General South African History Timeline: 1900s

General South African History Timeline: 1930s

9 July, The Executive of the South African Indian Congress (SAIC) meets in Durban and appoints S.R. Naidoo as the SAIC's nominee to the Young Committee. Albert Christopher, Manilal Gandhi and P.R. Pather, arguing for non-cooperation with the Committee, strongly condemn the appointment.

Ezrom Kgobonyane Sebata Legae is born in Vrededorp, Johannesburg.

1930
J.T. Gumede is voted out of office as president for being too close to the Communist Party, and is replaced by Pixley Seme.
The formation of the Independent ANC
Fietas, Johannesburg: 'Africans' are moved out of the south of Fietas (between 17th and 24th Streets) to Orlando and 'Coloured' people and Tamil people moved in.
White women get the vote. This means in effect that the weight of the black vote is decreased from 3.1% to 1.4%. The first restrictions against the urbanisation of black women are introduced. The official government reasons for this are to decrease prostitution and illegal brewing in urban areas.
Minister of Justice, Oswald Pirow pilots the Riotous Assemblies (Amendment) Bill through parliament. This measure empowers him to exile persons seen to be creating hostility between the races, thus giving a new means to controlling radical political movements within South Africa.
Dr. Alfred Bitini (A.B.) Xuma, says in a speech to the Conference of European and Black Christian Associations that he hopes that a possibility exists for inter-racial cooperation.
Prixley Isaka Seme, the founding father the African National Congress (ANC) is elected president and replaces Josiah Tshangana Gumede.
The African National Congress (ANC) Secretary-General and Journalist attend the Pan-Africanist Congress (PAC) meeting. He urges the convocation to coordinate opposition to General Barry Hertzogs efforts to influence the British African policy.
Allison Wessels George (A.W.G.) Champion becomes the first African to be banned under the Riotous Assemblies (Amendment) Act. He is exiled to Durban for a three-year period.
Molly Blackburn is born.
Amina Cachalia is born.
Stella Madge Damos is born.
Paul Joseph is born.
Nelson Mandela's father dies.
Joseph Sallie Poonyane Molefi is born in Winburg, Free State.
Billy Nair is born.
Mshiywa Henry Tshabalala is born.
January, Second Non-European Conference, (Cape Town).
3 February, Following problems over Indian trading rights and ownership of property in the municipal areas of Springs, Krugersdorp, and Norwood and Braamfontein in Johannesburg, the Minister of the Interior, Dr D.F. Malan, appoints a Select Committee to look into the questions of Indian trading rights and ownership of property in the Transvaal.
April, Pixley ka I. Seme elected president of the African National Congress
May, Anti-Indian Legislation: The Transvaal Asiatic Land Tenure (Amendment) Bill is introduced by Minister of Interior as a result of recommendations of Select Committee. Proposes segregation: *relocation of Indians to designated areas exempted from Gold Law within five years. No protection for those who had acquired interests on proclaimed (mining) land.
Anti-Indian Legislation: The Industrial Conciliation Act, 1930.
Anti-Indian Legislation: Wage Amendment Act, 1930.
Anti-Indian Legislation: Women's Enfranchisement Act, 1930
13 May, The Select Committee, appointed in January 1930 to look into the questions of Indian trading rights and ownership of property in the Transvaal, publishes its report and makes the following recommendations:
1.Asiatics are in the future to be prevented from acquiring property in any form outside the areas set aside for them.
2.Sections 130 and 131 of the Gold Law is to be strictly enforced after 1 May 1930, even in townships like Springs which were held to be outside Gold Law.
3.Trading licenses are to be issued only to Asiatics who are the lawful owners of the premises that they occupy.
Immediately following the recommendations of the Select Committee, the Minister of the Interior, Dr D.F. Malan, introduces the Transvaal Asiatic Land Tenure (Amendment) Bill. The Bill contains three main provisions concerning the ownership of fixed property by Asiatics in the Transvaal; the occupation of stands in prohibited areas and their residence thereon; and the method of granting trading licences to Asiatics. It thus has as its aim to close every loophole in existing laws and regulations. The Bill sparks widespread protest and is regarded by Indians as a betrayal of the Cape Town Agreement.
21 May, Riotous Assemblies (Amendment) Act No 19:
Authorised the Governor-General to prohibit the publication or other dissemination of any 'documentary information ... calculated to engender feelings of hostility between the European inhabitants of the Union on the one hand and any other section of the inhabitants of the Union on the other hand' (Dugard 1978: 177).
Commenced: 21 May 1930
Repealed by s 20 of the Riotous Assemblies Act No 17 of 1956.
June, Clements Kadalie is banned from the Rand.
June, Non-European Convention held in Kimberley as a climax to a campaign of protest meetings and resolutions against the pass laws and the Hertzog Bills. It is attended by more than 100 delegates representing the ANC, the APO, the Indian Congress, the Native Voters Association, the Bantu Union and religious and welfare societies from all over Southern Africa. Dr. Abdurahman elected to the chair.
9 August, The Government of India sends a telegram to the South African Government in protest against the proposed Transvaal Asiatic Land Tenure (Amendment) Bill.
September, General Hertzog at Imperial Conference in London asks South African voice in British Imperial policy in Africa.
5 - 6 October, An emergency conference of the South African Indian Congress (SAIC) is held in Johannesburg in order to formulate opposition to the Transvaal Asiatic Land Tenure (Amendment) Bill. Sir Kurma Reddi, the Indian Agent in South Africa, addresses the Conference. The Conference calls upon the South African Government to withdraw the Bill and presses for another round-table conference to be held between the South African and Indian Governments. Should the South African Government fail to accept such a conference, it is asked that India shall withdraw its Agent as protest against Bill.
28 October, Representatives of India, Sir Muhammad Shafi and G.S. Bajpai hold informal talks with Prime Minister, General J.B.M. Hertzog.
1931
The Non-European Conference is held.
Establishment of the Women's section of the Communist Party, as a result of issues such as beer-brewing and food prices.
Fifteen-year old Sarah Rubin, later Carneson, whose parents were founder members of SACP, joins the Young Communist League
Anti-Indian Legislation: The Asiatic Immigration Amendment Act
Indians have to prove the legitimacy of their domicile in the country.
Cracks within the African National Congress (ANC) appear and the organisation fails to organise its structures.
Vus'umuzi Make is born.
Abednego Bhekabantu Ngcobo is born in Natal.
Motherwell, a Scottish professional side, tours South Africa (and again in 1934).
January, Third Non-European Conference, in Bloemfontein, votes to send deputation to Europe.
28 January, The Government of India formally requests the South African Government to postpone the Transvaal Asiatic Land Tenure Bill pending negotiations between the two Governments concerning a second round-table conference.
19 April, Kobie Coetsee is born in Ladybrand in the Orange Free State.
6 May, The Minister of the Interior, Dr D.F. Malan, announces the postponement of the second reading of the Bill and a tentative date is set for the Second Round-table Conference in December.
