African Police near Bordergate, on the Swaziland/South African border. A hand grenade was detonated by one of the guerrillas, injuring two policemen, and allowing the insurgents to escape. Shortly before this incident a railway line near Dikgale, in the Pietersburg district, was damaged in a successful sabotage attempt. From December 1976, in a series of raids covering Johannesburg, Soweto, Alexandra, Rustenburg, Odi, Nebo, Pietersburg and Sekhukhuniland, security police detained a number of ANC activists. Towards the middle of 1977 twelve accused activists, who included Mosima Gabriel “Tokyo” Sexwale, were charged under the Terrorism Act in the famous trial of the “Pretoria 12”. They were mainly accused of being members or active supporters of certain unlawful organisations in South Africa, Swaziland, Mozambique, Russia and China such as the ANC, the South African Communist Party(SACP) and Umkhonto we Sizwe(MK). They were also alternately charged with endangering, in various ways, the maintenance of law and order in South Africa; undergoing military and other training; possession of explosives, ammunition, firearms and weapons; harbouring and rendering assistance to guerrillas; as well as taking part in the activities of a banned organisation. On the whole, they were accused of conspiring to overthrow the white government and were all convicted on the main count of sedition.

Thus, the response of the political organisations operating in exile was one that was premised on mobilisation, recruitment of people and the organisation of the armed phase of the struggle from outside in order to topple the apartheid government. Clearly, the events of the Soweto revolt and the response from the liberation movement in exile are not isolated developments. They have their roots in the spirit of resistance to the growing crisis of apartheid. The collective resistance to oppression and exploitation in South Africa also fundamentally underpins the relationship that was forged between internal and external forms of organisation after this incident. It led to major transformations in the strategies of the various exiled liberation movements more in accordance with the changing conditions in the country. A militant approach, that found expression in the recruitment and subsequent training of the cadres in neighbouring as well as some European and Asian countries, was emphasised.

References to Youth and the National Liberation Struggle 1894-1994

References to Youth and the National Liberation Struggle 1894-1994

  • Brits, J. P. (1995). The Concise Dictionary of Historical and Political Terms, London: Penguin.
  • Christie, P. (1991). The Right to Learn: The Struggle for Education in South Africa, Johannesburg: Sached Trust/Ravan Press.
  • Cross, M. (1992). Resistance and Transformation: Education Culture and Reconstruction in South Africa, Johannesburg: Skotaville.
  • Howcroft, P. unpublished South African Encyclopaedia papers.
  • Kallaway, P. (ed) (1984). Apartheid and Education: The Education of Black South Africans, Johannesburg: Ravan Press.
  • Saunders, C. & Southey, N. (1998). A Dictionary of South African History, Cape Town: David Philip.