July, Abantu-Batho (The People) ceases publication as an African National Congress organ.
December, Communist-sponsored pass-burning campaigns culminating in disturbances in Durban.
31 December, Dorothy Nomzansi Nyembe is born near Dundee in northern KwaZulu-Natal.
1932
Pixley Seme outlines his reform scheme, desperately seeking to improve the financial matters of the congress.
The Supreme Court removes Pixley Seme's name from the Roll of attorneys.
Hilda Bernstein becomes a member of the South African Labour Party League of Youth.
Anti-Indian Legislation: Transvaal Asiatic Land Tenure (Amendment) Act 35/1932
The Transvaal Asiatic Land Tenure Act and its subsequent amendments in 1934, 1935 and 1937 establish statutory segregation of Indians in the Transvaal end the state of uncertainty about their status in the Province that has obtained since the passing of Law 3, 1885. It is passed in 1935.
Epainette Moerane (Ma Mofokeng Clan Name) Meets Govan Mbeki at Taylor Street Secondary School.
The Native service contracts increased penalties for law breakers and tightens restrictions on movement by African labourers outside the reserves.
Yusuf Dadoo attends the South African Indian Congress meeting where the Transvaal Asiatic Land Tenure Act is discussed. He is convinced that the South African Indian Congress could only advance in their struggle if they cooperate with national organisations representing African and Coloured people.
Sheena Duncan is born in Johannesburg.
Louis Luyt is born.
Florence Mkhize is born in Natal.
Bernard Ncube is born in Johannesburg.
Sydney Shall is born.
Aidan Walsh is born.
Mandlenkosi Zondi is born.
The South African African Football Association (SAAFA) is formed and it launches the Bakers Cup national tournament.
4 January, A delegation of the Government of India arrives in South Africa for the second round-table conference with representatives of the South African Government. The delegation is led by Sir Fazli Hussein and the other members are V.S.S. Sastri, Sarojini Naidu, Sir Geoffrey Corbett, Sir Darcy Lindsay, Sir Kurma Reddi and G.S. Bajpai (Secretary).
12 January, The Second Round-table Conference between the Governments of India and South Africa opens in Cape Town. The South African delegation is led by the Minister of the Interior, Dr D.F. Malan, and includes the Minister of Land, Oswald Pirow, the Minister of Native Affairs, E.G. Jansen, and Patrick Duncan and G.H. Nicholls as representatives of the opposition South African Party.
12 January - 4 February, During the Second Round-table Conference between the Governments of India and South Africa, the South African Minister of the Interior, Dr D.F. Malan, indicates the failure of Cape Town Agreement with regards to the repatriation of Indians and introduces the Colonisation (Emigration) Scheme. In terms of this scheme, a Committee will be appointed to investigate possible outlets or areas abroad, to which South African Indians can be relocated. Malan also produces a signed document by South African Indian leaders, including Advocate Albert Christopher, P.R. Pather and Manilal Gandhi, in which cooperation in a colonising scheme is offered. This issue would later lead to a split in the South African Indian Community with the formation of the Colonial Born and Indian Settlers Association.
4 February, The Second Round-table Conference between the Governments of India and South Africa ends in Cape Town without any decisions or agreements on the contentious Transvaal Asiatic Land Tenure Bill of 1930.
March
Start of publication of Bantu World, European-sponsored African newspaper.

Native Service Contract Act.

Report of the Carnegie Commission on the Poor White Problem.

5 April, The Report on the Second Round-table Conference between the Governments of India and South Africa is released. Indian leaders in South Africa express their disappointment with the results of the Conference and its emphasis on the Scheme of Assisted Emigration.
18 April, The Minister of the Interior, Dr D.F. Malan, requests the South African Indian Congress (SAIC) to nominate a representative of the South African Indian community to the Colonisation Enquiry Committee.
25 April, Frene Noshir Ginwala is born.
June, Attempt to apply curfew regulations to African women in the Transvaal sparks discussions of passive resistance against passes.
June, The Transvaal Asiatic Land Tenure (Amendment) Act, Act No. 35 of 1932 becomes law. The Transvaal Asiatic Land Tenure Act and its subsequent amendments in 1934, 1935 and 1937 establish the statutory segregation of Indians in the Transvaal and end the state of uncertainty about their status in the Province that has existed since the passing of Law 3 of 1885.
3 August, Sir Kunwar Maharaj Singh arrives in South Africa as the successor to Sir Kurma Reddi as Agent for the Government of India in South Africa. The Indian Government places the Agent at the disposal of the proposed Colonisation Enquiry Committee.
3 August, The South African Indian Congress convenes a conference in Johannesburg. The Conference adopts a resolution in which it agrees to co-operate with the Indian and South African Governments to find good opportunities for Indians in other countries in terms of the proposed Assisted Emigration Scheme. However, the Conference stresses that this decision is neither an admission that Indians are undesirables nor an acceptance of attempts to reduce the South African Indian population.
14 August, The Transvaal Indian Congress (TIC) holds a mass meeting, attended by one thousand people, to respond to the Transvaal Asiatic Land Tenure Amendment Act. After an emotional appeal by Thambi Naidoo, the meeting resolves to appoint a committee to organize resistance to the Act.
27 August, The twelfth annual conference of the South African Indian Congress (SAIC) is held in Johannesburg. The SAIC President, Sorabjee Rustomjee, supports the Transvaal Indian Congress (TIC) decision to resist the Transvaal Asiatic Land Tenure Act.
4 October, The Feetham Commission, led by Mr Justice Feetham, is appointed to enquire into the occupation of proclaimed land in the Transvaal by Coloured persons and to compile a register of persons in legal/ illegal occupation. The Agent-General of India, Kunwar Sir Maharaj Singh, appeals to the Commission on behalf of South African Indians. The Commission is boycotted by the Transvaal and South African Indian Congresses (TIC and SAIC).
1933
The ANC goes through a sharp decline
Pixley Seme uses the votes of women to ensure his reelection as president of the African National Congress.
Albert Luthuli becomes President of the African Teachers' Association.
General Barry Hertzog and Jan Smuts form a coalition government.
Farid Ahmed Adams is born in India.
Dennis Goldberg is born in Cape Town.
Tennyson Xola Makiwane is born in the Transkei.
Eric Ngcobo is born near Melmoth, Zululand.
The South African Bantu Football Association (SABFA) and the South African Coloured Football Association (SACFA) are formed.
March, General Hertzog invites General Smuts to form coalition government.
29 March, Stanley Mogoba is born in Ga-Mphahlele, Polokwane.
May, National elections. Coalition parties win overwhelming parliamentary majority. Fusion government formed with General Hertzog as prime minister and General Smuts as deputy prime minister.
General Hertzog and General Smuts joined to form the United Party. A small number of Nationalists, under Dr. Malan, retained the Nationalist Party.
16 June, The new Minister of the Interior in the Coalition Government, J.H. Hofmeyr, appoints the Indian Colonisation Enquiry Committee and announces the Committee's terms of reference and composition. Known as the Young Committee after its Chairman, James Young, its other members are G. Heaton Nicholls, P.K. Kincaid and a nominee of the South African Indian Congress (SAIC).
23 July, Twenty-two leading Indian leaders, including Manilal Gandhi, Albert Christopher and P.R. Pather, calls for a mass meeting to protest the decision of the South African Indian Congress (SAIC) to cooperate with the Young Committee.
28 July, The Young Commission, charged with investigating possible outlets or areas abroad to which South African Indians can be relocated, begins its work.
August, Albert Christopher, Manilal Gandhi, S.L. Singh and P.R. Pather form the Colonial Born and Settlers Indian Association (CBSIA). Christopher becomes President; Manilal Gandhi, Vice-President; S.L. Singh and A. Haffejee secretaries; and K.K. Pillay and P.G. Naicker (father of Dr. G.M. Naicker) treasurers. The formation of the CBSIA is essentially in protest against the cooperation of the South African Indian Congress (SAIC) and the Government of India with the Young Committee.
19 August - 20 August, The South African Indian Congress (SAIC) holds an Emergency Conference in Johannesburg. The Conference, opened by the Indian Agent-General, Kunwar Maharaj Singh, sanctions a policy of cooperation with the Young Committee and confirms the nomination of S. R. Naidoo to the Committee. Manilal Gandhi, Albert Christopher and Transvaal Indian Congress delegates C.K.T. Naidoo, B.L.E. Sigamoney, P.S. Joshi, E. Mall and S.B. Medh oppose the SAIC line.
24 August, A meeting of the Colonial Born and Indian Settlers Association (CBSIA) at the Durban City Hall is attended by Sir Kunwar Maharaj Singh, the Indian Agent in South Africa, and his wife. Lady Maharaj Singh brings the rowdy meeting to order.
September, Members of the Colonial Born and Indian Settlers Association's (CBSIA) Pietermaritzburg branch, armed with knives, knuckledusters, bicycle chains and iron rods, disrupt a meeting in the Pietermaritzburg City Hall and the police is called in.
23 September, A. Christopher and P.R. Pather address meetings in Pretoria and Johannesburg. These meetings are disrupted by Transvaal Indian Congress (TIC) supporters of S.M. Nana.
31 December, The first provincial conference of the Colonial Born and Indian Settlers Association (CBSIA) is held in Durban.
1934
The Slums Act is passed.
The Feetham Commission is set up
Eighteen year old Sarah Carneson joins the SACP. She teaches workers to read and write at the SACP's night school.
Anti-Indian Legislation: The Slums Act
This Act is aimed at improving conditions in locations, but actually expropriates Indian property.
The fusion of South African Party (SAP) and National Party (NP) results in the formation of the United Party (UP) with General Barry Hertzog as its leader.
The Slums Act is passed.This Act enforces the demolition of slums and expropriates with the ultimate aim of segregation.
Nomzamo Zaniewe Winnifred Mandela is born at Bizana in Pondoland, Transkei.
Esther Susanna Mentz travels to Germany to study music and acting.
Moosa (Mosie) Mohammed Moolla is born.
Francis William Reitz dies.
Jonas Malheiro Savimbi is born.
Motherwell, a Scottish professional side, tours South Africa for a second time, after an earlier visit in 1931.
9 Janruary, The South African Indian Congress presents a statement to the Young Committee, requesting full citizenship rights for Indians in South Africa.
7 February, The Young Committee, charged with investigating possible outlets or areas abroad to which South African Indians can be relocated, completes its work.
16 February, The British Indian Union of East London dissolves and forms the Colonial Born and Indian Settlers Association (CBSIA)(East London).
26 February, The Young Committee publishes its recommendations on the proposed Indian Assisted Emigration Scheme. The Committee identifies British North Borneo, British New Guinea and British Guiana as suitable for Indian colonisation. However, the Committee's findings are not not taken seriously and the Committee expires. Though a few Indians do emigrate, Scheme of Assisted Emigration continues, until suspended during WWII.
8 May, Sibusiso Bengu is born.
July, 'Purified' Nationalist Party formed under leadership of Daniel Malan.
8 October, Kader Asmal is born in Stanger, KwaZulu-Natal.
28 November, Bertha (Mashaba) Gxowa is born in Germiston.
December, United Party formed by majority of supporters of Nationalist Party and South Africa Party. General Hertzog is leader; General Smuts deputy.
1935
The National Liberation League for Equality, Land and Freedom launched with Mrs. Zainunnissa (Cissy) Gool as president and James la Guma as general secretary. Its foundation conference adopts a programme and constitution pledged to 'unite all individuals, organisations and other bodies in agreement with the programme of the League to struggle for complete social, political and economic equality of Non-Europeans in South Africa', reflecting the need for unity against the white minority.
The National Council for African Women founded at the All African Convention with Charlotte Maxeke as president. This organisation is concerned with women's welfare and members are usually teachers and nurses.
The first group of Indian girls matriculate in South Africa
Anti-Indian Legislation: The Rural Dealers Licensing Ordinance, Natal.
This Ordinance causes the refusal of licenses to people whose properties have depreciated in value or whose licenses endangers the comfort and health of neighbours.
Albert Luthuli is elected Chief by the people of Groutville Mission Reserve, and he subsequently leaves Adam's College.
A Natives Representative Council (NRC) is created
Satyandranath (Mac) Maharaj is born.
Lionel E. Morrison is born.
Mzwakhe Mbatha is born.
The Transvaal Inter-Race Soccer Board is formed by Africans, Indians, and Coloureds.
The Suzman Cup, the first official inter-racial tournament between Africans, Coloureds, and Indians, is established.
Govan Mbeki joins the African National Congress.
February, Sir Syed Reza Ali becomes the new Agent of the Government of India to South Africa.
15 February, The All African Convention (AAC) passes a resolution regarding the abolition of the Cape Native Franchise.
May, Joint Select Committee of Parliament table two measures: the Representation of Native Bill and the Native Trust and the Land Bill.
18 May, The South African Communist Party (SACP) urged people to fight for the retaining of the Cape Native Franchise.
Rev. Z. R. Mahabanes national convention statement appears in the Bantu World
June, The Feetham Commission releases Parts I & II of its report.
June, News report and resolution of the conference called by the Transvaal African Congress.
August, Introduction of pamphlet regarding the Native Bills views.
6 September, News report and resolution of the conference of chiefs and leaders in the Transvaal and Orange Free State, which is convened by government.
October, The Feetham Commission releases Part III of its report. The Commission recommends that some 202 acres of land on the Rand be exempted from the Transvaal Asiatic Land Tenure Act for occupation and ownership by Indians.
December, Calls for a conference of all African organizations by Professor D.D.T. Jabavu results in 400 delegates attending the All-African Convention in Bloemfontein. Albert Luthuli does not attend.
15 December, The All African Convention delegates arrive on a Sunday morning and register with the local committee at the office of Mr. Thomas. M. Mapikela, Chief Headman of all Bloemfontein locations.
15 December, Professor Davidson Don Tengo (D. D. T.) Jabavu, Prixley Ka Isaka Seme, President of the African National Congress (ANC), Africans from different political spectrums and from all sections of South Africa convene at Community Hall, Bloemfontein. Under the chairmanship of Prof. Jabavu, delegates draft comprehensive resolutions on African grievances and resolve to constitute the All African Convention (AAC), an organised body that intends to promote African rights through boycotts. The AAC chooses Bloemfontein because of its historical significance, as it was here on 8 January 1912 that the South African National Native Congress (SANNC) was founded. (This happens at the same time that Afrikaners are celebrating the ninety-eighth anniversary of the Voortrekker victory over the Zulus at the Battle off Blood River in 1838).
15 - 18 December, Proceedings and resolutions of the All African Convention (AAC) take place. It is agreed that All African inhabitants of the union to observe Sunday, 19 January 1936 as a day of universal humiliation and intercession in their places of worship, public gatherings. Prayers are to be offered for Gods guidance and intervention of the pending disfranchisement of the Cape Natives by the Parliament of South Africa. The following resolutions by Mr. L. T. Mtimkulu is carried out: That the resolutions on the Representation of Natives Bill and Native Land and Trust Bill be submitted to parliament by a deputation of Africans during the next session of parliament.-The said deputation to present the viewpoint of the AAC held at Bloemfontein on 16 December 1935 at the bar of the House of Assembly.The deputation is instructed to submit to parliament that in its opinion (AAC), no permanent or peaceful solution of the franchise or land question is possible unless it is the result of mutual agreement between representatives of White and Black races, which is only possible by means of a round-table or similar conference.
16 December, The CPSA calls for a united front campaign against the pass laws culminating in the burning of passes throughout the country on December 16, Dingane's Day. Johannes Nkosi and 3 other African workers attending a demonstration in Durban are shot, stabbed and beaten to death by police.
Afrikaners celebrates ninety-eighth anniversary of their victory over the Zulus.
John Tengo Jabavu and Prixley Isaka Seme and a host of politicians meet in Bloemfontein resolve to constitute the All African Convention (AAC).
Those present at the All African Convention (AAC) are Dr. John Langalibalele Dube, Rev. Z. R. Mahabane, Dr. Alfred Bitini (A.B.) Xuma and Dr. James Sebe (J. S.) Moroka, J. B. Marks, Edwin Mofutsanyane of the Communist Party of South Africa (CP), Clements Kadalie of the Industrial and Commercial Workers Union (ICU), tribal chiefs (members of the Transkei Bunga), respected church dignitaries, elected members of the Urban Advisory Boards, prominent women, professional men, and representatives of a score of local organisations, including Coloureds from left-wing circles in Cape Town.
The All African Conventions (AAC) discussion focuses on the pending Native Bills, but the most condemnation of the delegates is directed to the entire post-union trend of government policy. The Native Representative Council (NRC). The NRC is regarded as unacceptable. The proposals, which are contained in the Native Trust and Land Bill, are rejected as in inadequate for satisfaction of African demands for land.
The All African Convention (AAC) demands reconsideration of oppressive laws such as the Riotous Assemblies Act, the Native Service Contract Act, Poll Tax Act, and the Pass Laws. John Gomas, a Cape Town Coloured Communist proposes that mass protest meetings be organised throughout South Africa in opposition in opposition of these Acts.
1936
African voters transferred to a separate roll.
Zainunnisa Cissie Gool founds the National Liberation League, and becomes the first President 1938-1951.
The government sets up a Commission of Inquiry into African education. The Commission points to problems with the system, but virtually nothing is done to improve things.
Dr. Yusuf Dadoo returns to practice in South Africa after obtaining a medical degree in Edinburgh. He subsequently joins the Transvaal Indian Congress (TIC) and is offered a position on the executive of TIC, which he refuses.
Chamberlain Nakasa, brother of Nat Nakasa and compositor and columnist on African affairs in "Indian Views" weekly, starts a monthly journal called New Outlook. The editorial board consists of himself, B. Asher, Dr. Goonam, Farooqi Mehtar and I.C. Meer. A radical journal, New Outlook lasts for a short time. New Outlook is followed by Call, published by H.A. Naidoo, Cassim Amra, D.A. Seedat, George Ponen, A.K.M. Docrat and others who later become active in the Liberal Study Group.
Cape African Voters are removed from the voters roll.
All African Convention (AAC) deputation led by John Tengo Jabavu meets Prime Minister Barry Hertzog in Cape and expresses its opposition to the Representation of Natives Bill.
I. B. Mbelle alleges that Jan Smuts had said in 1926 that if Natives of the Cape were deprived of the vote, it would be a direct violation of the constitution.
Industrial Conciliation Act No 36:It provides for the registration and regulation of trade unions and employers organisations, the settlement of disputes between employers and employees, and the regulation of conditions of employment.Repealed by section 56 of the Industrial Conciliation Act No 28 of 19.
The Development Trust and Land Act no 18 of 1936: This Act compliments the Representation of Natives Act of 1936 in that it allows for a further 6.2 million hectares of land to be added to the African reserves under the 1913 Land Act. It also establishes the South African Native Trust, which became the Bantu Trust and then later the Development Trust. The function of the Trust is to acquire and administer all released land. This means that African people are not permitted to own land in their own right.
Neville Edward Alexander is born
Martha Mohlakoane joins the African National Congress (ANC).
Theophilus Kgosikobo Musi is born.
Lionel Davis is born in Cape Town.
The All African Conventions Executive Committee deputation led by Professor Davidson Don Tengo (D. D. T) Jabavu meets with Prime Minister Barry Hertzog and other government officials in Cape Town. Their discussion centres on the acts that were passed in South Africa in 1935. The Act segregates and limits African rights. Hertzog offers a compromise: the retention of the Cape African Franchise but the removal of all registered African voters from the common voters roll but, instead, they vote for the same candidates as the Whites, on a separate roll which would elect three White members to the Cape Provincial Council.
Prime Minister Barry Hertzog refuses to allow postponement in the passing of some of the Bills and having some of the Act looked at again. The All African Convention (AAC) deputation led by Professor Davidson Don Tengo (D. D. T) Jabavu reaffirms its opposition to the Bills in the strongest possible manner; as it did in its meeting in December 1935.
Selby Msimang, Secretary General of the All African Convention (AAC) expresses his view in an article published in The Crisis. He argues that Parliament and White South Africans have disowned Africans of their belongings and flirted with their loyalty.
Max Yergan is elected All African Convention (AAC)s secretary of External Affairs having left South Africa for New York.
The Godfrey South African Challenge Cup is established
The All African Conventions Executive Committee deputation led by Professor Davidson Don Tengo (D. D. T) Jabavu meets with Prime Minister Barry Hertzog and other government officials in Cape Town. Their discussion centres around the acts which segregated and limited African rights and were passed in South Africa in 1935. Hertzog offers a compromise: the retention of the Cape African Franchise but the removal of all registered African voters from the common voters roll where they would vote for the same candidates as the Whites but a separate roll would be established in order to elect three White members to the Cape Provincial Council.
Prime Minister Barry Hertzog refuses to allow postponement in the passing of some of the Bills and having some aspects of the Act looked at again. The All African Convention (AAC) deputation led by Professor Davidson Don Tengo (D. D. T) Jabavu reaffirm its opposition to the Bills in the strongest possible manner as it did in its meeting in December 1935.
Selby Msimang, Secretary General of the All African Convention (AAC) expresses his view in an article published in The Crisis. He argues that Parliament and White South Africans have dispossessed Africans of their belongings and toyed with their loyalty.
It is found that the All African Convention (AAC) has a budget of 100 British Pounds. The bulk of which was spent on printing conference minutes.
Max Yergan is elected All African Convention (AAC)s secretary of External Affairs after leaving South Africa for New York.
January, The rank the representative of the Indian Government in South Africa is raised from "Agent" to "Agent-General".
18 January, Sir Reza Ali, the Indian Agent-General to South Africa, marries a Hindu, Miss Ponnoosammy. This causes a furor and several Hindu officials and Sorabjee Rustomjee resign from the leadership of Natal Indian Congress (NIC) and the South African Indian Congress (SAIC). The leadership of the NIC passes to A.I. Kajee and other Muslims.
February, The fifteenth annual conference of the South African Indian Congress is held in Durban and attended by the Indian Agent-General, Sir Reza Ali.
14 February, The All African Convention (AAC) holds a public meeting to clear the air. Here they decide they would not accept any compromise in contravention of the mandate from December 1935 Bloemfontein convention. They also plan to issue a unity resolution outlining the AAC position; but Umteteli wa Bantu (The mouthpiece of the people) beat them by taking their intended press release to the masses before they could do it.
15 February, Umteteli wa Bantu (The mouthpiece of the African people) reports that the delegation that went to Cape Town led by Professor Davidson Don Tengo (D. D. T.) Jabavu made a compromise with General Barry Hertzog. Jabavus acceptance of the separate voters roll signalled the end of his political career as he lost respect within the All African Convention (AAC) Executive Committee. The blame was laid entirely on him.
15 February, The All African Convention (AAC) passes a resolution regarding the abolition of the Cape Native Franchise.
Umteteli wa Bantu (The mouthpiece of the African people) reports that the delegation that went to Cape Town led by Professor Davidson Don Tengo (D. D. T.) Jabavu made a compromising agreement with General Barry Hertzog. Jabavus acceptance of the separate voters roll signalled the end of his political career as he lost respect within the All African Convention (AAC) Executive Committee. The blame was laid entirely on him.
March, Professor Davidson Don Tengo (D. D. T.) Jabavu issues a statement through the South African Institute of Race Relations (SAIRR) denying that the All African Convention (AAC) did not accept a compromise Bill.
18 March, Frederick Willem (F. W.) de Klerk is born in Johannesburg.
April, The Representation of Natives Act no 16 of 1936:The Bills proposed by General Barry Hertzog in the 1920s finally got the two-thirds majority required to be passed into law 1936, when the Development Trust and Land Act (also referred to as the Native Trust and Land Act and Bantu Trust and Land Act) and the Representation of Natives Act are enacted. The Representation of Natives Act essentially strips African people in the Cape of their voting rights and offers instead a limited form of parliamentary representation, through special white representatives. Under this Act, a Natives Representative Council (NRC), which is a purely advisory body, is also created. The NRC could make recommendations to Parliament or the Provincial Councils Á¢â‚¬ Á¦on any legislation regarded as being in the interest of natives.
Professor Davidson Don Tengo (D. D. T.) Jabavu writes to Jan Hofmeyr thanking him for voting against the Representation of Natives in Parliament Bill. The Bill was passed by a vote of 168 to 11.
7 April, The Representation of Natives Bill is passed at the joint sitting of parliament. Eleven members of parliament including Jan Hofymeyr votes against the Bill with 169 in support.
May, The Native Trust and Land Bill becomes a law.
28 May, The Minister of the Interior, J.H. Hofmeyr, introduces a Bill to give legal form to the Feetham Commission's recommendations, namely the Asiatic Land Tenure Amendment Act. The Bill, as amended by the Select Committee comes up for a second reading. The Indian Agent-General, Sir Syed Raza Ali, fearing that a second reading will remove elements favourable to Indians, gives evidence in Parliament favouring voluntary segregation in an attempt to prevent second reading. The South African Indian community is outraged at the suggestion of voluntary segregation.
June, Professor Davidson Don Tengo (D. D.T.) Jabavu delivers a presidential speech at the All African Convention (AAC) two months after the passing of the Native Bills.
The Communist Party of South Africa (CPSA) newspaper Umsebenzi (The Worker) backs Umteteli wa Bantu (The mouthpiece of the people) in saying that the All African Convention (AAC) is wasting time on things of less importance. The CPSA sees AAC as a parliament for Africans, and wants action, unity and leadership.
3 June, The Programme of Action which the All African Convention (AAC) adopts is not what the General Secretary Selby Msimang was anticipating. He resigns from the AAC and joins the African National Congress (ANC).
16 June, Anti-Indian Legislation: The Asiatic Land Tenure Amendment Act, 30/1936
The Asiatic Land Tenure Amendment Act, 30/1936 is passed.
Minister of Interior empowered to exempt further areas for Indian occupation with possibility of freehold title.
Act accepts policy of segregation. Indians to be confined to separate areas.
Anti-Indian Legislation: Native Representation Act, Act 12 of 1936.
29 June, Professor Davidson Don Tengo (D. D.T.) Jabavu addresses the All African Convention (AAC) meeting.
The All African Convention (AAC) reconvenes two months after the passing of the Native Bills into law. Professor Davidson Don Tengo (D. D. T) Jabavu, is elected president of the AAC and address the meeting.
10 July, Representation of Blacks Act No 12:
Removed black voters in the Cape from the common roll and placed them on a separate roll (Dugard 1978: 90). Blacks throughout the Union were then represented by four white senators.
Commenced: 10 July 1936
Repealed by 15 of the Representation between the Republic of South Africa and self-governing Territories Act No 46 of 1959.
28 August, The Transvaal Indian Congress (TIC) hosts a banquet to honour a delegation of South African Members of Parliament, led by J.H. Hofmeyr, the Minister of the Interior, to India.
31 August, Development Trust and Land Act No 18:It expanded the reserves to a total of 13, 6 per cent of the land in South Africa and authorises the Department of Bantu Administration and Development to eliminate black spots (black-owned land surrounded by white-owned land) (Horrell 1978: 203). The South African Development Trust (SADT) is established and could, in terms of the Act, acquire land in each of the provinces for black settlement (RRS 1991/92: 381).Commences: 31 August 1936. Repealed by Proc R 28 of 1992, 31 March 1992 (phasing out and abolishing the SADT in terms of the Abolition of Racially Based Land Measures Act No 108 of 1991).
19 September, A South African Parliamentary delegation consisting of eleven Members of Parliament, led by J.H. Hofmeyr, Minister of the Interior, arrive in Bombay, India. The visit, solely for the purpose of courtesy and goodwill and not for negotiations, will last 26 days. The delegation consists of J. H. Hofmeyr, Minister of the Interior; J. G. Kemp, Minister of Lands; Members of Parliament J. G. Derbyshire, Dr. N.J. Van der Merwe, Leif Egeland, and M.J. Van den Berg; P. I. Hoogenhout, Secretary of the Interior; P.F. Kincaid, Commissioner for Immigration and Asiatic Affairs; and C. J. Dames and K.V. Penzhorn, the Private Secretaries of the two Ministers.
December, Seth Govind Das, member of the Central Legislative Assembly of India, visits South Africa on behalf of the Indian National Congress and advises Indians not to accept any qualified franchise.
December, The All African Convention (AAC) states that: The AAC hereby expresses its utmost condemnation of the savage and the unprovoked and unwanted attack made by Italy upon Abyssinia (later renamed Ethiopia) and declares as its considered opinion that the ruthless action of Italy can only be regarded as large scale violence against fundamental human rights. Further the convention sees in this action of Italy a continuation of the game of grab, which the imperialist nations of Europe have played in this continent whereby millions of inhabitants have become deprived of their land, exploited and robbed of their labour. The convention hereby declares its conviction that imperialism, which has thus resulted in the ruthless destruction of African culture, is an evil force to be exposed, condemned and resisted.The AAC further declares that:The AAC recognises the value and desirability of establishing contacts with Africans and African organisations in other parts of the world. To this end the AAC believes that a call to an international conference of Africans and international people of African descent should receive serious consideration by its Executive Committee.
Industrial Conciliation Act No 36:
Provided for the registration and regulation of trade unions and employers' organisations, the settlement of disputes between employers and employees, and the regulation of conditions of employment.
Repealed by s 56 of the Industrial Conciliation Act No 28 of 1956
Black (Native) Laws Amendment Act No 46:
Prohibited acquisition of land in urban areas by blacks from non-blacks except with the Governor-General's consent (Horrell 1978: 3).
Commenced: 1 January 1938
Sections repealed by the Abolition of Influx Control Act No 68 of 1986 and the Abolition of Racially Based Land Measures Act No 108 of 1991. The only section remaining in force is s 36, which amended s 7 of the Agricultural Holdings (Transvaal) Registration Act 22 of 1919 and has no discriminatory implications.
1937
Very strict regulations are introduced regarding the urbanisation of women as part of influx control.
Anti-Indian Legislation: The Marketing and Unbeneficial Land Occupation Act 26/1937
This Act debars Indians from holding seats on regulatory boards. It also controls imports and exports to South Africa.
Anti-Indian Legislation: The Native Administration Amendment Act 9/37
Anti-Indian Legislation: The Industrial Conciliation Act 36/1937.
This Act introduces the colour bar in trade unions.
Anti-Indian Legislation: The Transvaal Asiatic Land Tenure (Further Amendment) Act, 1937.
Indians are prohibited from employing whites.
Anti-Indian Legislation: The Immigration Amendment Act.
Children born outside of South Africa are deprived of rights enjoyed by South African Indians.
The twenty-fifth year of the African National Congress (ANC) marks the beginning of a transitional period in African politics. The ANC begins slowly to revive while continuing to employ tactics of representation through resolutions, deputations and meetings.
Black (Native) Laws Amendment Act No 46:
Prohibits the acquisition of land in urban areas by blacks from Whites except with the Governor-Generals consent (Horrell 1978: 3).
Commences: 1 January 1938
Sections repeals by the Abolition of Influx Control Act No 68 of 1986 and the Abolition of Racially Based Land Measures Act No 108 of 1991. The only section remaining in force is section 36, which amends section 7 of the Agricultural Holdings (Transvaal) Registration Act 22 of 1919 and has no discriminatory implications
Frederick John Harris is born.
Dan Rakgoathe is born in Randfontein, Gauteng.
Andrew Clement Verster is born.
Orlando Pirates is founded.
The SAAFAs (South African African Football Association) Bakers Cup is renamed the Moroka-Baloyi Cup.
January, Sir Syed Reza Ali, Indian Agent-General, advises Indians to accept qualified franchise. This is contrary to advice given by Seth Govind Das and indicates the division between the Indian Government (colnial and British-controlled) and the Indian National Congress, comprised of people like Gandhi, Nehru, Seth Govind Das and Sarojini Naidu.
The Marketing Act, Act No. 26 of 1937 debars Indians from holding seats on regulatory boards. While the Marketing Bill was still under Parliamentary discussion, the South African Indian Congress (SAIC) sent a deputation to the Minister of Agriculture, Deneys Reitz, in protest, but to no avail.
The Native Administration Amendment Act, Act No. 9 of 1937 prohibits Indians and other persons of colour from employing whites.
The Industrial Conciliation Act, Act No. 36 of 1937 introduces the colour bar in trade unions.
Transvaal Asiatic Land Tenure (Further Amendment) Act of 1937 is passed.
1 February, Aliens Act No 1:
Restricted and regulated the entry of certain aliens into the Union and regulated the right of any person to assume a surname.
Commenced: 1 February 1937
Repealed by s 33 of the Births and Deaths Registration Act No 51 of 1992.
22 February, JJ Pienaar (United Party) and JH Grobler introduce 3 Bills:
Anti-Indian Legislation: The Mixed Marriages Bill.
This Bill aims to prohibit marriage between Asiatics, Europeans and Africans. It is not passed, but a Mixed Marriages Commission is appointed.
Anti-Indian Legislation: The Provincial Legislative Powers Extension Bill
This Bill aims to refuse trading licenses to non-Europeans who employ white people.
Anti-Indian Legislation: The Transvaal Asiatic Land Bill.
This Bill aims to deny right of owning property to any white woman married to a non-European.
June, The 1936 Representation of Natives Act is the recognised and accepted mouthpiece of Africans in their various representative state chambers.
June, The All African Convention (AAC) recognises the 1936 Representation of Native Act as the accepted mouthpiece for Africans in their various representative state chambers.
December, Delegates at the All African Convention (AAC) representing thirty-nine organisations adopt a constitution calling for the affiliation of all African religious, educational, industrial, economic, political, commercial and social organisations within its ranks.
Executive Committee issues the policy of All African Convention (AAC)
Constitution of the All African Convention (AAC) is drafted
Delegates of the All African Convention (AAC) representing thirty-nine organisations, including three provincial sections of the African National Congress (ANC) adopts a constitution which invites the affiliation of all African religions, educational, industrial, economic, political, commercial and organisations.
The All African Convention (AAC) constitution is ratified. The AAC decides to meet every three years.
The Third All African Convention (AAC) conference to promote the interests of Blacks convenes in Bloemfontein. Only 130 members attend a far cry from the 400 delegates that attended AAC's first meeting in 1935.
Professor Z. K. Matthews favours the disenfranchising of all Africans in order to promote unity. Matthews remains a member of the All African Convention (AAC) until 1943.
Professor Davidson Don Tengo (D. D. T.) Jabavu is re-elected president of the All African Convention (AAC).
P. Mda dismisses the All African Convention as devoid of substance and inspiration.
Dr. Alfred. Bitini (A. B.) Xuma, Vice-President of the All African Convention (AAC) states that, Anyone who will endeavour to wreck the principle of unity that gave birth to the All African Convention will be doing so for personal reasons and will be a traitor to Africa. Yet the AAC is not united within.
Despite internal conflict, the All African Convention (AAC) proclaims itself the voice of Africans. It devotes itself to act in unity in developing political and economic power.
11 December, Adriaan Johannes Vlok is born in Sutherland, Cape Town.
1938
Sarah Carneson works for National Union of Distributive Workers and is secretary of the Tobacco workers' Union.
Cissie Gool represents District Six on the Cape Town City Council. She is the only woman Councillor for many years and the first coloured woman to sit on the council. She serves on the council until 1951
Phyllis, ten years old, accompanies her father to an Institute of Race Relations Conference where she is deeply disturbed at a reference to an African man as boy.
Albert Luthuli visits India as one of several delegates to the International Missionary Conference in Tambaram, Madras, India.
Govan Mbeki receives a telegram about a job offer from the Clakesburg Institute, a Teacher Training College in Transkei.
February, The Indian Agent-General in South Africa, Sir Syed Raza Ali, returns to India. The new Agent-General, Sir Benegal Rama Rau, arrives in May.
The Commission on Mixed Marriages, under the chairmanship of Mr Charles de Villiers, is appointed to investigate the issue of mixed marriages. In its report, the Commission later found no justification for legislation to prevent the White or Cape Malay wives of Asiatics from owning property, but recommended legislation prohibiting marriages between Whites and Blacks.
3 February, The Transvaal Asiatic Land Laws Commission is appointed to report on the evasions of Asiatics of restrictive measures concerning the use, occupation and ownership of land. At a conference called by the Transvaal Indian Congress (TIC), a proposal "to offer cooperation" to the Transvaal Asiatic Land Laws Commission is defeated by 56 votes to 44 due to opposition by Dr. Yusuf Dadoo and others.
April, The Coloured National Liberation League convenes a conference in Cape Town. At the conference, African, Coloured and Indian delegates representing 45 organisations decide to form to form the Non-European United Front (NEUF). Cissie Gool is elected President. Subsequently, a branch of the NEUF is formed in the Transvaal with Ebrahim Asvat as President, Dr. Yusuf Dadoo as secretary and includes J.B. Marks and others.
April - May, The Natal Indian Congress (NIC) is revitalised after former members, who resigned from the NIC following the former Indian Agent-General, Sir Syed Raza Alis marriage, rejoins the Congress.
18 April, The Natal Indian Congress (NIC) and the Colonial Born and Settlers Indian Association (CBSIA) meet to hammer out an agreement on reconciliation.
30 April, The Natal Indian Congress (NIC) and the Colonial Born and Settlers Indian Association (CBSIA) both hold special meetings to discuss a merger of the two organisations.
May, Sir Benegal Rama Rau, the new Indian Agent-General, arrives in South Africa. He would remain in office until April 1941. He immediately begins work to bring the Natal Indian Congress (NIC) and the Colonial Born and Settlers Indian Association (CBSIA) together in Natal.
1 May, Swami Bhawani Dayal is elected President of the Natal Indian Congress (NIC) - the first Hindu to be elected as NIC President since the formation of NIC in 1894.
4 May, Anti-Indian Legislation: The Asiatics (Transvaal Land and Trading) Bill
The Union Government introduces the Asiatics (Transvaal Land and Trading) Bill, which provides protection of Indians in exempted areas for two years; certificates for trading licences to be authorized by Minister of Interior; Asiatics not allowed to appoint nominees to buy land and obtain trading licences on their behalf.
4 May, The Union Government introduces the Asiatic (Transvaal Land and Trading) Bill, which provides for the protection of Indians in exempted areas for two years and for certificates for trading licences to be authorised by the Minister of Interior. Asiatics are not allowed to appoint nominees to buy land and obtain trading licences on their behalf. The Bill elicits protests from India, but eventually becomes law as the Asiatics (Transvaal Land and Trading) Act, Act No. 28 of 1939.
June, The Minister of the Interior, Mr Stattaford, announces the Servitude Scheme after meeting with a deputation from the conference of the Pretoria Ratepayers Associations. He informs the deputation that the would propose to the Government that legislation be introduced providing that, in cases where sixty per cent or more of the owners of property desired it, servitudes in respect of such properties be registered free of charge to prohibit the sale to, or hire of such properties by, Indians (Muthal, Tyranny of Colour: 232).
15 November, Ronald Kastrils is born in Yeoville, Johannesburg.
December, The unity of the Natal Indian Congress (NIC) and the Colonial Born and Settlers Indian Association (CBSIA) is short-lived. A.I. Kajee and Swami Bhawani Dayal re-establish the NIC.
9 December, The Natal Indian Congress (NIC) Conference passes resolutions regarding penetration, industrial legislation, education, social welfare and trade. Government attitudes and actions are severely criticised.
1939
James Calata tours the union in the hope that dormant ANC branches could be revived.
The Non-European Front is formed.
Fietas, Johannesburg:The Asiatic Land Tenure and Trading Act is passed. This Act states that Indians may only live where they had lived prior to 30 May 1939, and that they may continue to live where 'coloured' people occupied land before 30 May 1939.
Fietas, Johannesburg:'Coloured' people start rent boycotts against 'slumlords' in Pageview. They voluntarily moved to the Coronation Township and Albertsville.
Hertzog and Smuts differed violently on joining the war.
Hertzog reunited with Malan in the Nationalist Party returned to power, though with a minority of votes.
Aliens Registration Act No 26:
Provided for the registration and control of aliens.
Assent gained: 14 June 1939; commencement date not found.
Repealed by s 60 of the Aliens Control Act No 96 of 1991
Govan Mbeki publishes Transkei in the Making a work of political analysis which is deeply critical of the system of local government in the Transkei.
March, Dr Yusuf Dadoo forms the Nationalist Bloc in the Transvaal Indian Congress (TIC).
1 March, The Transvaal Indian Congress (TIC) calls a meeting called to protest latest anti-Indian measures (including the proposed servitude scheme of the Minister of the Interior, Mr Richard Stuttaford). The meeting is attended by one thousand people - a large number as the total Indian population of Transvaal numbers only about 25,000 at this time. S. M. Nana, the secretary of the TIC, moves a resolution to protest the proposed anti-Asian measures. Dr Yusuf Dadoo moves an amendment to declare a definite policy of Passive Resistance and to set up a Council of Action to devise ways and means to start a passive resistance campaign if the servitude scheme is introduced in Parliament. He also calls for cooperation with other non-white organisations. The amendment receives a large majority, but there is heated dispute as to whether the amendment has been carried. The older group of the TIC opposes vigorous measures of protest in the hope that the Feetham recommendations will be accepted by parliament. Nana offers to resign, but the President, M.E. Valod, declares that no passive resistance Council of Action will be set up.
April, Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, an Indian philosopher and statesman, visits South Africa.
The first national conference of the Non-European United Front (NEUF) is held in Cape Town. The national committee of the NEUF includes:
Mrs. Zainunnissa (Cissie) Gool, Chairperson
Moses Kotane, Secretary
R.G. Baloyi, Senior Vice-President
W.H. Andrews, Treasurer
H.A. Naidoo
Yusuf Dadoo
The Conference is attended by 125 delegates representing 83 organisations, including trade unions, religious, social, sporting and civic bodies. Officers of the Natal branch of the NEUF, formed subsequent to the Conference, include Cassim Amra, D.A. Seedat and Dr. Goonam.
7 May, A mass meeting of Indians, organised by the Nationalist Bloc of the Transvaal Indian Congress (TIC), is held at Patidar Hall, Johannesburg, under the Chairmanship of E.I. Asvat, and attended by 3,000 people. Dr. Yusuf Dadoo is elected to lead Passive Resistance against what becomes the Asiatic (Transvaal Land and Trading) Act of 1939. The meeting maintains that the Union governments proposal for Indians is linked to an acceptance of segregation and pegging legislation. A Passive Resistance Council of 25 persons is appointed for the campaign.
4 June, The Transvaal Indian Congress (TIC) leadership calls another protest meeting and gangs of thugs appear with lethal weapons. They begin beating members of the Nationalist Bloc. Dr. Yusuf Dadoo escapes narrowly and one of his supporters, Dahyabhai (Dayabhai) Govindji, is disembowelled and dies on 8 June. Nine other persons are injured four seriously and hospitalised. All those injured are supporters of the Nationalist Bloc. The five Indians arrested by the police in connection with this incident are relatives of S. M. Nana and A.I. Kajee. One is an executive member of the TIC. The accused are released on bail, but the Attorney-General withdraws charges against them after the magistrate commits them for trial. The funeral of the victim becomes a major political event, drawing thousands of people. The violence leads to revulsion against the Valod-Nana group in the TIC leadership and Transvaal Indian support swings to Dadoo.
9 July, At a meeting of 6,000 Indians, held at the Indian Sports Ground in Johannesburg under the chairmanship of E. I. Asvat, a decision is taken to launch the Passive Resistance Campaign (as decided upon at the earlier meeting of 7 May) on 1 August. A Council of Action for the campaign is set up with Dr. Yusuf Dadoo as Chairman. India declares its support for the intended the campaign of Passive Resistance.
19 July, Mahatma Gandhi sends a telegram to Dr. Yusuf Dadoo suggesting the postponement of the intended Passive Resistance Campaign.
23 July, To show the solidarity of Natal Indians with the intended Passive Resistance Campaign in the Transvaal, a mass meeting is organised mainly by leaders of the Colonial Born and Settlers Indian Association (CBSIA). However, passive resistance is later postponed following the earlier request of Mahatma Gandhi, who believes that a honourable settlement can be achieved.
29 July, Recruitment of Indians into the South African Defence Force (SADF) begins under Colonel Morris.
19 August, The Mixed Marriages Commission, under the Chairmanship of Mr Charles de Villiers, releases its report and recommends that a law be introduced that would make mixed marriages impossible and illicit miscegenation punishable.
22 August, The Indian Agent-General, Sir Benegal Rama Rau, convenes another meeting of representatives of the Natal Indian Congress (NIC) and the Colonial Born and Settlers Indian Association (CBSIA) in a fresh attempt to achieve reconciliation between the two factions.
1 September, Germany invades Poland and the Second World War commences when Britain declares war on Germany on 3 September.
4 September, General J.C. Smuts becomes the new South African Prime Minister after Parliament narrowly approves his motion that South Africa should enter the Second World War on the side of Britain and the Allies. In India, the Indian Congress remains opposed to Indian involvement in the war, and links the supporting of Britain in the war to Indias independence. Lord Linlithgow, Viceroy of India, states that dominion status is the goal of constitutional development and that action in this regard is to be taken after the war. In South Africa, South Africas participation in the war also causes division in Indian ranks.
October, In an attempt to get Black support for the South African war effort, the Union Government tones down segregationist rhetoric and decides not to proceed with anti-Indian legislation during the Second World War. Following an informal understanding between Mr H.G. Lawrence, the new Minister of the Interior, and Sir Benegal Rama Rau, the Indian Agent-General, the Union Government further indicates that an inquiry will be made to establish the extent of Indian penetration of de facto White areas, and that the cooperation of the Indian community was required to ensure that the status quo is maintained and that no new cases of penetration would take place.
8 October, At a public meeting of 2,000 people in Durban, the Indian philosopher and statesman, Sir Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, reconciles the Natal Indian Congress (NIC) and Colonial Born and Settlers Indian Association (CBSIA) members to form the Natal Indian Association (NIA). Hajee A.M.M. Lockhat elected President, and Sorabjee Rustomjee and P.R. Pather secretaries. The name of the new organisation is cleared with Gandhi. The NIA is backed mainly by leaders of the CBSIA and the radicals in the NIC. However, once again this unity proves to be short-lived. A group headed by A.I. Kajee and Swami Bhawani Dayal does not recognise the decision of the NIC to unite with the CBSIA and declines positions in the NIA.
November, The executive of the newly formed Natal Indian Association (NIA) decides to cooperate with the envisaged Lawrence Committee, which, in conjunction with the Durban City Council, shall investigate and regulate the acquisition of property in Durban by Indians.

Last updated : 03-Oct-2016

This article was produced for South African History Online on 21-Mar-2011